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The Organelles: Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Text and image sources are included using the notes function of the.ppt file.

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Presentation on theme: "The Organelles: Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Text and image sources are included using the notes function of the.ppt file."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Organelles: Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Text and image sources are included using the notes function of the.ppt file

2 Endosymbiotic origins Unique unions reshaped the tree of life

3 Architectural Clues Cyanobacterium Chloroplast

4 A taste for the good life? Paramecium bursaria Mayorella viridis Prorodon viridis The promiscous green alga, Chlorella

5 Cyanophora paradoxa Trying commitment...

6 Reduced genomes remain Chloroplast genomes Kb encode about 80 proteins Mitochondrial genomes 16-17Kb encode about 20 proteins Chloroplast genomic reduction is still occurring in higher plants

7 Relationships aren’t easy!

8 Protein Import

9 Mitochondrial Features Mitochondria are typically 0.5-5um in diameter

10 A new slant on EM imaging

11 Biochemistry

12 Molecular Architecture

13 Mitochondrial dynamics and biochemical diversity JC-1 stain Time-lapse 5 sec/frame; several minutes total Video

14 Going with the flow Example from a hypha of the fungus Phycomyces Video

15 Mitochondria revealed!

16 Rapid fission and fusion In a Xenopus tissue culture cell In yeast Video

17 Dynamin in mitochondrial division Yeast (wt) COS cells Dynamin- related protein::GFP Dynamin inhibition (B,D) results in the formation of reticulate networks Yeast COS cells

18 Organelles and their genomes are inherited maternally And so are mutations encoded in the mitochondrial genome

19 Apoptosis Cytochrome C::GFP is lost from mitochondria to the cytosol Video

20 Plant cell Chloroplasts are typically 1-10um in diameter

21 Chloroplast ultrastructure Double envelope Thylakoids and stacked grana Stroma Mitochondria Nucleus Starch grain

22 Grana Freeze fracture of granal face Freeze etch of granal section Photosystem II particles stack grana

23 Stromal tubule activity Video

24 FtsZ in chloroplast division wt ftz

25 Local chloroplast orientation to light in the green alga Mougeotia depends upon microfilaments and calcium Chloroplast movement Actin microfilament / myosin driven cytoplasmic streaming circulates plastids in many plant cells Video

26 Other types of plastids


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