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MITOCHONDRIA AND CHLOROPLASTS Structure and function - a review.

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Presentation on theme: "MITOCHONDRIA AND CHLOROPLASTS Structure and function - a review."— Presentation transcript:

1 MITOCHONDRIA AND CHLOROPLASTS Structure and function - a review

2 The Exam Question “Contrast and compare mitochondria and chloroplasts – structure and function. “ Do you know what it means? What is the function of a mitochondrion? What is the function of a chloroplast? How are they similar? How are they different?

3 Energy Conversion Mitochondria convert the chemical energy of reduced carbon compounds into ATP. Chloroplasts convert light energy to the energy of reduced carbon compounds Fundamental to both processes is an electron transport chain, where energy is passed from compound to compound in coupled oxidation:reduction reactions

4 Mitochondria 2 membranes Outer Membrane - has large aqueous channels made of a protein called porin - permeable to most small molecules Inner Membrane - impermeable to ions and small molecules except by specific membrane-transport proteins

5 Mitochondria 2 compartments MATRIX - enzymes - TCA cycle, DNA - several copies, ribosomes, tRNA, etc INTERMEMBRANE SPACE Inner Membrane is folded into cristae,that greatly increase its surface area. This is where you find the Electron Transport Chain (ETC), ATP synthase, transport proteins to allow substances in to matrix Fig 1-11

6 Mitochondrial Structure How many compartments do mitochondria have? Which letter corresponds to: the matrix? a crista? the intermembrane space? the outer membrane? the inner membrane? Where would you find the DNA? the ribosomes? C E B A D

7 The ETC is found on the inner membrane High energy electrons are passed along the ETC generating a proton gradient across the inner membrane H + gradient drives ATP synthesis ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN:

8 Mitochondria have 2 membranes Chloroplasts have 3 membranes There are 3 compartments …what are they?

9 Chloroplast Thylakoid membrane – proteins of ETC, ATP synthase Inner membrane – membrane transport protein for Rubisco Outer membrane - porin Stroma – enzymes for Calvin Cycle, chloroplast DNA.

10 Chloroplasts

11 Plant Cell Fig 13-26

12 Chloroplasts vs Mitochondria

13 These are mitochondria

14 So are these

15 Chloroplasts have different forms too Thylakoids Mitochondria

16 But their structure and function remain linked Think of 3 similarities between mitochondria and chloroplasts. Think of 3 ways they are different

17 NEXT TUTORIAL: Vesicle Trafficking Models of Golgi function Receptor-mediated endocytosis ESSAYS DUE TUESDAY: (password = Bi200s)

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