Power centers of a cell o Plant or animal Provide energy for the cell o Motion o Division o Secretion o Contraction Present in all living cells More concentrated in muscle cells The reason animals require oxygen
Mitochondria: Structure Double membrane o Outer membrane Simple phospholipid bilayer Easy for molecules like ATP or sugar to penetrate Smooth Separates inner membrane space from vacuole o Inner membrane Cristae greatly increase the membrane's surface area Site of ATP production from oxygen and sugar Krebs/citric acid cycle
Mitochondria: Structure Non-membrane spaces o Intermembrane space Between outer and inner membranes Contains energy before it is released to the cytoplasm/vacuole Contains oxygen, water, CO 2 on their way to cristae o Matrix Within cristae Contains enzymes used during Krebs cycle
Aid the mitochondria in energy production o Plant cells only Contain chlorophyll o Absorbs light o Responsible for green coloration Responsible for creation of oxygen
Chloroplasts: Structure Double membrane o Outer membrane Simple phospholipid bilayer Easy for molecules like ATP or sugar to penetrate Smooth o Inner membrane Regulates substances entering chloroplast Smooth Thylakoids Location of photosynthesis (the "light" reactions) Membrane disks Equivalent of mitochondrial cristae Arranged in grana (stacks)
Chloroplasts: Structure Non-membrane spaces o Stroma Space between thylakoid disks Site of "dark" reactions of photosynthesis Contains the enzymes required for these reactions
Chloroplasts Create energy for the cell o Convert light into ATP Plant cells only Create O 2 and carbs Double membrane Krebs cycle o Takes place on thylakoids, separate from membranes Mitochondria Create energy for the cell o Convert food energy into ATP Plant and animal cells Consume O 2 and carbs Double membrane Calvin cycle o Takes place on cristae, identical to the inner membrane o
Sources HyperPhysics. C.R. Knave/Georgia State University, 2005. Web. 1 Sept. 2009.. Sullivan, Jim. "Eucaryotic Cell Interactive Animation." 2006. Cells Alive. 31 Aug. 2009. Experimental Biosciences: Introductory Laboratory Bios 211. David R. Caprette, Rice University, 25 June 2009. Web. 2 Sept. 2009.. "Chloroplasts." Kimball's Biology Pages. Ed. John W. Kimball. John W. Kimball, 10 August 2003. Web. 2 Sept. 2009. http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/>.