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Plant Structure & Function, Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration, Mitochondria, & Chloroplasts.

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Structure & Function, Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration, Mitochondria, & Chloroplasts."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Structure & Function, Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration, Mitochondria, & Chloroplasts

2 Learning Goals 1.Be able to relate the structure of each of the major plant organs and tissues to physiological processes. 2.Be able to explain the interrelationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration 3.Be able to identify the reactants, products, and basic functions of aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration. 4.Be able to connect the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to energy transfers within a cell. 5. Be able to identify the reactants, products, and basic functions of photosynthesis

3 Day 1 Major plant organs & tissues Functions of major plant organs & tissues

4 Tissue Organization in Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) Dermal Tissue – Generally a single layer of cells, is considered the "skin" of the plant – Tissue Type: Primarily parenchyma cells – Function: Main role is protection of the plant Ground Tissue – Makes up the bulk of the plant – Tissue Types: Predominately parenchyma, but collenchyma and schlerenchyma cells are found – Functions: include photosynthesis, storage, and support Vascular Tissue – Tissue Types: Composed of xylem, phloem, parenchyma, schlerenchyma – Functions: Involved in the transport of water, ions, minerals, and food. Also has a secondary role in support Retrieved from

5 Plant Growth (Cells Involved) Plants exhibit a growth pattern called indeterminate growth – The plant retains areas where rapidly dividing, undifferentiated (not distinguished) cells remain all through the life of the plant These areas are called meristems – Meristematic tissue continues to rapidly divide producing undifferentiated cells which eventually become other types of cells Plants do not have a pre-programmed body plan – They have constants like leaf shape and branching patterns, but you can never predict where a new branch will come about on a tree... – Plants continue to grow throughout their life

6 Xylem vs. Phloem

7 Xylem vs. Phloem Diagram

8 Cambium The vascular cambium is a lateral (side- view)meristem in the vascular tissue of plants.meristemvascular tissue – The source of secondary xylem production and secondary phloem – It is a type of meristem.meristem – Primary meristems are the apical meristems on root tips and shoot tips. Another lateral meristem is the cork cambium, which produces cork, part of the bark.apical meristemscork cambiumbark

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10 Plant Basic Structures (Label your Diagram)

11 Plant Root Parts

12 Types of Plant Roots Description Different types of stems: axis of the plant which grows in the opposite direction from the stem, maintain the plant in place and absorbs nutrients. Fibrous: root formed in bundles where it is not possible to determine the primary root. Cauline: roots that shoot from the stem. Tubercular: root in the form of a tubercle. Taproot: root that grows vertically into the earth (Starchy, vegetables, etc.)

13 Visualization for Types of Plant Roots

14 Seed A seed is a small embryonic plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat, usually with some stored food.embryonicplantstored food

15 Leaf Tissue

16 Purpose of Guard Cells Guard cells are cells surrounding each stoma. Guard cells They help to regulate the rate of transpiration by opening and closing the stomata.

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18 Guard Cells found on lower leaf tissue

19 Day 2 & Day 3 Role of ATP in photosynthesis, aerobic respiration, and anaerobic respiration. Relationship between Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Identify reactants, products, and basic functions of photosynthesis, aerobic respiration, and anaerobic respiration.

20 ATP Image by: Riedell Remember from Biochemistry. What is ATP, and what Is it USED for????? ONE SPECIAL KIND of NUCLEOTIDE is used by cells to store and transport ENERGY

21 CELLS USE ATP TO STORE and RELEASE ENERGY ATP = __________________________ Adenosine triphosphate ____ PHOSPHATE GROUPS 3

22 ATP can change into ADP ADP = __________________________ Adenosine diphosphate ____ PHOSPHATE GROUPS 2

23 ATP → ____ + ____ + ATP releases energy stored in a high energy chemical bond by removing the phosphate and becoming ADP ADP

24 ADP + ___ + ________ → ___ The energy to do this comes from ____________ like _____________ Cells ________ energy by adding the phosphate back on to ADP to make ATP. ATP It’s like recharging the battery ! STORE FOODSGLUCOSE

25 ____________________ involves a complex series of chemical reactions, in which the product of one reaction is _____________ by the next reaction. Photosynthesis consumed Reaction 1 →Product → X Reaction 2 → Product Y A series of reactions linked in this way is referred to as a __________________________ biochemical pathway

26 Many people think that plants are green because they absorb and use green light in photosynthesis, BUT.... Myth: Image from:

27 BUT… We “see” reflected light Light wavelengths that are ___________ off of objects bounce back to our eyes. That is the ___________ we “see” GREEN plants absorb all wavelengths except green, so that is what is Reflected! Image modified from: REFLECTED COLOR

