5 DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA carries the genetic information of a cellConsists of thousands of genesIt specifies everything that is needed for the maintenance, function, and replication of the cellIt is made up of 4 different bases:(A) adenine (C) cytosine(T) thymine (G) guanine
7 NUCLEOLUS The dark area in the nucleus Like a tiny nucleus inside the nucleus.
8 Example: like a big plastic bag with tiny holes in it CELL MEMBRANEholds the cell togetherkeeps all of the pieces (like the organelles and the cytoplasm) inside the cellcontrols what goes in and out of the cellExample: like a big plastic bag with tiny holes in it
9 How does the cell membrane work? Has 2 layers of MOLECULES = BILAYERBi means twoThe layers are made up of molecules called phospholipids**THINK OF a sandwich with two pieces of bread and some stuffing on the inside
10 Cell Membrane: PHOSPHOLIPIDS Each phospholipids has a HYDROPHOBIC and HYDROPHILIC endHYDRO = means waterPHOBIC = means afraidPHILIC = means loving
11 Cell Membrane: PHOSPHOLIPIDS One end of the molecule is “afraid” of the water and one end “loves” being in the water.Proteins are stuck inside the membraneProteins are across the bilayer and make the holes that let ions and molecules in and out of the cell
13 Mitochondria Mito = Mighty / Power The Power-House of the cell They break down food molecules so the cell has the energy to liveIf a cell needs a lot of energy…it will have more mitochondriavilenski.org/science/safari/ cellstructure/mito.html
14 The Mitochondria structure has three main parts: OUTER MEMBRANE: covers the mitochondriaINNER MEMBRANE: folds many times to increase the surface area because chemical reactions(glycolysis) occur hereSo…the more space it has the more energy it can create
15 MATRIX: a fluid that has water and proteins all mixed together (like a solution)The proteinstake the food molecules in and combine them with Oxygen to release the energy
16 Endoplasmic Reticulum also known as the “ER”it is an organelle inside the cell that ismade up of membranes that are in the CYTOPLASM of the cellThere are two differentSmooth ERRough ER
17 Smooth ER Main function is to collect, maintain & transport things Shaped slightly tubularCreates steroidsStores Ions for the cell to keep nutrients balanced
18 Rough ER It has bumps all over it giving it a “rough” appearance Bumps are called RIBOSOMESER collects the proteins (built by the ribosomes) and creates a bubble around themVESICLE- is formed when the ER pinches off a part of its membrane
19 MOVEMENT of VESICLES**The vesicle can then move to the Golgi apparatus or the cell membrane1) If the vesicle floats to the cell membrane, the proteins are going to be sent out of the cell……or (exocytosis)2) If they move to the Golgi Apparatus, the proteins will be used inside the cell
22 SecretionExocytosisThe release of intracellular molecules (hormones or proteins)EXOCYTOSIS-
23 OSMOSIS Osmosis- the movement of water across the cell membrane kidneysmetals/07t.html
24 GOLGI APPARATUS Also called the Golgi Complex It is made up of a stack of flattened out sacs …like a loose stack of pancakesWHAT DOES IT DO?1) it takes simple molecules and combines them to make larger molecules.2) takes those larger molecules and puts them into packs called GOLGI VESICLES
25 GOLGI APPARATUSPic:Think about building a model of a ship (that's the molecule). Then take that model and put it in a bottle (that's the vesicle).
27 LYSOSOMES (primarily animal) They combine with the food taken in by the cellThe enzymes in the lysosome bond to food & digest it (acidic interior)Next…smaller molecules are released which are absorbed by the mitochondria
28 LYSOSOMESWhen an organelle no longer works, the lysosome will attach itself to it and break it down like food (kind of like a cannibal)Chemicals can then be reabsorbed or excretedLysosomes can also destroy the cell if it breaks open accidentally“Suicide Sacs”UV light damages lysosome membraneThe enzymes inside the lysosome spread throughout the cell and digest it-
35 VACUOLE Vacuoles are “bubbles” that float in the cell Vacuoles are more important to the survival of plant cells than they are to animal cells
36 VACUOLE: STORAGE IN PLANT CELLS Vacuoles in plants support structureVacuoles hold onto things that the cell might need…like a backpackThere are some vacuoles that hold onto waste products, similar to having a big septic tankStoring waste products protects the cell from contamination
37 VACUOLE CONT’DSo, when there is no water…the vacuole shrinks and the cell wall is the only thing holding the plant together.
