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1 1 Jordyn Coyne and Tara Picudella (covicepresidents of Interact)

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1 1 1 Jordyn Coyne and Tara Picudella (covicepresidents of Interact)

2 Cell Organ elles Cell Respi ratio n Immun e Syste m Mitosi s / Meiosi s Photo - synth esis Enzym es 100 200 300 400 500

3 $100 The function of the following directly requires oxygen: a. ribosome b. mitochondrion c. nucleus d. centriole e. gogli apparatus The function of the following directly requires oxygen: a. ribosome b. mitochondrion c. nucleus d. centriole e. gogli apparatus

4 The function of the following directly requires oxygen: a. ribosome b. mitochondrion c. nucleus d. centriole e. gogli apparatus The function of the following directly requires oxygen: a. ribosome b. mitochondrion c. nucleus d. centriole e. gogli apparatus

5 $200 If plant cells are immersed in distilled water, the resulting movement of water into the cell is called a. conduction b. active transport c. transpiration d. osmosis e. facilitated diffusion If plant cells are immersed in distilled water, the resulting movement of water into the cell is called a. conduction b. active transport c. transpiration d. osmosis e. facilitated diffusion

6 If plant cells are immersed in distilled water, the resulting movement of water into the cell is called a. conduction b. active transport c. transpiration d. osmosis e. facilitated diffusion If plant cells are immersed in distilled water, the resulting movement of water into the cell is called a. conduction b. active transport c. transpiration d. osmosis e. facilitated diffusion

7 $300 Which of the following is best observed by using a compound light microscope? a. a eukaryotic cell b. a virus c. a DNA sequence d. the inner structure of a mitochondrion e. a nuclear pore Which of the following is best observed by using a compound light microscope? a. a eukaryotic cell b. a virus c. a DNA sequence d. the inner structure of a mitochondrion e. a nuclear pore

8 Which of the following is best observed by using a compound light microscope? a. a eukaryotic cell b. a virus c. a DNA sequence d. the inner structure of a mitochondrion e. a nuclear pore Which of the following is best observed by using a compound light microscope? a. a eukaryotic cell b. a virus c. a DNA sequence d. the inner structure of a mitochondrion e. a nuclear pore

9 $400 Which of the following provides the weakest evidence that mitochondria were once free living prokaryotes? a. Mitochondrial ribosomes resemble those of prokaryotes b. Mitochondria have DNA that is circular and does not have associated protein c. Enzyme pathways on mitochondrial membranes resemble those found on modern prokaryotes membranes d. Mitochondria reproduce by a process similar to binary fission e. Mitochondria and prokaryotes both are found in a variety of sizes Which of the following provides the weakest evidence that mitochondria were once free living prokaryotes? a. Mitochondrial ribosomes resemble those of prokaryotes b. Mitochondria have DNA that is circular and does not have associated protein c. Enzyme pathways on mitochondrial membranes resemble those found on modern prokaryotes membranes d. Mitochondria reproduce by a process similar to binary fission e. Mitochondria and prokaryotes both are found in a variety of sizes

10 Which of the following provides the weakest evidence that mitochondria were once free living prokaryotes? a. Mitochondrial ribosomes resemble those of prokaryotes b. Mitochondria have DNA that is circular and does not have associated protein c. Enzyme pathways on mitochondrial membranes resemble those found on modern prokaryotes membranes d. Mitochondria reproduce by a process similar to binary fission e. Mitochondria and prokaryotes both are found in a variety of sizes Which of the following provides the weakest evidence that mitochondria were once free living prokaryotes? a. Mitochondrial ribosomes resemble those of prokaryotes b. Mitochondria have DNA that is circular and does not have associated protein c. Enzyme pathways on mitochondrial membranes resemble those found on modern prokaryotes membranes d. Mitochondria reproduce by a process similar to binary fission e. Mitochondria and prokaryotes both are found in a variety of sizes

11 $500 ATP synthase in the inner mitochondria and chloroplast membranes is: a. glycocalyx b. cholesterol c. triglyceride d. phospholipid e. protein ATP synthase in the inner mitochondria and chloroplast membranes is: a. glycocalyx b. cholesterol c. triglyceride d. phospholipid e. protein

