3“Separate but Equal” Emancipation Proclamation (1863): President Abraham LincolnDeclared the freedom of black slaves in Confederate statesAmerican Civil War (1861 – 1865)Jim Crow Laws (1880s – 1960s):Names after black-face character from minstrel show in 1930s-40sLaws that enforced racial segregation.Laws varied from state to state or even city to city
4Intermarriage: The marriage of a person of Caucasian blood with a Negro, Mongolian, Malay, or Hindu shall be null and void. ArizonaThe schools for white children and the schools for negro children shall be conducted separately. FloridaBooks shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools, but shall continue to be used by the race first using them. North CarolinaIt shall be unlawful for any amateur white baseball team to play baseball on any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of a playground devoted to the Negro race, and it shall be unlawful for any amateur colored baseball team to play on any vacant low or baseball diamond within two block of any playground devoted to the white race. Georgia“Separate but Equal”Jim Crow Laws (1880s – 1960s)All circuses, shows, and tent exhibitions, to which the attendance of…more than one race is invited or expected to attend shall provide for the convenience of its patrons not less than two ticket offices with individual ticket sellers, and not less than two entrances to the said performance, with individual ticket takers and receivers, and in the case of outside or tent performances, the said ticket offices shall not be less than twenty-five feet apart. LouisianaNo colored barber shall serve as a barber [to] white women or girls. GeorgiaThe officer in charge shall not bury, or allowed, to be buried, any colored persons upon ground set apart or used for the burial of white persons. Georgia
5“Separate But Equal” Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Homer Plessy jailed in 1892 for sitting in the “white” section of the East Louisiana Railroad.Argued that the Separate Car Act violated the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments to the ConstitutionSupreme Court upheld the guilty verdict against PlessySet the precedent for “separate” facilities for blacks and whites as constitutionally valid as long as they were “equal”
6“Separate But Equal” Constitutional PAUSE!!! 13th Amendment: Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.14th Amendment: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws13th Amendment: December 6th, 186514th Amendment: July 9th, 1868
7“Separate But Equal” Brown v. Board of Education Topeka, Kansas Topeka, Kansas: Black 3rd grader named Linda Brown had to walk one mile through a railroad switchyard to get to her all-black elementary school, even though a white elementary school was only seven blocks away. Her father tried to enroll her in the white elementary school, but the principal of the school refused. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) offered assistance.NAACP defense argued that segregated schools sent the message to black children that they were inferior to whites; therefore, the schools were inherently unequal.District court ruled in favor of the Board of Education; Appealed to U.S. Supreme CourtMay 17, 1954, Chief Justice Earl Warren read the decision. Held that “Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.” and a violation of the 14th Amendment
8Montgomery Bus Boycott “Separate but Equal”Montgomery Bus BoycottDecember 1, 1955: Rosa Parks arrested for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white man.A city wide boycott was planned and organized, in part by Dr. King, for the following Monday.Pressure to end the boycott was intense – from politicians, white business owners, and government efforts.The U.S. Supreme Court declared the segregation unconstitutional under the 14th Amendment.The boycott lasted until December 21, 1956.1949: Black College Professor Jo Ann Robinson had accidently sat in the white section of the bus and was admonished for doing so. She ran off the bus in tears and wanted to take legal action, but the NAACP wanted to wait for a case that they felt confident they could win.Rosa Parks boarded a city bus and sat with three other blacks in the fifth row, the first row that blacks could occupy. A few stops later, the front four rows were filled with whites, and one white man was left standing. According to law, blacks and whites could not occupy the same row, so the bus driver asked all four of the blacks seated in the fifth row to move. Three complied, but Parks refused.Violence during the boycott included bombings of the homes of Dr. King and Ed Nixon (of the NAACP). Dr. King and others were also arrested citing violations of laws against boycotts.Following the boycotts there was more violence toward the black community – snipers targeted buses, some argued for an all-white bus line. The bombers – despite written confessions – were found not-guilty. Dr. King still had to pay his fine for his boycott arrest.Rosa Parks
9“Separate but Equal”Little Rock Nine (1957)Little Rock Nine (1957)
10“Separate But Equal” Ruby Bridges (1960) “The Problem We All Live With” Normal Rockwell
11“Separate but Equal” James Meredith & Ole Miss (1962) President John F. Kennedy in talks with Governor Barnett to allow James Meredith to attend “Ole Miss” (University of Mississippi). Riots erupted after the President declared he would be allowed to enroll and attend school – two people were killed. Meredith did ultimately enroll and graduate with a B.A. in Political Science.
12“Separate But Equal” University of Alabama (1963) Vivian Mallory Jones and James Hood were prevented from enrolling at the University of Alabama. Governor George Wallace stood in the doorway to physically block them from entering. President Kennedy ordered the National Guard to stand by to force, if necessary, Wallace to stand aside. He eventually did and the students were allowed to register and attend classes.
