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Tooth and Mouth Anatomy Meghan, Adam, Andrew and Kim.

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Presentation on theme: "Tooth and Mouth Anatomy Meghan, Adam, Andrew and Kim."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tooth and Mouth Anatomy Meghan, Adam, Andrew and Kim

2 Fun Video

3 Learning Objectives Classify different types of teeth with their structure and function Develop larger understanding of mouth structure and how teeth fit in Define common diseases and injuries related to the mouth Summarize common methods of treatment and prevention of disease and injury

4 Dontium= “Teeth” Periodontium= “around the dontium” Temporomandibular Joint=TMJ Fossa= ditch or trench in a bony member VS. Process=a protrusion of boney member Syn= “with” or “together” Gomphis= “bolt” or “nail” Arthro = “joint” Condyle= “knuckle” Ginglymus= “hinge” Sulcus=“groove”

5

6 Spine // to Traverse Plane Dental Arches

7 Mouth Members & Interactions Overview: [The TMJ] Boney Members  Skull  Jaw  Maxilla  Mandible Connective Tissue  Capsule  Ligaments  Stylomandibular ligament  Capsular Ligament  Sphenomandibular Ligament  Temporomandibular Ligament Muscle Tissue  Masseter  Pterygoid  Temporalis [The Gomphyses] Teeth  Incisors  Canine  Premolars  Molars  Wisdom Teeth Periodontium Connective Tissue  Periodontal Ligaments Soft Tissue  Gingival  Epithelial  Hemidesmosomes

8 Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Function Class (describes movement)  Ginglymoarthrodial  Ginglymus Hinge  Arthrodial plane  Structural Class (describes binding tissues)  Synovial

9 Bony Members

10 Muscle Tissue Temporalis Masseter Lateral Pterygoid Medial Pterygoid

11 Connective Tissue Stylomandibular ligament Capsular Ligament Sphenomandibular ligament Temporomandibular ligament Articular Fossa Articular cartilage Synovial Fluid Articular disk Synovial Fluid Articular Cartilage Mandibular Condyle

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13 Gomphyses Gomphosis “nail/bolt”  Functional Class Synarthrosis Peg and socket between: Tooth Alveolus  Structural Class  Fibrous

14 Teeth

15 Structure of Teeth Crown Enamel Dentine/Ivory Root Dental Pulp Cementum

16 Types of Teeth Incisors

17 Types of Teeth Canines

18 Types of Teeth Premolars

19 Types of Teeth Molars

20 Types of Teeth Wisdom Teeth (3 rd Molar)

21 Types of Teeth Children have 20 total teeth  Primary or Milk teeth Adults have 32 total teeth  Permanent or Adult teeth

22 Adolescent Mouth

23 Adult Mouth

24 Tooth Connection to Jaw Alveolar bone Root

25 Periosteum

26 Connective Tissue

27 Soft Tissue Gingiva (gums) :The mucosal tissue that overlays the jaws  Marginal  Tissue that apically borders crown of tooth  Attached  Extension of the Marginal Gingiva apical to crown  Interdental  Tissue Between Tooth-Tooth boundaries along the dental arch

28 Oral Epithelium Sulcular epithelium  touches but is not attached to tooth  non-keratinized stratified squamous tissue Junctional epithelium  forms an attachment to the tooth basal lamina Extracellular matrix secreted by epithelial cells Layer on which epithelium sits proteoglycans

29 Teeth Pathologies and Treatment

30 Dentistry Dentist Many specialties  Orthodontics  Endodontics  Periodontics

31 Diagnosis Ask health questions Clinical exam Impressions of teeth Photos of face and teeth X-rays of mouth and head Decide what treatment is right

32 Teeth Pathologies and Treatment Less Severe Alignment Issues (malocclusion) Tooth Sensitivity Bruxism (clenching and grinding)

33 Malocclusion of teeth Causes: Genetics Pacifier, thumb sucking Bad chewing habits Misalignment of jaw after fracture Failure of previous dental work Treatments: Functional appliances Surgery

34 Functional Appliances Fixed  Braces  Space maintainers Removable  Retainers  Splint  Palatal expander  Headgear  Lip and cheek bumper

35 Child vs. Adult Treatment Benefits to treating child  Teeth are not permanent  Growth spurts Adult  Little/no jaw growth  Gum disease  Surgery more likely  Options  Lingual braces  Invisalign

36 Disadvantages Incorrect fitting Unpleasant to wear Removable  Need cooperation of patient

37 Tooth Sensitivity Causes: Enamel wear Dentin exposure Tooth/Gum disease Chipped or fractured tooth Treatments: Desensitizing toothpaste Sealant to cover exposed roots Root Canal

38 Bruxism Causes: Stress and Anxiety Abnormal bite Treatments: Relax, massage and stretch jaw muscles Ice Avoid hard foods Splints and mouth guards Surgery

39 Teeth Pathologies and Treatment More Severe Fracture Decay Infection Misalignment of Jaw Oral caner

40 Fracture o Minor-chipping of the outer layers o Crack through tooth to center o Severe vertical, diagnol, horizontal fractures of roots

41 Causes Impact/trauma Tooth decay Tooth infection Failure of previous dental work

42 Treatment o Minor (outer layer) o crown o Center of tooth o Dental pulp infected o Root canal o Crown o Split root o Tooth extraction

43 Tooth Decay Causes: Acid and plaque build up Symptoms: Tooth pain Visible pits or holes in teeth Results in: Cavities Tooth abscess Infection

44 Treatment o Mild o Fluoride o Filling if cavity has formed o Severe o Crown o Root canal o Extraction

45 Tooth and Gum Infection Infection of gums: Ex. Gingivitis, Periodontitis Causes: Accumulation of bacteria or plaque Tooth decay Symptoms: Bad breath Red, swollen gums Painful chewing

46 Treatment o Mild o Antibiotics -- medicine, gel o Cut open abscess -- drain o Severe o Root canal o Tooth extraction o Surgery o Bone and tissue grafts o Growth factors

47 Bone and Tissue Grafts Grafting Gum  Soft tissue  Connective tissue  Tunnel grafting Bone  Autogenous  Allograft  Xenograft

48 Jaw Problems o Mandibular fracture o Dislocation o Cause: Typically impact

49 Symptoms Mandibular  Bleeding and bruising  Limited movement  Swelling  Stiffness  Abnormal appearance Dislocation  Crocked bite  Drooling  Pain  Difficulty speaking

50 Treatment o Mandibular o Minor o Medication o Liquid diet o Severe o Surgery o Dislocation o Place back o Anesthetics and muscle relaxants o Surgery

51 Temporomandibular Joint Disorder (TMJ) Causes: Disk erodes or moves out of proper alignment impact Cartilage damage due to arthritis Symptoms: Locking of jaw Difficulty chewing Pain of jaw or around ear

52 Treatment Noninvasive: Acupuncture Jaw exercises Medication Surgery: Arthrocentesis or joint irregation Arthroplasty Total Joint Replacement

53 Dental Implants Endosseous Implant Transosteal Implant Subperiosteal Implant

54 Implant Process Immediate Load Implants Implants Loaded in Phases feature=endscreen feature=endscreen

55 Oral Cancer Most common in: Lips or tongues Also found in cheek lining, gums, and floor or roof of mouth Risk Factors: Smoking and other tobacco use Poor dental hygiene Chronic irritation Family history Sun exposure

56 Symptoms o Sore, lump, ulcer o Difficulty chewing and swallowing o Swollen lymph nodes in neck

57 Treatment Depends on stage Surgery Radiation therapy Chemotherapy


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