12 ATP synthase in the inner mitochondria and chloroplast membranes is: a. glycocalyx b. cholesterol c. triglyceride d. phospholipid e. protein ATP synthase in the inner mitochondria and chloroplast membranes is: a. glycocalyx b. cholesterol c. triglyceride d. phospholipid e. protein

13 $100 Oxygen consumption can be used as a measure of metabolic rate because oxygen is: a. necessary for ATP synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation b. necessary for replenish glycogen levels c. necessary for fermentation to take place d. required by all living organisms e. required to break down the ethanol that is produced in muscles Oxygen consumption can be used as a measure of metabolic rate because oxygen is: a. necessary for ATP synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation b. necessary for replenish glycogen levels c. necessary for fermentation to take place d. required by all living organisms e. required to break down the ethanol that is produced in muscles

14 Oxygen consumption can be used as a measure of metabolic rate because oxygen is: a. necessary for ATP synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation b. necessary for replenish glycogen levels c. necessary for fermentation to take place d. required by all living organisms e. required to break down the ethanol that is produced in muscles Oxygen consumption can be used as a measure of metabolic rate because oxygen is: a. necessary for ATP synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation b. necessary for replenish glycogen levels c. necessary for fermentation to take place d. required by all living organisms e. required to break down the ethanol that is produced in muscles

15 $200 Which of the following statements about mitochondrial chemiosmosis is NOT true? a. A proton gradient is established across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. b. The potential energy released from the mitochondrial proton gradient is used to produce ATP. c. The mitochondrial proton gradient provides energy for muscle contraction. d. Proteins embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane play an important role in ATP synthesis. e. Heat energy is required to establish the electron transport chain. Which of the following statements about mitochondrial chemiosmosis is NOT true? a. A proton gradient is established across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. b. The potential energy released from the mitochondrial proton gradient is used to produce ATP. c. The mitochondrial proton gradient provides energy for muscle contraction. d. Proteins embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane play an important role in ATP synthesis. e. Heat energy is required to establish the electron transport chain.

16 Which of the following statements about mitochondrial chemiosmosis is NOT true? a. A proton gradient is established across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. b. The potential energy released from the mitochondrial proton gradient is used to produce ATP. c. The mitochondrial proton gradient provides energy for muscle contraction. d. Proteins embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane play an important role in ATP synthesis. e. Heat energy is required to establish the electron transport chain. Which of the following statements about mitochondrial chemiosmosis is NOT true? a. A proton gradient is established across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. b. The potential energy released from the mitochondrial proton gradient is used to produce ATP. c. The mitochondrial proton gradient provides energy for muscle contraction. d. Proteins embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane play an important role in ATP synthesis. e. Heat energy is required to establish the electron transport chain.

17 $300 A membrane-bound electron carrier found in the electron transport systems of both aerobic respiration and photosynthesis is a. Cytochrome b. FADH2 c. NAD+ d. NADP+ e. Oxygen (O2) A membrane-bound electron carrier found in the electron transport systems of both aerobic respiration and photosynthesis is a. Cytochrome b. FADH2 c. NAD+ d. NADP+ e. Oxygen (O2)

18 A membrane-bound electron carrier found in the electron transport systems of both aerobic respiration and photosynthesis is a. Cytochrome b. FADH2 c. NAD+ d. NADP+ e. Oxygen (O2) A membrane-bound electron carrier found in the electron transport systems of both aerobic respiration and photosynthesis is a. Cytochrome b. FADH2 c. NAD+ d. NADP+ e. Oxygen (O2)

19 $400 Which of the following directly produces the most ATP per mole of glucose during aerobic cellular respiration? a. Glycolysis b. Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis c. Substrate-level phosphorylation d. Kreb's cycle e. Alcoholic fermentation Which of the following directly produces the most ATP per mole of glucose during aerobic cellular respiration? a. Glycolysis b. Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis c. Substrate-level phosphorylation d. Kreb's cycle e. Alcoholic fermentation

20 Which of the following directly produces the most ATP per mole of glucose during aerobic cellular respiration? a. Glycolysis b. Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis c. Substrate-level phosphorylation d. Kreb's cycle e. Alcoholic fermentation Which of the following directly produces the most ATP per mole of glucose during aerobic cellular respiration? a. Glycolysis b. Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis c. Substrate-level phosphorylation d. Kreb's cycle e. Alcoholic fermentation

