Presentation on theme: "…Using glucose to make energy (ATP)"— Presentation transcript:
1 …Using glucose to make energy (ATP) Cellular Respiration…Using glucose to make energy (ATP)
2 Questions for this Lesson If plants need ATP (energy) to form glucose, how can glucose be a source of energy for plants and animals?How does our body use glucose to make energy?Why do your muscles get really sore when you exercise intensely, but not when you pace yourself?How do you get wine from grapes?
3 Where Do Plants Get Energy? Plants get energy from the sun and store it in the bonds of ___________.glucose
4 Harvesting Chemical Energy: Cellular respiration is a biochemical pathway which allows cells to make ATP by breaking down organic molecules such as glucoseAutotrophs like plants, and heterotrophs like humans both go through cellular respirationAutotrophs produce glucose through the process of photosynthesisHeterotrophs obtain glucose through eating
6 Glucose Turns into Energy How do we get energy?by eating food.What types of food provide the most energy?Carbs (sugars or glucose) have the most energye.g. candy bars, wheat, potatoes, rice, pastaWhat does your body do to the food you eat?- Our body digests our food (breaks apart bonds), releasing energy
7 Breaking Bonds -review Breaking bonds releases energy!Energy is “stored” in the glucose bonds; breaking them releases the energyWhat form of energy do our cell (and our body) use?the molecule ATPSo.. our body breaks downglucose and uses it to make ATP (ENERGY!)Which organelle isresponsible for producingenergy for our cells?The MITOCHONDRIA
8 What is ATP? -reviewATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a nucleic acid that can transfer energy within the cell.Ex: a small amount of energy from a glucose molecule can be used directly…The extra energy is transferred to ATP.The energy in ATP is stored in the bonds between the phosphates (ATP has 3 phosphates).
9 Overview of Cellular Respiration: Divided into 2 stages:GlycolysisGlucose is converted into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (a 3-carbon compound); this produces a small amount of ATP and NADH (an electron carrier); it is an anaerobic processAerobic respirationPyruvic acid is broken down into NADH is used to produce a large amount of ATPOverall equation for cellular respiration:C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
10 Steps of Cellular Respiration GLYCOLYSIS (glyco = glucose, lysis = break)- Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell2 Phosphate groups are added to glucose – uses 2 ATPs6-C compound splits into two 3-C compounds called G3PG3P oxidizes and obtains another phosphate group and is accompanied by the reduction of 2 molecules of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) to NADHThe 4 phosphate groups are removed from the G3PThis results in 2 molecules of pyruvic acidThe 4 removed phosphate groups combine with 4 molecules of ADP to produce 4 ATPSince 2 were used in step 1, the net gain of ATP is 2
12 Steps of Cellular Respiration (con’t) …Why Glycolysis? Why would we need to break down glucose in the cytoplasm first before we use it in the mitochondria? (think transport)Glucose molecules are too large to move into the mitochondria, so glycolysis makes them smaller to get through the mitochondria’s membranesvideo
14 Steps of Cellular Respiration (con’t) After glycolysis, there are two possible paths:Aerobic respiration – requires oxygenAnaerobic respiration – does not require oxygen; happens if oxygen is lackingOxygen?NOAnaerobic RespirationAerobic RespirationYES
15 Anaerobic Cellular Respiration Fermentation - anaerobic process (does not require oxygen)some cells can convert pyruvic acid from glycolysis into other compounds and regenerate NAD+ (which keeps glycolysis going)Two types of fermentation:Alcohol fermentationLactic acid fermentationBoth take place in the cytoplasm.
