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…Using glucose to make energy (ATP).  If plants need ATP (energy) to form glucose, how can glucose be a source of energy for plants and animals?  How.

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Presentation on theme: "…Using glucose to make energy (ATP).  If plants need ATP (energy) to form glucose, how can glucose be a source of energy for plants and animals?  How."— Presentation transcript:

1 …Using glucose to make energy (ATP)

2  If plants need ATP (energy) to form glucose, how can glucose be a source of energy for plants and animals?  How does our body use glucose to make energy?  Why do your muscles get really sore when you exercise intensely, but not when you pace yourself?  How do you get wine from grapes?

3  Plants get energy from the sun and store it in the bonds of ___________. glucose

4  Cellular respiration is a biochemical pathway which allows cells to make ATP by breaking down organic molecules such as glucose  Autotrophs like plants, and heterotrophs like humans both go through cellular respiration  Autotrophs produce glucose through the process of photosynthesis  Heterotrophs obtain glucose through eating

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6 How do we get energy? – by eating food. What types of food provide the most energy? – Carbs (sugars or glucose) have the most energy e.g. candy bars, wheat, potatoes, rice, pasta What does your body do to the food you eat? - Our body digests our food (breaks apart bonds), releasing energy

7  Breaking bonds releases energy!  Energy is “stored” in the glucose bonds; breaking them releases the energy  What form of energy do our cell (and our body) use?  the molecule ATP  So.. our body breaks down glucose and uses it to make ATP (ENERGY!)  Which organelle is responsible for producing energy for our cells?  The MITOCHONDRIA

8  ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a nucleic acid that can transfer energy within the cell.  Ex: a small amount of energy from a glucose molecule can be used directly…  The extra energy is transferred to ATP.  The energy in ATP is stored in the bonds between the phosphates (ATP has 3 phosphates). /ahp/LAD/C7/graphics/C7_atp_2.GIF

9  Divided into 2 stages:  Glycolysis  Glucose is converted into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (a 3-carbon compound); this produces a small amount of ATP and NADH (an electron carrier); it is an anaerobic process  Aerobic respiration  Pyruvic acid is broken down into NADH is used to produce a large amount of ATP  Overall equation for cellular respiration:  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP

10  GLYCOLYSIS (glyco = glucose, lysis = break) - Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell  2 Phosphate groups are added to glucose – uses 2 ATPs  6-C compound splits into two 3-C compounds called G3P  G3P oxidizes and obtains another phosphate group and is accompanied by the reduction of 2 molecules of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) to NADH  The 4 phosphate groups are removed from the G3P  This results in 2 molecules of pyruvic acid  The 4 removed phosphate groups combine with 4 molecules of ADP to produce 4 ATP  Since 2 were used in step 1, the net gain of ATP is 2

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12  Why would we need to break down glucose in the cytoplasm first before we use it in the mitochondria? (think transport)  Glucose molecules are too large to move into the mitochondria, so glycolysis makes them smaller to get through the mitochondria’s membranes  video video

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14  After glycolysis, there are two possible paths:  Aerobic respiration – requires oxygen  An aerobic respiration – does not require oxygen; happens if oxygen is lacking Oxygen? NO Anaerobic Respiration Aerobic Respiration YES

15  Fermentation - anaerobic process (does not require oxygen)  some cells can convert pyruvic acid from glycolysis into other compounds and regenerate NAD+ (which keeps glycolysis going)  Two types of fermentation:  Alcohol fermentation  Lactic acid fermentation  Both take place in the cytoplasm. fermenter.jpeg

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17  Pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid and NAD + is regenerated  used in the manufacturing of many dairy products like yogurt and cheese  also occurs in your muscle cells during strenuous exercise -as oxygen is used up, cells will switch over to using fermentation to regenerate NAD+, this causes a build-up of lactic acid in your muscle cells causing muscle fatigue and burning  Breathe heavier and faster to bring more oxygen into your cells and remove the lactic acid