21 $500 A coenzyme that transfers electrons from the Krebs cycle to the mitochondrial electrontransport chain at a lower energy level than that of electrons entering at the beginning of the chain is a. Cytochrome b. FADH2 c. NAD+ d. NADP+ e. Oxygen (O2) A coenzyme that transfers electrons from the Krebs cycle to the mitochondrial electrontransport chain at a lower energy level than that of electrons entering at the beginning of the chain is a. Cytochrome b. FADH2 c. NAD+ d. NADP+ e. Oxygen (O2)

22 A coenzyme that transfers electrons from the Krebs cycle to the mitochondrial electrontransport chain at a lower energy level than that of electrons entering at the beginning of the chain is a. Cytochrome b. FADH2 c. NAD+ d. NADP+ e. Oxygen (O2) A coenzyme that transfers electrons from the Krebs cycle to the mitochondrial electrontransport chain at a lower energy level than that of electrons entering at the beginning of the chain is a. Cytochrome b. FADH2 c. NAD+ d. NADP+ e. Oxygen (O2)

23 $100 In humans, the HIV virus primarily attacks which of the following types of cells? a. epidermal cells b. red blood cells c. white blood cells d. glial cells e. neurons

24 In humans, the HIV virus primarily attacks which of the following types of cells? a. epidermal cells b. red blood cells c. white blood cells d. glial cells e. neurons

25 $200 Which of the following is true of humoral immunity but not of cell-mediated immunity? a. it is active in the early years of a person’s life b. it involves the activity of killer T cells c. antigens are recognized in the lymph nodes d. antibodies are produced in response to antigens e. virus-infected cells are the primary targets Which of the following is true of humoral immunity but not of cell-mediated immunity? a. it is active in the early years of a person’s life b. it involves the activity of killer T cells c. antigens are recognized in the lymph nodes d. antibodies are produced in response to antigens e. virus-infected cells are the primary targets

26 Which of the following is true of humoral immunity but not of cell-mediated immunity? a. it is active in the early years of a person’s life b. it involves the activity of killer T cells c. antigens are recognized in the lymph nodes d. antibodies are produced in response to antigens e. virus-infected cells are the primary targets Which of the following is true of humoral immunity but not of cell-mediated immunity? a. it is active in the early years of a person’s life b. it involves the activity of killer T cells c. antigens are recognized in the lymph nodes d. antibodies are produced in response to antigens e. virus-infected cells are the primary targets

27 $300 The principal components of viruses are a. protein and lipid b. DNA and RNA c. RNA and lipid d. DNA and carbohydrate e. protein and nucleic acid

28 The principal components of viruses are a. protein and lipid b. DNA and RNA c. RNA and lipid d. DNA and carbohydrate e. protein and nucleic acid

29 $400 In a transfusion of blood which of the following should the recipient have? a. Antibodies in his plasma against the type of antigen in the donor's white cells b. The same antibodies as the donor but different antigens c. Type 0 blood if that of the donor is not known d. The same antigens as the donor e. Antibodies in his plasma against the type of antigen in the donor's red cells

30 In a transfusion of blood which of the following should the recipient have? a. Antibodies in his plasma against the type of antigen in the donor's white cells b. The same antibodies as the donor but different antigens c. Type 0 blood if that of the donor is not known d. The same antigens as the donor e. Antibodies in his plasma against the type of antigen in the donor's red cells

31 $500 The secretion of antibodies by lymphocyte B cells provides a. cell-mediated immunity b. passive immunity c. humoral immunity d. permanent immunity

32 The secretion of antibodies by lymphocyte B cells provides a. cell-mediated immunity b. passive immunity c. humoral immunity d. permanent immunity

33 $100 Which of the following is not associated with nuclear and cell division in animals? a.formation of spindles b.duplication of chromosomes c.formation of cell plate d.constriction of the dividing cells e.separation of chromosomes Which of the following is not associated with nuclear and cell division in animals? a.formation of spindles b.duplication of chromosomes c.formation of cell plate d.constriction of the dividing cells e.separation of chromosomes

34 Which of the following is not associated with nuclear and cell division in animals? a.formation of spindles b.duplication of chromosomes c.formation of cell plate d.constriction of the dividing cells e.separation of chromosomes Which of the following is not associated with nuclear and cell division in animals? a.formation of spindles b.duplication of chromosomes c.formation of cell plate d.constriction of the dividing cells e.separation of chromosomes