17 Lactic Acid Fermentation: Pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid andNAD + is regeneratedused in the manufacturing of many dairy products like yogurt and cheesealso occurs in your muscle cells during strenuous exercise-as oxygen is used up, cells will switch over to using fermentation to regenerate NAD+, this causes a build-up of lactic acid in your muscle cells causing muscle fatigue and burningBreathe heavier and faster to bring more oxygen into your cells and remove the lactic acid
19 Alcoholic Fermentation Some plant cells and yeasts use alcoholic fermentation to convert pyruvic acid into ethyl alcohol and to regenerate NAD+A molecule of CO2 is removed and released as a gas; the resulting 2-C compound is then used to produce ethanol (ethyl alcohol)Used in the wine and beer making industriesUsed in baking yeast will ferment the glucose present in the dough, causing CO2 to be released, which is what causes dough to rise, and there to be air bubbles in bread
21 What’s the big deal about aerobic vs. anaerobic respiration? You get way more ATP from aerobic cellular respiration than you do from anaerobic cellular respiration (fermentation).Fermentation is mostly used to provide organisms with short-term bursts of energy when oxygen is not available.
22 Aerobic Cellular Respiration An aerobic process (requires oxygen).Reaction releases energy from the chemical bonds of carbohydrates.Takes place in the mitochondria.Equation:6O C6H12O H CO ATPOxygen + Glucose Water + Carbon Dioxide + Energy
23 HOLD IT! Notice Anything Similar? Equation for photosynthesis:Energy H2O CO C6H12O O2Equation for aerobic cellular respiration:6O C6H12O H CO ATP
24 Organisms that Carry Out Aerobic Cellular Respiration
25 Organisms that Carry Out Aerobic Cellular Respiration PlantsAnimalsFungiProtistsSome bacteria…almost everything alive!
26 Aerobic Cellular Respiration Step 1 = glycolysis 2 ATP molecules are produced in cytoplasm and enter mitochondria.For aerobic respiration, in mitochondria:Step 2 = Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) – in matrixStep 3 = Electron Transport Chain – in inner membraneATP is generated in each step, but most of the ATP is made in theElectron Transport Chain
28 Pre-Krebs CyclePyruvic acid (made in glycolysis) diffuses across the double membrane of the mitochondria into its matrixPyruvic acid will react with coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA)Pyruvic acid is a 3-C compound and Acetyl CoA is a 2- C compound. The other C atom is used in the formation of CO2 which we exhale.Each pyruvic acid molecule (there are 2) produces1 NADH (2 total) – will enter the ETC1 CO2 (2 total) – diffuses out of cell as waste1 Acetyl CoA 2(total) – used in the Krebs Cycle
29 Krebs Cycle (matrix) AKA: The Citric Acid Cycle- Acetyl CoA combines with a compound to form citric acidEach Acetyl CoA (2total) will produce2-CO2 (4 total) – diffuses out of cell as waste1-ATP (2 total) – used to do work3-NADH (6 total) – will enter the ETC1-FADH2 (2 total) – will enter the ETC
31 Electron Transport Chain Electron Transport Chain – Moves electrons along a series of molecules so H+ ions can be pumped from the mitochondrial matrix to the space between the 2 membranes.Located on the inner mitochondrial membrane on the folds called christaeATP is produced through chemiosmosisEach NADH can produce 3 ATPEach FADH2 can produce 2 ATP
33 During Glycolysis, Pre Krebs, Krebs, and the ETC a total of 38 ATP will be made. Since Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol the NADH made needs to be actively transported into the mitochondria. That requires 2 ATP to be used so there is a total net gain of 36 ATP from one glucose molecule.
34 Summary of Aerobic Respiration C6H12O O → CO H2O ATPGlucose + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide + Water + ATP(Krebs Cycle)
35 Role of OXYGEN O2 is the final electron acceptor in the ETC. It bonds w/H+ that are being pumped into the mitochondrial matrix to form water.Without O2, cells will undergo fermentation and ATP will not be made.
36 Other Catabolic Pathways What about lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids?Starch: broken down into glucose, which enters glycolysisFats: broken down into fatty acids and glycerol; fatty acids are cut into 2-carbon compounds, converted to Acetyl-CoA, and enter the Krebs CycleProteins: broken down into amino acids, which can be converted into Acetyl-CoA or other compounds that enter the Krebs cycle at various pointsThe amino group is removed & excreted as urea.