Presentation on theme: "…Using glucose to make energy (ATP). If plants need ATP (energy) to form glucose, how can glucose be a source of energy for plants and animals? How."— Presentation transcript:
…Using glucose to make energy (ATP)
If plants need ATP (energy) to form glucose, how can glucose be a source of energy for plants and animals? How does our body use glucose to make energy? Why do your muscles get really sore when you exercise intensely, but not when you pace yourself? How do you get wine from grapes?
Plants get energy from the sun and store it in the bonds of ___________. glucose
Cellular respiration is a biochemical pathway which allows cells to make ATP by breaking down organic molecules such as glucose Autotrophs like plants, and heterotrophs like humans both go through cellular respiration Autotrophs produce glucose through the process of photosynthesis Heterotrophs obtain glucose through eating
How do we get energy? – by eating food. What types of food provide the most energy? – Carbs (sugars or glucose) have the most energy e.g. candy bars, wheat, potatoes, rice, pasta What does your body do to the food you eat? - Our body digests our food (breaks apart bonds), releasing energy
Breaking bonds releases energy! Energy is “stored” in the glucose bonds; breaking them releases the energy What form of energy do our cell (and our body) use? the molecule ATP So.. our body breaks down glucose and uses it to make ATP (ENERGY!) Which organelle is responsible for producing energy for our cells? The MITOCHONDRIA
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a nucleic acid that can transfer energy within the cell. Ex: a small amount of energy from a glucose molecule can be used directly… The extra energy is transferred to ATP. The energy in ATP is stored in the bonds between the phosphates (ATP has 3 phosphates). /ahp/LAD/C7/graphics/C7_atp_2.GIF
Divided into 2 stages: Glycolysis Glucose is converted into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (a 3-carbon compound); this produces a small amount of ATP and NADH (an electron carrier); it is an anaerobic process Aerobic respiration Pyruvic acid is broken down into NADH is used to produce a large amount of ATP Overall equation for cellular respiration: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP
GLYCOLYSIS (glyco = glucose, lysis = break) - Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell 2 Phosphate groups are added to glucose – uses 2 ATPs 6-C compound splits into two 3-C compounds called G3P G3P oxidizes and obtains another phosphate group and is accompanied by the reduction of 2 molecules of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) to NADH The 4 phosphate groups are removed from the G3P This results in 2 molecules of pyruvic acid The 4 removed phosphate groups combine with 4 molecules of ADP to produce 4 ATP Since 2 were used in step 1, the net gain of ATP is 2
Why would we need to break down glucose in the cytoplasm first before we use it in the mitochondria? (think transport) Glucose molecules are too large to move into the mitochondria, so glycolysis makes them smaller to get through the mitochondria’s membranes video video
After glycolysis, there are two possible paths: Aerobic respiration – requires oxygen An aerobic respiration – does not require oxygen; happens if oxygen is lacking Oxygen? NO Anaerobic Respiration Aerobic Respiration YES
Fermentation - anaerobic process (does not require oxygen) some cells can convert pyruvic acid from glycolysis into other compounds and regenerate NAD+ (which keeps glycolysis going) Two types of fermentation: Alcohol fermentation Lactic acid fermentation Both take place in the cytoplasm. fermenter.jpeg
Pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid and NAD + is regenerated used in the manufacturing of many dairy products like yogurt and cheese also occurs in your muscle cells during strenuous exercise -as oxygen is used up, cells will switch over to using fermentation to regenerate NAD+, this causes a build-up of lactic acid in your muscle cells causing muscle fatigue and burning Breathe heavier and faster to bring more oxygen into your cells and remove the lactic acid
Some plant cells and yeasts use alcoholic fermentation to convert pyruvic acid into ethyl alcohol and to regenerate NAD+ A molecule of CO 2 is removed and released as a gas; the resulting 2-C compound is then used to produce ethanol (ethyl alcohol) Used in the wine and beer making industries Used in baking yeast will ferment the glucose present in the dough, causing CO 2 to be released, which is what causes dough to rise, and there to be air bubbles in bread
You get way more ATP from aerobic cellular respiration than you do from anaerobic cellular respiration (fermentation). Fermentation is mostly used to provide organisms with short-term bursts of energy when oxygen is not available. content/uploads/2006/08/washington.jpg
An aerobic process (requires oxygen). Reaction releases energy from the chemical bonds of carbohydrates. Takes place in the mitochondria. Equation: 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 6H CO ATP Oxygen + Glucose Water + Carbon Dioxide + Energy
Equation for photosynthesis: Energy + 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Equation for aerobic cellular respiration: 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 6H CO ATP
Step 1 = glycolysis 2 ATP molecules are produced in cytoplasm and enter mitochondria. For aerobic respiration, in mitochondria: Step 2 = Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) – in matrix Step 3 = Electron Transport Chain – in inner membrane ATP is generated in each step, but most of the ATP is made in the Electron Transport Chain
Pyruvic acid (made in glycolysis) diffuses across the double membrane of the mitochondria into its matrix Pyruvic acid will react with coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) Pyruvic acid is a 3-C compound and Acetyl CoA is a 2- C compound. The other C atom is used in the formation of CO 2 which we exhale. Each pyruvic acid molecule (there are 2) produces 1 NADH (2 total) – will enter the ETC 1 CO 2 (2 total) – diffuses out of cell as waste 1 Acetyl CoA 2(total) – used in the Krebs Cycle
AKA: The Citric Acid Cycle- Acetyl CoA combines with a compound to form citric acid Each Acetyl CoA (2total) will produce 2-CO 2 (4 total) – diffuses out of cell as waste 1-ATP (2 total) – used to do work 3-NADH (6 total) – will enter the ETC 1-FADH 2 (2 total) – will enter the ETC
Electron Transport Chain – Moves electrons along a series of molecules so H+ ions can be pumped from the mitochondrial matrix to the space between the 2 membranes. Located on the inner mitochondrial membrane on the folds called christae ATP is produced through chemiosmosis Each NADH can produce 3 ATP Each FADH 2 can produce 2 ATP
During Glycolysis, Pre Krebs, Krebs, and the ETC a total of 38 ATP will be made. Since Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol the NADH made needs to be actively transported into the mitochondria. That requires 2 ATP to be used so there is a total net gain of 36 ATP from one glucose molecule.
C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 → 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + 36 ATP Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide + Water + ATP (Krebs Cycle)
O 2 is the final electron acceptor in the ETC. It bonds w/H+ that are being pumped into the mitochondrial matrix to form water. Without O 2, cells will undergo fermentation and ATP will not be made.
What about lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids? Starch: broken down into glucose, which enters glycolysis Fats: broken down into fatty acids and glycerol; fatty acids are cut into 2-carbon compounds, converted to Acetyl-CoA, and enter the Krebs Cycle Proteins: broken down into amino acids, which can be converted into Acetyl-CoA or other compounds that enter the Krebs cycle at various points The amino group is removed & excreted as urea.