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Regents Biology 2009-2010 Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP.

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Presentation on theme: "Regents Biology 2009-2010 Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Regents Biology

3 Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP

4 Regents Biology CO 2 + H 2 O + heat fuel (carbohydrates) O2O2 “Burn fuels” to make energy combustion making heat energy by burning fuels in one step ATP ATP + CO 2 + H 2 O (+ heat) aerobic respiration making ATP energy (& some heat) by burning fuels in many small steps food (carbohydrates) O2O2

5 Regents Biology Energy needs of life  All organisms need energy.  What do we need energy for?  synthesis (building for growth)  reproduction  active transport  movement  temperature control (making heat)

6 Regents Biology Where do we get energy?  Energy is stored in organic molecules  carbohydrates, fats, proteins  Animals eat these organic molecules  food  digest food to get  fuels for energy (ATP)  raw materials for building more molecules  carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids ATP

7 Regents Biology ATP What is energy in biology? Whoa! HOT stuff! Adenosine TriPhosphate

8 Regents Biology Harvesting energy stored in food  Cellular respiration  breaking down food to produce ATP  in mitochondria  using oxygen  “aerobic” respiration  usually digesting glucose  but could be other sugars, fats, or proteins C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 ATP6CO 2 6H 2 O  + ++ glucose + oxygen  energy + carbon + water dioxide O2O2 food ATP

9 Regents Biology Can’t store ATP  too unstable  only used in cell that produces it  only short term energy storage Using ATP to do work? A working muscle recycles over 10 million ATPs per second ATP ADP work Whoa! Pass me the glucose & oxygen! Adenosine DiPhosphate Adenosine TriPhosphate

10 Regents Biology Mitochondria Structure  Double membrane bound organelle  Contains its own DNA (different from nucleus’ DNA)  Matrix = jelly-like fluid  Cristae = folds of membrane within the mitochondria

11 Regents Biology Mitochondria are everywhere!! animal cells plant cells

12 Regents Biology Steps of Cellular Respiration 1. Glycolysis (Anaerobic – does not require oxygen) 2. Kreb’s Cycle (Aerobic- requires oxygen) 3. Electron Transport Chain (Aerobic)

13 Regents Biology

14 Which of the following is a product of cell respiration? 1. ATP 2. Glucose 3. Oxygen 4. NADPH

15 Regents Biology Cell Respiration takes place in the 1. Chloroplast 2. Nucleus 3. Mitochondria 4. Rough ER

16 Regents Biology Which of the following processes requires oxygen? 1. Photosynthesis 2. Aerobic Respiration 3. Anaerobic Respiration 4. Glycolysis

17 Regents Biology Which of the following is NOT a stage of cell respiration? 1. Krebs Cycle 2. Calvin Cycle 3. Glycolysis 4. Electron Transport

18 Regents Biology The first step of cellular respiration is 1. Glycolysis 2. Kreb Cycle 3. Calvin Cycle 4. Electron Transport Chain

19 Regents Biology Plants conduct which of the following processes? 1. Glycolysis 2. Photosynthesis only 3. Respiration only 4. Both Photosynthesis and respiration

20 Regents Biology Glycolysis takes place in the 1. Mitochondrial matrix 2. cytoplasm 3. Cell membrane 4. Cristae of mitochondria

21 Regents Biology Which of the following steps of cellular respiration does not require oxygen? A. ETC B. Kreb’s Cycle C. Glycolysis

22 Regents Biology NAD+ NAD+ and FAD+

23 Regents Biology Electron Carrier Molecules NAD+ can be energized to make NADH FAD+ 2 can be energized to make FADH 2

24 Regents Biology Step 1: Glycolysis  Takes place in cytoplasm  Anaerobic process- no oxygen required  Splits glucose into two 3-carbon molecules called pyruvate  REACTANTS (IN) = 2 ATP, 2 NAD+, and 4 ADP  PRODUCTS = 2 ADP, 2 NADH, 4 ATP  Net gain = 2 NADH and 2 ATP

25 Regents Biology Step 2: Kreb’s Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)  Takes place in matrix of mitochondria  Aerobic Process - Uses oxygen  Electron carriers NADH and FADH2 are produced from NAD+ and FAD+  NADH and FADH2 are go to the Electron Transport Chain to be used to make more ATP  Carbon Dioxide is released  2 ATP are produced

26 Regents Biology Step 3: Electron Transport Chain  Takes place in cristae of mitochondria  Aerobic process – uses oxygen  Uses the NADH produced in Glycolysis & the Kreb’s Cycle  Uses the FADH2 produced in the Kreb’s Cycle  Produces 34 ATP!!!!  Water is released

27 Regents Biology What if oxygen is missing?  No oxygen available = can’t complete aerobic respiration  Anaerobic respiration  also known as fermentation  alcohol fermentation  lactic acid fermentation  no oxygen or no mitochondria (bacteria and yeast)  can only make very little ATP  large animals cannot survive O2O2 yeast bacteria

28 Regents Biology Anaerobic Respiration  Fermentation  alcohol fermentation  Yeast (a unicellular fungus that Eats glucose and releases CO2 and alcohol)  glucose  ATP + CO 2 + alcohol  make beer, wine, bread  lactic acid fermentation  bacteria, animals  glucose  ATP + lactic acid  bacteria make yogurt  animals feel muscle fatigue O2O2

29 Regents Biology Got the energy… Ask Questions!!

30 Regents Biology  2KClO 3 (l) → 2KCl(s) + 3O 2 (g) C 12 H 22 O 11 (s) + 12O 2 (g) → 12CO 2 (g) + 11H 2 O(l) + heat


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