35 $200 Mitosis in flowering plants is similar to mitosis in animals in that in both a. a cell plate forms b. synapsis of homologous chromosomes occurs c. large centrioles attach to the spindle fibers d. each daughter cell has half the number of chromosomes found in each parents cell e. centromeres uncouple and chromosomes move apart. Mitosis in flowering plants is similar to mitosis in animals in that in both a. a cell plate forms b. synapsis of homologous chromosomes occurs c. large centrioles attach to the spindle fibers d. each daughter cell has half the number of chromosomes found in each parents cell e. centromeres uncouple and chromosomes move apart.

36 Mitosis in flowering plants is similar to mitosis in animals in that in both a. a cell plate forms b. synapsis of homologous chromosomes occurs c. large centrioles attach to the spindle fibers d. each daughter cell has half the number of chromosomes found in each parents cell e. centromeres uncouple and chromosomes move apart. Mitosis in flowering plants is similar to mitosis in animals in that in both a. a cell plate forms b. synapsis of homologous chromosomes occurs c. large centrioles attach to the spindle fibers d. each daughter cell has half the number of chromosomes found in each parents cell e. centromeres uncouple and chromosomes move apart.

37 $300 Which of the following best describe the cells that result from the process of meiosis in mammals? A. They are diploid B. They can be used to repair injuries C. They are genetically different from the parent cell D. They are genetically identical to all the other cells in the body E. They are identical to each other Which of the following best describe the cells that result from the process of meiosis in mammals? A. They are diploid B. They can be used to repair injuries C. They are genetically different from the parent cell D. They are genetically identical to all the other cells in the body E. They are identical to each other

38 Which of the following best describe the cells that result from the process of meiosis in mammals? A. They are diploid B. They can be used to repair injuries C. They are genetically different from the parent cell D. They are genetically identical to all the other cells in the body E. They are identical to each other Which of the following best describe the cells that result from the process of meiosis in mammals? A. They are diploid B. They can be used to repair injuries C. They are genetically different from the parent cell D. They are genetically identical to all the other cells in the body E. They are identical to each other

39 $400 A spermatocyte produces the following four sperm cells. n +1 n+1 n-1 n-1 These cells are the result of nondisjunction during which of the following phases? (A) Interphase (G1 or G2) (B) Interphase (S) (C) Mitosis (D) Meiosis I (E) Meiosis II A spermatocyte produces the following four sperm cells. n +1 n+1 n-1 n-1 These cells are the result of nondisjunction during which of the following phases? (A) Interphase (G1 or G2) (B) Interphase (S) (C) Mitosis (D) Meiosis I (E) Meiosis II

40 A spermatocyte produces the following four sperm cells. n +1 n+1 n-1 n-1 These cells are the result of nondisjunction during which of the following phases? (A) Interphase (G1 or G2) (B) Interphase (S) (C) Mitosis (D) Meiosis I (E) Meiosis II A spermatocyte produces the following four sperm cells. n +1 n+1 n-1 n-1 These cells are the result of nondisjunction during which of the following phases? (A) Interphase (G1 or G2) (B) Interphase (S) (C) Mitosis (D) Meiosis I (E) Meiosis II

41 $100 All of the following statements about a chloroplast and a mitochondrion are true EXCEPT: a.Both use proton gradients for energy production. b.Both capture light energy. c. Both contain DNA. d. Both are bounded by two unit membranes. e. Bothsynthesize A TP. All of the following statements about a chloroplast and a mitochondrion are true EXCEPT: a.Both use proton gradients for energy production. b.Both capture light energy. c. Both contain DNA. d. Both are bounded by two unit membranes. e. Bothsynthesize A TP.

42 All of the following statements about a chloroplast and a mitochondrion are true EXCEPT: a.Both use proton gradients for energy production. b.Both capture light energy. c. Both contain DNA. d. Both are bounded by two unit membranes. e. Bothsynthesize A TP. All of the following statements about a chloroplast and a mitochondrion are true EXCEPT: a.Both use proton gradients for energy production. b.Both capture light energy. c. Both contain DNA. d. Both are bounded by two unit membranes. e. Bothsynthesize A TP.

