2 What is the cytoskeleton? A series of proteins that maintain cell shape, as well as anchors and/or moves organelles in the cell Made of 3 types of fibers: large microtubules, thin _______________, and medium-sized intermediate filaments 3.5 The Cytoskeleton, Cell Movement, and Cell Junctions
8 Enzymes are important for cellular respiration and many activities in the cell Most enzymes are ________. Enzymes are often named for the molecules that they work on, called ___________. Enzymes are __________ to what substrate they work on. Enzymes have active sites where a substrate binds. Enzymes are not used up in a reaction but instead are ___________. Some enzymes are aided by nonprotein molecules called coenzymes. 3.6 Mitochondria and Cellular Metabolism
12 Glycolysis –Occurs in the _________ –Breaks ________ into 2 pyruvate –NADH and 2 ATP molecules are made –Does not require __________ 3.6 Mitochondria and cellular metabolism
13 Citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) –A cyclical pathway that occurs in the ____________ –Produces NADH and 2 ATP –Releases carbon dioxide 3.6 Mitochondria and Cellular Metabolism
14 Electron transport chain Series of molecules embedded in the mitochondrial membrane –NADH made in steps 1 and 2 carry electrons here –___________ are made depending on the cell –Requires __________ as the final electron acceptor in the chain 3.6 Mitochondria and Cellular Metabolism
15 What other molecules besides glucose can be used in cellular respiration? Other carbohydrates Proteins Lipids 3.6 Mitochondria and Cellular Metabolism
16 How can a cell make ATP without oxygen? Fermentation: –occurs in the ___________. –does not require ________. –involves ___________. –makes 2 ATP and lactate in human cells. –can give humans a burst of energy for a short time. 3.6 Mitochondria and Cellular Metabolism
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