28 GREEN leaves have BOTH chlorophyll AND carotenoids __________________ but the huge amount of chlorophyll ______ the other colors and leaves usually look green ALL THE TIME hides

29 In ______, chlorophyll production slows as the trees shut down and photosynthesis stops for winter. FALL

30 Then we can see the carotinoid colors that are usually _______ by chlorophyll HIDDEN

31 red Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b © Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing asPearson Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved. There are two types of chlorophyll __________________ & ___________________ Chlorophyll b absorbs some ______light and even more _________ light. Chlorophyll aChlorophyll b red Blue-violet

32 red Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b © Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing asPearson Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved. NEITHER KIND OF CHLOROPHYLL IS VERY GOOD AT ABSORBING _________ LIGHT! GREEN

33 Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b © Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing asPearson Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved. SO WHAT WAVELENGTHS ARE BEST FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS? THE ONES CHLOROPHYLL ABSORBS THE BEST ________ and _______________ red Blue-violet

34 ENERGY & ELECTRONS When chlorophyll absorbs light, the energy is transferred to electrons in the chlorophyll molecule. HIGH ENERGY ____________ make photosynthesis work! ELECTRONS

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36 Where do you find the Chloroplast?

37 Chloroplast inside Plant Cell (found in leaf tissue)

38 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Light-Dependent Reaction Light-Independent Reactions Light & Water Oxygen ATP NADPH

39 LIGHT-DEPENDENT REACTIONS PHOTOSYSTEM II ATP SYNTHASE ↓ ↓ PHOTOSYSTEM I ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM ↓ INSIDE THYLAKOID SPACE OUTSIDE THYLAKOID IN STROMA Image modified from: Pearson Education Inc; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall

40 PHOTOSYSTEM II It was discovered and named 1st ↓ ↓ PHOTOSYSTEM I WHY DOES PHOTOSYSTEM II COME BEFORE PHOTOSYSTEM I? Image modified from: Pearson Education Inc; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall

41 LIGHT-DEPENDENT REACTIONS See an animation about the ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN Pearson Education Inc; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall SEE A MOVIE ATP SYNTHASE IN ACTION abolism/atpsyn1.sw abolism/photosynthesis.swf

42 LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTION Requires ______________ Molecules are part of ________________ Made up of __________________ connected by ______________________ & ___________________ Uses light energy to change ADP + P → _______ NADP + + 2e - + H + → _________ Breaks apart ______ molecules and releases _____________ LIGHT ATP THYLAKOID membranes PHOTOSYSTEMS II & I ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN NADPH H20H20 oxygen ATP SYNTHASE

43 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Light-Dependent Reaction Light-Independent Reactions CALVIN CYCLE Light & Water Oxygen ATP NADPH Carbon Dioxide (CH 2 O) n

44 CO 2 Enters the Cycle Energy Input 5-Carbon Molecules Regenerated Sugars and other compounds 6-Carbon Sugar Produced Calvin Cycle See Calvin cycle animation

45 CALVIN CYCLE (also called _________________________) ____________ require ____________ Happens in _________ between thylakoids NADPH donates _______________ ATP donates _________________ CO 2 donates ______________ to make __________ LIGHT LIGHT INDEPENDENT ENERGY STROMA Hydrogen + electrons Carbon & oxygen GLUCOSE DOES NOT

46 Factors that Affect Photosynthesis ____________________ Water is one of the raw materials needed, so A shortage of water can ________________ photosynthesis AMOUNT OF WATER Desert plants and conifers that live in dry conditions have a waxy coating on their leaves to prevent water loss. slow or stop

47 Factors that Affect Photosynthesis Photosynthesis enzymes function best between 0° C - 35° C At temperatures above or below this range, photosynthesis will slow or stop Conifers in winter may carry out photosynthesis only occasionally TEMPERATURE

48 Enzymes work BEST at a certain ___ and __________. Conditions that are TOO ACIDIC or TOO HOT cause proteins to unwind or _________ pH temperature DENATURE REMEMBER CELL BIO

49 Factors that Affect Photosynthesis ____________________ More light increases rate of photosynthesis up to a certain level until plant reaches its maximum rate of photosynthesis LIGHT INTENSITY

50 Overview of Photosynthesis

51 PHOTOSYNTHESIS OVERVIEW Pearson Education Inc; Publishing as Prentice Hall

52 Photosynthesis

53 Photosynthesis Animations ions/ch08p01b.htm

54 This process of releasing the energy from FOOD (glucose) to make _____ = ________________ Image by Riedell Image from: ATP CELLULAR RESPIRATION

55 The first step in cellular respiration = __________________ Glycolysis happens in the ________________ outside the mitochondria GLYCOLYSIS CYTOPLASM