43 $200 In a mesophyll cell of a leaf, the synthesis of ATP occurs in which of the following: 1. Ribosomes 2. Mitochondria 3. Chloroplasts a. 1 only b. 2 only c. 3 only d. 2 and 3 only e. 1, 2 and 3

44 In a mesophyll cell of a leaf, the synthesis of ATP occurs in which of the following: 1. Ribosomes 2. Mitochondria 3. Chloroplasts a. 1 only b. 2 only c. 3 only d. 2 and 3 only e. 1, 2 and 3

45 $300 All of the following could reduce the yield of photosynthetic products EXCEPT (A) lower concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (B) Increased photorespiration (C) reduced carbon dioxide concentrations in the air spaces of the leaf (D) increased frequency of stomatal openings (E) fewer Calvin cycle enzymes All of the following could reduce the yield of photosynthetic products EXCEPT (A) lower concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (B) Increased photorespiration (C) reduced carbon dioxide concentrations in the air spaces of the leaf (D) increased frequency of stomatal openings (E) fewer Calvin cycle enzymes

46 All of the following could reduce the yield of photosynthetic products EXCEPT (A) lower concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (B) Increased photorespiration (C) reduced carbon dioxide concentrations in the air spaces of the leaf (D) increased frequency of stomatal openings (E) fewer Calvin cycle enzymes All of the following could reduce the yield of photosynthetic products EXCEPT (A) lower concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (B) Increased photorespiration (C) reduced carbon dioxide concentrations in the air spaces of the leaf (D) increased frequency of stomatal openings (E) fewer Calvin cycle enzymes

47 $400 A customer observed that a particular potted plant in a restaurant was bigger and greener than other plants in the room. When asked, the owner said that he poured leftover club soda (carbonated water) into that plant's pot every day. Which of the following best explains how the club soda affected that plant's growth? (A) The basic pH of the club soda caused the plant to grow rapidly. (B) The temperature of the club soda promoted faster growth. (C) Oxygen bubbles from the club soda oxygenated the soil. (D) The roots absorbed the CO2 necessary for photosynthesis. (E) The roots received more moisture, and the leaves were exposed to more CO2 A customer observed that a particular potted plant in a restaurant was bigger and greener than other plants in the room. When asked, the owner said that he poured leftover club soda (carbonated water) into that plant's pot every day. Which of the following best explains how the club soda affected that plant's growth? (A) The basic pH of the club soda caused the plant to grow rapidly. (B) The temperature of the club soda promoted faster growth. (C) Oxygen bubbles from the club soda oxygenated the soil. (D) The roots absorbed the CO2 necessary for photosynthesis. (E) The roots received more moisture, and the leaves were exposed to more CO2

48 A customer observed that a particular potted plant in a restaurant was bigger and greener than other plants in the room. When asked, the owner said that he poured leftover club soda (carbonated water) into that plant's pot every day. Which of the following best explains how the club soda affected that plant's growth? (A) The basic pH of the club soda caused the plant to grow rapidly. (B) The temperature of the club soda promoted faster growth. (C) Oxygen bubbles from the club soda oxygenated the soil. (D) The roots absorbed the CO2 necessary for photosynthesis. (E) The roots received more moisture, and the leaves were exposed to more CO2 A customer observed that a particular potted plant in a restaurant was bigger and greener than other plants in the room. When asked, the owner said that he poured leftover club soda (carbonated water) into that plant's pot every day. Which of the following best explains how the club soda affected that plant's growth? (A) The basic pH of the club soda caused the plant to grow rapidly. (B) The temperature of the club soda promoted faster growth. (C) Oxygen bubbles from the club soda oxygenated the soil. (D) The roots absorbed the CO2 necessary for photosynthesis. (E) The roots received more moisture, and the leaves were exposed to more CO2

49 $500 Which of the following is an important difference between the light dependent and light independent reaction ? a. the light dependent reaction occur only during the day, the light independent reaction occur only at night. b. The light dependent reaction occur in the cytoplasm, the light independent reactions occur in the chloroplasts c. The light dependent reaction utilize CO2 and H2O, the light independent reaction produce CO2 and H2O d. the light dependent reaction depend in the presence of both photosystems I and II; the light independent reactions requires only photosystem I e. the light dependent reaction produce ATP and NADPH. The light independent reactions use energy stored in ATP and NADPH

