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Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company Chapter 21 Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation to accompany.

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Presentation on theme: "Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company Chapter 21 Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation to accompany."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company Chapter 21 Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation to accompany Biochemistry, 2/e by Reginald Garrett and Charles Grisham All rights reserved. Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the work should be mailed to: Permissions Department, Harcourt Brace & Company, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, Florida

2 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company Outline 21.1 Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation at Mitochondrial Membrane 21.2 Reduction Potentials - Understand Them Details of Electron Transport 21.8, 21.9 Coupling and the ATP Synthase Inhibitors of Oxidative Phosphorylation Uncouplers Disrupt the Coupling Final Details

3 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company An Overview Electron Transport: Electrons carried by reduced coenzymes are passed through a chain of proteins and coenzymes to drive the generation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane Oxidative Phosphorylation: The proton gradient runs downhill to drive the synthesis of ATP It all happens in or at the inner mitochondrial membrane

4 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

5 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

6 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company 21.2 Reduction Potentials High E o ' indicates a strong tendency to be reduced Crucial equation:  G o ' = -nF  E o '  E o ' = E o '(acceptor) - E o '(donor) Electrons are donated by the half reaction with the more negative reduction potential and are accepted by the reaction with the more positive reduction potential:  E o ’ positive,  G o ' negative If a given reaction is written so the reverse is true, then the  E o ' will be a negative number and  G o ' will be positive

7 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

8 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company 21.3 Electron Transport Figures 21.3 and 21.4 hold the secrets Four protein complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane A lipid soluble coenzyme (UQ, CoQ) and a water soluble protein (cyt c) shuttle between protein complexes Electrons generally fall in energy through the chain - from complexes I and II to complex IV

9 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

10 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

11 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

12 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company 21.4 Complex I NADH-CoQ Reductase Electron transfer from NADH to CoQ More than 30 protein subunits - mass of 850 kD Path: –NADH  FMN  Fe-S  UQ  FeS  UQ Four H + transported out per 2 e-

13 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

14 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company 21.5 Complex II Succinate-CoQ Reductase aka succinate dehydrogenase (from TCA cycle!) aka flavoprotein 2 (FP 2 ) - FAD covalently bound four subunits, including 2 Fe-S proteins Three types of Fe-S cluster: –4Fe-4S, 3Fe-4S, 2Fe-2S Path: succinate  FADH 2  2Fe 2+  UQH 2 Net reaction: –succinate + UQ  fumarate + UQH 2

15 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

16 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

17 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company 21.6 Complex III CoQ-Cytochrome c Reductase CoQ passes electrons to cyt c (and pumps H + ) in a unique redox cycle known as the Q cycle The principal transmembrane protein in complex III is the b cytochrome - with hemes b L and b H Cytochromes, like Fe in Fe-S clusters, are one- electron transfer agents Study Figure the Q cycle UQH 2 is a lipid-soluble electron carrier cyt c is a water-soluble electron carrier

18 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

19 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

20 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

21 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

22 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

23 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company 21.7 Complex IV Cytochrome c Oxidase Electrons from cyt c are used in a four- electron reduction of O 2 to produce 2H 2 O Oxygen is thus the terminal acceptor of electrons in the electron transport pathway - the end! Cytochrome c oxidase utilizes 2 hemes (a and a 3 ) and 2 copper sites Structure is now known - mostly! Complex IV also transports H +

24 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

25 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

26 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

27 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

28 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

29 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

30 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company Coupling e - Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation This coupling was a mystery for many years Many biochemists squandered careers searching for the elusive "high energy intermediate" Peter Mitchell proposed a novel idea - a proton gradient across the inner membrane could be used to drive ATP synthesis Mitchell was ridiculed, but the chemiosmotic hypothesis eventually won him a Nobel prize Be able to calculate the  G for a proton gradient (Equation 21.28)

31 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

32 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company 21.9 ATP Synthase Proton diffusion through the protein drives ATP synthesis! Two parts: F 1 and F 0 (latter was originally "F-o" for its inhibition by oligomycin) See Figure and Table 21.3 for details Racker & Stoeckenius confirmed Mitchell’s hypothesis using vesicles containing the ATP synthase and bacteriorhodopsin Paul Boyer’s binding change mechanism won a share of the 1997 Nobel in Chemistry

33 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

34 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

35 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

36 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

37 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

38 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company Inhibitors of Oxidative Phosphorylation Rotenone inhibits Complex I - and helps natives of the Amazon rain forest catch fish! Cyanide, azide and CO inhibit Complex IV, binding tightly to the ferric form (Fe 3+ ) of a 3 Oligomycin and DCCD are ATP synthase inhibitors

39 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

40 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

41 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company Uncouplers Uncoupling e- transport and oxidative phosphorylation Uncouplers disrupt the tight coupling between electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation by dissipating the proton gradient Uncouplers are hydrophobic molecules with a dissociable proton They shuttle back and forth across the membrane, carrying protons to dissipate the gradient

42 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

43 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company ATP-ADP Translocase ATP must be transported out of the mitochondria ATP out, ADP in - through a "translocase" ATP movement out is favored because the cytosol is "+" relative to the "-" matrix But ATP out and ADP in is net movement of a negative charge out - equivalent to a H + going in So every ATP transported out costs one H + One ATP synthesis costs about 3 H + Thus, making and exporting 1 ATP = 4H +

44 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

45 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company What is the P/O Ratio?? i.e., How many ATP made per electron pair through the chain? e - transport chain yields 10 H + pumped out per electron pair from NADH to oxygen 4 H + flow back into matrix per ATP to cytosol 10/4 = 2.5 for electrons entering as NADH For electrons entering as succinate (FADH 2 ), about 6 H + pumped per electron pair to oxygen 6/4 = 1.5 for electrons entering as succinate

46 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company Shuttle Systems for e - Most NADH used in electron transport is cytosolic and NADH doesn't cross the inner mitochondrial membrane What to do?? "Shuttle systems" effect electron movement without actually carrying NADH Glycerophosphate shuttle stores electrons in glycerol-3-P, which transfers electrons to FAD Malate-aspartate shuttle uses malate to carry electrons across the membrane

47 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

48 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company

49 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company Net Yield of ATP from Glucose It depends on which shuttle is used! See Table 21.4! 30 ATP per glucose if glycerol-3-P shuttle used 32 ATP per glucose if malate-asp shuttle used In bacteria - no mitochondria - no extra H + used to export ATP to cytosol, so: –10/3 = ~3ATP/NADH –6/3 = ~ 2ATP/FADH 2

50 Biochemistry 2/e - Garrett & Grisham Copyright © 1999 by Harcourt Brace & Company


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