56 Glycolysis (GLYKOS = ________ LYSIS= ___________ ) Glycolysis ____________________________ BUT it needs some ____________to get it started. What molecule do you think is going to supply the energy do this? split apart DOES NOT REQUIRE OXYGEN ATP sweet ENERGY

57 ________ ↓ ___________ → → _____________ ↓ ____________________ + _______________ GLUCOSE2 PYRUVIC ACID PUT IN ________ and GET BACK __________ Net gain of ________ and __________ 2 ATP’s4 ATP’s GLYCOLYSIS 2 ATP’s 2 NADH ATP ATP NADH

58 REMEMBER: The “fork in the road” happens following glycolysis. The presence or absence of _______________ decides which path it takes next. OXYGEN

59 Flowchart Section 9-2 Glucose (C 6 H ) + Oxygen (0 2 ) Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Cellular Respiration We will next focus on the Krebs Cycle. This is the path that is taken when oxygen is present.

60 Image from BIOLOGY Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing _______________ follows glycolysis if oxygen is present KREBS CYCLE

61 REMEMBER: Glycolysis happens in the ________________ outside the mitochondria. Krebs cycle happens in _____________ inside the mitochondria CYTOPLASM MATRIX

62 KREBS CYCLE Kreb’s Cycle PRODUCES:

63 Flowchart Section 9-2 Glucose (C 6 H ) + Oxygen (0 2 ) Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Cellular Respiration We will next focus on the Electron Transport Chain.

64 WHERE DOES IT HAPPEN? Glycolysis KREBS ET Enzymes for ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN are located in the ___________________________ Inner mitochondrial membrane (cristae)

65 ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN Image from: BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006 INTERMEMBRANE SPACE MATRIX CRISTAE

66 Glucose Glycolysis Cytoplasm Pyruvic acid Electrons carried in NADH Krebs Cycle Electrons carried in NADH and FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain Mitochondrion Cellular Respiration: An Overview WHATS THE BIG PICTURE?

67 CELLULAR RESPIRATION includes: ______________________ _______________________ GLYCOLYSIS ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN KREBS CYCLE

68 GLYCOLYSIS Happens in ______________ Breaks down ____________ into ________________ Produces _______ __________ 2 CYTOPLASM outside mitochondria 1 glucose 2 2 pyruvic acid (pyruvate)

69 KREBS CYCLE happens in ________________ Breaks down _________________ Produces: ____ ____ MATRIX inside mitochondria 2 pyruvic acid

70 ELECTRON TRANSPORT Enzymes found in _____________ Uses high energy electrons and H + ions donated by _______ and _______ Makes ___________ ________ acts a final electron acceptor to produce ________ cristae (inner membrane of mitochondria) NADH FADH 2 OXYGEN H 2 O 32 (net) ATP

71 After Glycolysis what happends when NO Oxygen is Present?

72 PYRUVIC ACID MOVES TO NEXT STEP IF THERE IS NO OXYGEN (______________) IF THERE IS OXYGEN (_____________) = ANAEROBIC = AEROBIC

73 PYRUVIC ACID ___________ OXYGEN 2 kinds of fermentation ___________________ & _____________________ ANAEROBIC Alcoholic Lactic acid WITHOUT

74 _______ + _____ → __________ + ______ + _____ ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION PYRUVIC ACID ALCOHOL Happens when yeast makes bread dough rise CO 2 bubbles make _____________ in bread Alcohol _______________ during cooking CO 2 NAD + air spaces evaporates

75 _______ + _____ → __________ + ______ + _____ ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION PYRUVIC ACID ALCOHOL Happens when ___________ make _______ or ____________ make ______ CO 2 NAD + yeast beer bacteriawine

76 _______ + _____ → ______________ + ________ LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION PYRUVIC ACID LACTIC ACID Happens in _____________ during ____________when body can’t get oxygen to tissues fast enough. Lactic acid builds up in muscles causing soreness NAD + exercise muscles

77 _______ + _____ → ______________ + ________ LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION PYRUVIC ACID LACTIC ACID Happens when bacteria are used to make __________and ____________ like: Yogurt, buttermilk, sauerkraut, pickles, cheese sour cream, & kimchi NAD + food beverages

78 Overview of Cellular Respiration

79 Aerobic v. Anaerobic Respiration Animation ions/ch08p02d.htm

80 References /plantanatomy.htm /plantanatomy.htm ardwell/phvre.html ardwell/phvre.html Plus others already cited throughout presentation

81 Strands Touched 1.SC.912.L Relate the structure of each of the major plant organs and tissues to physiological processes. 2.SC.912.L Explain the interrelated nature of photosynthesis and cellular respiration 3.SC.912.L Identify the reactants, products, and basic functions of aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration. 4.SC.912.L Connect the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to energy transfers within a cell. 5. SC.912.L Identify the reactants, products, and basic functions of photosynthesis


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