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Growth and Development of Children. Islamic University Nursing College.

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Presentation on theme: "Growth and Development of Children. Islamic University Nursing College."— Presentation transcript:

1 Growth and Development of Children

2 Islamic University Nursing College

3 Growth: Growth refers to an increase in physical size of the whole body or any of its parts. It is simply a quantitative change in the child ’ s body. It can be measured in Kg, pounds, meters, inches, ….. etc

4 Child Growth (Image: WHO)

5 Changes in bodily proportions with age.

6 Development Development refers to a progressive increase in skill and capacity of function. It is a qualitative change in the child ’ s functioning. It can be measured through observation. Development is a continuous process and ordered.

7 By understanding what to expect during each stage of development, parents can easily capture the teachable moments in everyday life to enhance their child's language development, intellectual growth, social development and motor skills.

8 Maturation Increase in child ’ s competence and adaptability. It is describing the qualitative change in a structure. The level of maturation depends on child ’ s heredity.

9 Importance of Growth and Development for Nurses: Knowing what to expect of a particular child at any given age. Gaining better understanding of the reasons behind illnesses. Helping in formulating the plan of care. Helping in parents ’ education in order to achieve optimal growth & development at each stage.

10 Principles of Growth & Development Continuous process Predictable Sequence Don ’ t progress at the same rate (↑ periods of GR in early childhood and adolescents & ↓ periods of GR in middle childhood) Not all body parts grow in the same rate at the same time. Each child grows in his/her own unique way. Each stage of G&D is affected by the preceding types of development.

11 Growth Pattern

12 Growth Patterns The child ’ s pattern of growth is in a head-to-toe direction, or cephalocaudal, and in an inward to outward pattern called proximodistal.

13 Factors affecting growth and development: Hereditary Environmental factors Pre-natal environment 1- Factors related to mothers during pregnancy : - Nutritional deficiencies - Diabetic mother - Exposure to radiation - Infection with German measles - Smoking - Use of drugs

14 2- Factors related to fetus Mal-position in uterus. Faulty placental implantation. Post-Natal Environment I - External environment : - Socio-economic status of the family - Child ’ s nutrition - Climate and season - Child ’ s ordinal position in the family - Number of siblings in the family - Family structure (single parent or extended family … )

15 Internal environment Child ’ s intelligence Hormonal influences Emotions

16 Types of growth and development Types of growth:  - Physical growth (Ht, Wt, head & chest circumference)  - Physiological growth (vital signs … ) Types of development:  - Motor development  - Cognitive development  - Emotional development  - Social development

17 Stages of Growth and Development Prenatal o Embryonic (conception- 8 w) o Fetal stage (8-40 or 42 w) Infancy  Neonate  Birth to end of 1 month  Infancy  1 month to end of 1 year Early Childhood  Toddler  1-3 years  Preschool 3-6 years Middle Childhood School age from 6 to 12 years Late Childhood From 11 to 19 years.  Prepupertal period: from 11 to 13 years  Adolescent: from 13 years to approximately 18 years


19 1- Newborn stage Newborn stage is the first 4 weeks or first month of life. It is a transitional period from intrauterine life to extra uterine environment.

20 Normal Newborn Infant Physical growth: - Weight = – 4 kg - Wt loss 5% -10% by 3-4 days after birth - Wt regain by 10 th days of life - Gain ¾ kg by the end of the 1 st month - Birth wt double by 4-7 months, and triple by the end of the first year of age

21 Weight: They loose 5 % to 10 % of weight by 3-4 days after birth as result of :  Withdrawal of hormones from mother.  Loss of excessive extra cellular fluid.  Passage of meconium (feces) and urine.  Limited food intake.

22 Weight: They loose 5 % to 10 % of weight by 3-4 days after birth as result of :  Withdrawal of hormones from mother.  Loss of excessive extra cellular fluid.  Passage of meconium (feces) and urine.  Limited food intake.

23 Height Height: the crown-heel measurement in standing position. Length: the crown-heel measurement in recumbent position. Boys average Ht = 50 cm Girls average Ht = 49 cm Normal range for both ( cm) Head circumference cm Head is ¼ total body length Skull has 2 fontanels (anterior & posterior)

24 Anterior fontanel Diamond in shape The junction of the sagittal, corneal and frontal sutures forms it Between 2 frontal & 2 parietal bones 3-4 cm in length and 2-3 cm width It closes at months of age


26 Posterior fontanel Triangular Located between occipital & 2 parietal bones Closes by the end of the 1 st month of age

27 Chest circumference  Nearly identical in the first 4 years. It is 31.5 to 35cm (usually 1 – 1.5 cm less than head circumference).

28 Physiological growth Vital signs - Temperature (36.3 to37.2  C ). - Pulse ( 120 to 160 b/min ). - Respiration ( 35 to 50C/min).



31 APGAR scoring chart


33 Neonatal Reflexes (Primitive Reflexes) 1- Moro Reflex: Response to sudden loud noise, causing body to stiffen & arm to go up & out then forward & toward each other thumb & index finger assume C-shape. Present at birth & disappears at 3-6 months. Absent in brain damage, depressed due to narcotic at birth. Asymmetrical reflex in fracture of clavicle or humerus brachial plexus palsy and shoulder dislocation. Persistent reflex cerebral palsy.

34 Primitive Reflexes ~ Moro Reflex Palm of hand lifts back of head Hand is removed suddenly so that head begins to fall – Head is supported Moro reflex precedes the startle reflex and causes the arms and legs to extend immediately rather than flex Disappears at 4-6 months

35 2. Postural Reflexes Stepping - Elicited by holding infant upright and inclined forward with the sole of the foot touching flat surface, infant starts to stepping movements. - Appears at birth and disappears by 6 months of age Stepping reflex is a forerunner to walking

36 3- Neck righting reflex Consists of rotation of the trunk in the direction in which the head of the supine infant is turned. Appears at 4-6 months, disappears at 24 months. Absent or decreased in CP infants.

37 4-Parachuting Reflexes While infant is held prone & lowered quickly, he will extend arm & leg. Appear at 9 m and persist thereafter. This reflex is a conscious attempt to break a potential fall.

38 5- Sucking reflex Present at birth. – If you touch the roof of your baby’s mouth with your finger, a pacifier or a nipple, he will instinctively begin sucking. Around 2 to 3 months of age, your baby’s sucking will be a result of conscious effort and no longer a reflex.

39 6-Rooting reflex When corner of mouth is touched & object is moved towards cheek, infant will turn head towards objects & open mouth. Appear at birth, disappear at 4 month of age Stimulus ~ touching the cheek

40 7- Grasp reflex The palmar grasp reflex is one of the most noticeable reflexes to appear. Appears in utero continue through the 4 th month postpartum Negative palmer grasp: neurological problems; spasticity Leads to voluntary reaching and grasping Palmar grasp appears at birth, disappears 6m. Planter grasp appears at birth, disappears 10m. The toes appear to be grasping

41 8- Babinski Reflex Scratching sole of foot causing big toe to flex & toes to fan. يهوي

42 9-Doll's reflex Turn head slowly to one side, the eye don’t move with head, appear at birth & persist for two weeks. 10- Hand Opening reflex: The hands will open by stroking the dorsum of infant's, appear at birth & persist two months. 11- Landau's reflex: When baby is suspended horizontally with head depressed against trunk & neck flexed, legs will flex & be down to abdomen. Appear at 3m, disappears at 24 m.


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