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The Organelles: Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Text and image sources are included using the notes function of the.ppt file
Endosymbiotic origins Unique unions reshaped the tree of life
Architectural Clues Cyanobacterium Chloroplast
A taste for the good life? Paramecium bursaria Mayorella viridis Prorodon viridis The promiscous green alga, Chlorella
Cyanophora paradoxa Trying commitment...
Reduced genomes remain Chloroplast genomes 200-120Kb encode about 80 proteins Mitochondrial genomes 16-17Kb encode about 20 proteins Chloroplast genomic reduction is still occurring in higher plants
Relationships aren’t easy!
Mitochondrial Features Mitochondria are typically 0.5-5um in diameter
A new slant on EM imaging
Mitochondrial dynamics and biochemical diversity JC-1 stain Time-lapse 5 sec/frame; several minutes total Video
Going with the flow Example from a hypha of the fungus Phycomyces Video
Rapid fission and fusion In a Xenopus tissue culture cell In yeast Video
Dynamin in mitochondrial division Yeast (wt) COS cells Dynamin- related protein::GFP Dynamin inhibition (B,D) results in the formation of reticulate networks Yeast COS cells
Organelles and their genomes are inherited maternally And so are mutations encoded in the mitochondrial genome
Apoptosis Cytochrome C::GFP is lost from mitochondria to the cytosol Video
Plant cell Chloroplasts are typically 1-10um in diameter
Chloroplast ultrastructure Double envelope Thylakoids and stacked grana Stroma Mitochondria Nucleus Starch grain
Grana Freeze fracture of granal face Freeze etch of granal section Photosystem II particles stack grana
Stromal tubule activity Video
FtsZ in chloroplast division wt ftz
Local chloroplast orientation to light in the green alga Mougeotia depends upon microfilaments and calcium Chloroplast movement Actin microfilament / myosin driven cytoplasmic streaming circulates plastids in many plant cells Video
Other types of plastids
AP Biology Eukaryotic Cell Components Part 2. Mitochondria (Nicknamed the “Power House”) (Membrane Bound Structure) – This organelle is involved in making.
Plastids Chloroplast Amyloplast Leucoplast Chromoplast
Unit 2 – The Cell n Chapter 7, II ~ A Tour of the Cell.
Objectives Describe the function of the cell nucleus Describe the function of the major cell organelles Describe the function of the cell wall Describe.
Plant leaf cell (SEM) (x7700) Mammalian cells (SEM) (x2500)
Chapter 4B A Tour of the Cell. Other Membranous Organelles, I Mitochondria - quantity in cell correlated with metabolic activity (the more active, the.
Cells… part II. Converting Energy n Mitochondria convert sugars and fats to NRG (ATP) with the help of oxygen – Cellular respiration n Chloroplasts convert.
N Chapter 6, II ~ A Tour of the Cell. Other membranous organelles, I n Mitochondria – Quantity in cell correlated with metabolic activity; – Cellular.
Section 4-1: Introduction to the Cell
Cells – Animal, Plant, Eukaryote, Prokaryote
Do Now: Look at the cell organelle sheet
BIOL 200 (Section 921) Lecture # 8 (Unit 6) June 28, 2006
CELL STRUCTURE. Lesson objectives By the end of this lesson you should know: The parts of a compound light microscope and their functions PA: Be familiar.
CHAPTER 3 EUKARYOTIC CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.
Meaning Plant cell: are eukaryotic cells that differ in several key respects from the cells of other eukaryotic organisms. Their distinctive features.
They are all made of cells Nucleus Cell wall.
Organization of the Cell
How do you know if something is living? M R S G R E N.
Chapter 5: History of Life on Earth. Dates of origins 1. Everything (Universe):14 Bya 2. Solar System (Earth):4.6 Bya Conservative estimates 3. Prokaryotic.
Organization of the Cell Organization of the Cell Chapter 4.
Cells Chapter 3. Early investigation of cells Robert Hook, 1665, coined term “cells” after observing cork cells Malpighi, Grew and Leeuwenhoek, late 1600’s.
The Structure of Cell: Part II.
Ch.7 A Tour of the Cell. Nucleus Genetic material... chromatin chromosomesnucleolus: rRNA; ribosome synthesis Double membrane envelope with pores Protein.
Functions of the Nucleus 1. Role in cell division. 2. Influences cytoplasmic events. 3. Contains codes for protein synthesis.
Chapter 6 A (more detailed) Tour of the Cell. Nucleus: Chromatin v. chromosomes Nucleolus synthesizes ribosomes Nuclear pores.
Photosynthesis Botany. Light Reactions Photosynthesis is the process by which photosynthetic organisms use light (photo) energy to drive the synthesis.
Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Boardworks High School Science Eukaryotic Cells
Chloroplast Genome Evolution Level 3 Molecular Evolution and Bioinformatics Jim Provan.
Plant Cell Animal Bacteria Cell. CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION NOTES Organelles: What you should know Organelles: What you should know Inner Life of a Cell.
1 of 10© Boardworks Ltd of 10© Boardworks Ltd 2009 What is a cell? Multicellular organisms consists of many cells – humans are made from an estimated.
LE Plasma membrane Cytoplasm DNA Ancestral prokaryote Endoplasmic reticulum Nuclear envelope Infolding of plasma membrane Engulfing of aerobic heterotrophic.
Chapter 3 Cytology Part 1 Biology Mr. Cobb Cytology The study of cells First observed and noted by Robert Hooke in Cork cells Named cells because.
Lysosomes: Digestive Compartments
Figure 7.0 Fluorescent stain of cell. Figure 7.1 The size range of cells.
The Variety of Life 10.4 Plant Cell Structure. Plant Cell Structure Learning Objectives There are fundamental differences between plant cells and animal.
StructuresandOrganelles Section 7.3. An internal skeleton supports the cell and enables movement.
1 Chapter 1 Plant Cells Overview Earth’s primary producers Nonmotile Structure to catch light and sense gravity Structure for transporting water.
Chloroplast By: Alyssa Mecca & Rachel Wargo. The Chloroplast A plastid found in plant cells Chloroplast is the organelle in which photosynthesis takes.
The Cell: Mitochondria & Chloroplasts. Overview Mitochondria & chloroplasts are the organelles that convert energy to forms that cells can use for work.
Enzymes at work An important cause of deterioration in flavor, texture, and vitamin content of frozen fruits and vegetables during storage is the action.
Cytology Objectives: –Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells –Investigate the anatomy (structure) and physiology (function) of a typical cell –Compare.
4.2 INTRODUCTION TO CELLS. CELL DIVERSITY (SHAPE) Cells come in a variety of shapes The shape typically reflects the function of the cell Consider.
Cell Structure and Function Chapter 4 Table of Contents Section 1 The History of Cell Biology Section 2 Introduction to Cells Section 3 Cell Organelles.
Daily Question 4/27/2015 Thinking back to Friday, what would you have done differently in order to build a taller structure? Please think more about group.
Bio 178 Lecture 8 Cell Structure Copyright: J. Elson-Riggins.
Eukaryotic Cell Structure Section 7-3 p
Chapter 5.3 & 5.5 The Cell’s Energy System(s): Mitochondria & Chloroplasts.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS VOCAB REVIEW
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