50 Which of the following is an important difference between the light dependent and light independent reaction ? a. the light dependent reaction occur only during the day, the light independent reaction occur only at night. b. The light dependent reaction occur in the cytoplasm, the light independent reactions occur in the chloroplasts c. The light dependent reaction utilize CO2 and H2O, the light independent reaction produce CO2 and H2O d. the light dependent reaction depend in the presence of both photosystems I and II; the light independent reactions requires only photosystem I e. the light dependent reaction produce ATP and NADPH. The light independent reactions use energy stored in ATP and NADPH

51 $100 Certain metabolic pathways are affected by the buildup of a product which interacts with an enzyme catalyzing one of the initial steps of the pathway; this can be an example of (A) transcriptional regulation (B) thermodynamic regulation (C) translational regulation (D) feedback inhibition (E) posttranslational modification

52 Certain metabolic pathways are affected by the buildup of a product which interacts with an enzyme catalyzing one of the initial steps of the pathway; this can be an example of (A) transcriptional regulation (B) thermodynamic regulation (C) translational regulation (D) feedback inhibition (E) posttranslational modification

53 $200 Which of the following statements regarding coenzymes is true? A. They are essential for metabolic reactions in animals but not in plants B. They can facilitate metabolic reactions by combining with enzymes at their active sites C. They are minerals that alter the pH of cells and thus increase the probability of chemical reactions D. They are synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells. E. They typically work best at temperatures below 37C Which of the following statements regarding coenzymes is true? A. They are essential for metabolic reactions in animals but not in plants B. They can facilitate metabolic reactions by combining with enzymes at their active sites C. They are minerals that alter the pH of cells and thus increase the probability of chemical reactions D. They are synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells. E. They typically work best at temperatures below 37C

54 Which of the following statements regarding coenzymes is true? A. They are essential for metabolic reactions in animals but not in plants B. They can facilitate metabolic reactions by combining with enzymes at their active sites C. They are minerals that alter the pH of cells and thus increase the probability of chemical reactions D. They are synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells. E. They typically work best at temperatures below 37C Which of the following statements regarding coenzymes is true? A. They are essential for metabolic reactions in animals but not in plants B. They can facilitate metabolic reactions by combining with enzymes at their active sites C. They are minerals that alter the pH of cells and thus increase the probability of chemical reactions D. They are synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells. E. They typically work best at temperatures below 37C

55 $300 A scientist determined the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction by measuring the amount of product formed over time. The following curve was generated from the data collected. Based solely on the curve, what can be said concerning the calculated reaction rates at 1 minute and at 2 minutes? a. The rate after 2 minutes is greater than the rate after 1 minute. b. The rates are the same at 1 minute and at 2 minutes. c. The rates are affected by high concentrations of inhibitors. d. The rates are both zero. e. The greater the rate, the faster the enzyme is denatured.

56 Based solely on the curve, what can be said concerning the calculated reaction rates at 1 minute and at 2 minutes? a. The rate after 2 minutes is greater than the rate after 1 minute. b. The rates are the same at 1 minute and at 2 minutes. c. The rates are affected by high concentrations of inhibitors. d. The rates are both zero. e. The greater the rate, the faster the enzyme is denatured.

57 $400 Which of the following is true about an enzyme? a.An enzyme is stable at high temperatures. b. An enzyme is a vitamin. c. An enzyme increases the activation energy of a substrate and hence accelerates reactions. d. An enzyme catalyzes a reaction that is theoretically impossible otherwise. e. An enzyme combines chemically with a substrate to form a temporary enzyme-substrate complex.

58 Which of the following is true about an enzyme? a.An enzyme is stable at high temperatures. b. An enzyme is a vitamin. c. An enzyme increases the activation energy of a substrate and hence accelerates reactions. d. An enzyme catalyzes a reaction that is theoretically impossible otherwise. e. An enzyme combines chemically with a substrate to form a temporary enzyme-substrate complex.

59 $500 Water-soluble vitamins in human nutrition serve primarily as a. a source of calories b. repair agents for damaged DNA c. shields that absorb cosmic radiation d. coenzymes for specific enzymes e. antioxidants that protect membrane lipids

60 Water-soluble vitamins in human nutrition serve primarily as a. a source of calories b. repair agents for damaged DNA c. shields that absorb cosmic radiation d. coenzymes for specific enzymes e. antioxidants that protect membrane lipids


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