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19  Some plant cells and yeasts use alcoholic fermentation to convert pyruvic acid into ethyl alcohol and to regenerate NAD+  A molecule of CO 2 is removed and released as a gas; the resulting 2-C compound is then used to produce ethanol (ethyl alcohol)  Used in the wine and beer making industries  Used in baking  yeast will ferment the glucose present in the dough, causing CO 2 to be released, which is what causes dough to rise, and there to be air bubbles in bread

20 Bozeman Video

21  You get way more ATP from aerobic cellular respiration than you do from anaerobic cellular respiration (fermentation).  Fermentation is mostly used to provide organisms with short-term bursts of energy when oxygen is not available. content/uploads/2006/08/washington.jpg

22  An aerobic process (requires oxygen).  Reaction releases energy from the chemical bonds of carbohydrates.  Takes place in the mitochondria.  Equation: 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 6H CO ATP Oxygen + Glucose Water + Carbon Dioxide + Energy

23 Equation for photosynthesis: Energy + 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Equation for aerobic cellular respiration: 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 6H CO ATP

24 andFox1.jpg agePlants.jpg

25  Plants  Animals  Fungi  Protists  Some bacteria  …almost everything alive!

26  Step 1 = glycolysis 2 ATP molecules are produced in cytoplasm and enter mitochondria.  For aerobic respiration, in mitochondria:  Step 2 = Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) – in matrix  Step 3 = Electron Transport Chain – in inner membrane  ATP is generated in each step, but most of the ATP is made in the Electron Transport Chain

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28  Pyruvic acid (made in glycolysis) diffuses across the double membrane of the mitochondria into its matrix  Pyruvic acid will react with coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA)  Pyruvic acid is a 3-C compound and Acetyl CoA is a 2- C compound. The other C atom is used in the formation of CO 2 which we exhale.  Each pyruvic acid molecule (there are 2) produces  1 NADH (2 total) – will enter the ETC  1 CO 2 (2 total) – diffuses out of cell as waste  1 Acetyl CoA 2(total) – used in the Krebs Cycle

29  AKA: The Citric Acid Cycle-  Acetyl CoA combines with a compound to form citric acid  Each Acetyl CoA (2total) will produce  2-CO 2 (4 total) – diffuses out of cell as waste  1-ATP (2 total) – used to do work  3-NADH (6 total) – will enter the ETC  1-FADH 2 (2 total) – will enter the ETC

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31  Electron Transport Chain – Moves electrons along a series of molecules so H+ ions can be pumped from the mitochondrial matrix to the space between the 2 membranes.  Located on the inner mitochondrial membrane on the folds called christae  ATP is produced through chemiosmosis  Each NADH can produce 3 ATP  Each FADH 2 can produce 2 ATP

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33  During Glycolysis, Pre Krebs, Krebs, and the ETC a total of 38 ATP will be made.  Since Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol the NADH made needs to be actively transported into the mitochondria. That requires 2 ATP to be used so there is a total net gain of 36 ATP from one glucose molecule.

34 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 → 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + 36 ATP Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide + Water + ATP (Krebs Cycle)

35  O 2 is the final electron acceptor in the ETC.  It bonds w/H+ that are being pumped into the mitochondrial matrix to form water.  Without O 2, cells will undergo fermentation and ATP will not be made.

36  What about lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids?  Starch: broken down into glucose, which enters glycolysis  Fats: broken down into fatty acids and glycerol; fatty acids are cut into 2-carbon compounds, converted to Acetyl-CoA, and enter the Krebs Cycle  Proteins: broken down into amino acids, which can be converted into Acetyl-CoA or other compounds that enter the Krebs cycle at various points  The amino group is removed & excreted as urea.

37 Nucleic AcidsProteins Carbohydrates Lipids Amino Acids Sugars Fatty Acids/ Glycerol Pyruvate Acetyl-CoA Krebs Cycle Urea H2OH2O CO 2 Nucleotides

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