38 You will know that a plant's vacuoles are shrinking when you see the plant begin to droop over HOLDING UP THE WALLS
39 Turgor Pressure- force exerted by the water entering (osmosis) the vacuole, which then swells exerting internal force on the cell wallCauses “rigidity” so the plant my increase by stacking cells
41 Chloroplast the site of photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells disk-like structurescomposed of a single membranesurrounding a fluid containing stacks of membranous disks
42 SOLAR energy radiated from the sun is captured by plants(chloroplast) Then it is instantaneously changed into ELECTRICAL energyThen packaged as CHEMICAL energyChloroplast
43 Chloroplast photosynthesis takes place inside the chloroplast the process in which plant use water, carbon dioxide, and energy form the sun to make foodPhotosynthesis-
44 Chloroplast No energy transformation is 100% efficient Not all the solar energy captured is converted to electrical and then chemical energy.Some of it gets lost as heat or other forms of energy (light)fig.cox.miami.edu/Faculty/ Dana/105F00_11.html
45 Centrioles: generally appear in animal cells they look like two cylinders at right angles to one anotherwhen viewed with an electron microscope, the cylinders show up as nine bundles of tiny microtubules arranged in a circlethey help to form the fibers that move chromosomes around when the cell is dividingas animal cells prepare for cell division these two centrioles separate and go to opposite ends of the cell.edservices.aea7.k12.ia.us/.../ cwinstead3/centrioles.html
47 Ribosomessmall dot-like structures in cellsthey are often associated with formingrough ERRibosomes are the site of protein synthesis in cellsthey are made in the nucleus of the cellA ribosome can make the average protein in about one minute
48 Ribosome StructureRibosomes are made up of proteins and ribonucleic acid(RNA)These molecules are arranged into two subunitsThese subunits are attached to each other and together form the entire ribosomeWhen viewed through a light microscope the ribosomes appear as dots
49 Types of RibosomesThere are two kinds of ribosomes1) Attached to the rough ER2) floating in the cell cytoplasmAttached ribosomes make proteins that are used in the ER or transported within the ERFree ribosomes make proteins that are used in the cytoplasm
51 Assignment Part A (slides 1-11) Directions: Write-out and highlight the following questions. Then use your notes to answer them.1. Which organelle is known as the “Brain” of the cell?2. If you look at a picture of a cell, how would you recognize the nucleolus?3. List the 3 main jobs of the cell membrane4. Explain why the cell membrane has tiny holes made of protein in it.5. The term hydro means _________.A. If something is hydrophobic it is _________B. If something is hydrophilic it is __________
52 Assignment Part B (slides 11-23) Directions: Write-out and highlight the following questions. Then use your notes to answer them.1. Which organelle is known as the Power House” of the cell?2. The mitochondria of a cell share the same job as the __________ (hint- an organ) in the human body.3. Explain how you could distinguish the rough ER from the smooth ER.4. What is the main job of the smooth ER?5. What type of reactions occur on the inner membrane of the mitochondria? (produces energy)6. The process of H2O moving across the cell membrane is called?
53 Assignment Part C (slides 23-) Directions: Write-out and highlight the following questions. Then use your notes to answer them.1. What is the main function of a lysosome?2. What happens if a lysosome breaks open?3. Explain the difference between cytoplasm and protoplasm. (draw a diagram if it will help you)4. Why are vacuoles important to PLANTS?5. Which organelle is the site of photosynthesis?6. What are the three main ingredients for photosynthesis?
54 Assignment Part D (slides 23-) Directions: Write-out and highlight the following questions. Then use your notes to answer them.1. Centrioles are usually found in __________ cells.2. What is the main function of a centriole?3. List the two places you can find a ribosome in an animal cell.4. What do ribosomes make?