14Increasing Hostility Murder of Emmitt Till (1955): 14-year-old boy from Chicago visited relatives in MississippiFollowed a dared by peers to address a white woman in a storeTwo men, both related to the woman in the store, came to the cabin where Emmitt was staying and took him away in their truckEmmitt’s body was found three days later in the river. His head was shot and crushed in. His body was nearly unrecognizable.The defendants were found not-guilty.
15Increasing Hostility1955: Reverend George Lee, Vice President of the Regional Council of Negro Leadership and NAACP worker, was shot in the face and killed for urging blacks in the Mississippi Delta to vote. No one was charged and Governor Hugh White refused to investigate.1961: Herbert Lee was shot and killed in Liberty, Mississippi, by E.H. Hurst, a member of the Mississippi State Legislature. Hurst targeted Lee for his involvement with a voter registration campaign. Despite multiple eyewitnesses, Hurst was never charged.1963: NAACP State Director Medgar Evers was gunned down in his Jackson driveway by White Citizens Council member Byron De La Beckwith from Greenwood, Mississippi.Ku Klux Klan: Surge of Klan activity in the 1960s included bombings, beatings, and shootings targeted at white and black activists.White Citizens Counsel was a white supremacist organization; Byron was also involved with the KKKByron’s first two trials resulted in hung juries. In his second trial, Governor Barnett interrupted the proceedings to shake Byron’s hand while Medgar’s widow, Myrlie, was testifying.Convicted of conspiracy to attempt murder of AI Botnick (a leader of the N’nai B’rith ADL) in the late 1970s.Byron was eventually found guilty in a third trial in 1994.
16Increasing Hostility1966: James Meredith is shot by a sniper after beginning a lone civil rights march from Memphis to Jackson.He called his journey the “March Against Fear”. The march was intended to encourage voter registration by African Americans in the South.Martin Luther King, Jr., and Stokely Carmichael, leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, arrived to continue the march on Meredith’s behalf.The shooter, Aubrey Norvell, confessed and was found guilty. He only served 18 months of his five year sentence.
17Increasing hostility Freedom Summer (1964): Civil rights activists James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner left their base in Meridian, Mississippi, to invetigate a church burning at the Mount Zion Church.The men were stopped by a County Deputy Sheriff, Cecil Price, released after several hours, and then detained again.Price turned the men over to his fellow Klansmen who beat and shot the men to death.Seven Klansmen, including Sheriff Price, were charged. They were all found not guilty.KKK burned the church because the minister had allowed it to be used as a meeting place for civil rights activists.Years later the men were retried under the charge of violating the civil rights of Goodman, Schwerner, and Chaney. They were found guilty and served sentences ranging from two to ten years.
18Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Increasing Hostility“…any black man who teaches black people to turn the other cheek and suffer peacefully after they’ve been turning the cheek and suffering peacefully for 400 years…he is doing those people an injustice and he’s a traitor to his own people.”Malcolm X“Nonviolence is the answer to the crucial political and moral questions of our time…”Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.MLK,Jr. (Dec. 11, 1964); Assassination: April 4, 1968Malcolm X (1961 Interview); Assassination: February 21, 1965
20An Organized responseNAACP: National Association for the Advancement of Colored PeopleFounded in 1909 by W.E.B. Du Bois and several white northerners that sought to achieve legal victories for African Americans, especially the reversal of “separate but equal”.SCLC: Southern Christian Leadership ConferenceCoalition founded in 1957 by Martin Luther King, Jr. and nearly one hundred other southern ministers to rally church support for the growing civil rights movement. Sought integration through “love and nonviolence”.SNCC: Student Nonviolent Coordinating CommitteeFounded in 1960 after the Greensboro sit-in. Goal was to organize students on campuses across the country. Participated in nearly every major peaceful campaign of the civil rights movement.CORE: Congress of Racial EqualityFounded in 1942 to campaign against segregation in the North using sit-ins and other nonviolent forms of protest. Worked closely with SNCC, the SCLC, and the NAACP.SNCC: Disillusioned member Stokley Carmichael founded the idea of “black power”.
21An Organized Response NUL: National Urban League BLACK PANTHERS: Nonpartisan civil rights organization founded in 1910 that advocates on behalf of African Americans and against racial discrimination.BLACK PANTHERS:Organization of militant black civil rights activists inspired by Stokley Carmichael’s “black power” philosophies. Founded in California in Advocated the use of violence to incite a racial revolution in the United States. Helped poor residents in black communities by running clinics and schools.NATION OF ISLAM:Group founded in 1930 to promote black nationalism in Detroit’s black community during the Great Depression. Malcolm X emerged as the organization’s chief spokesman in the early 1950s.Black Panthers: Disbanded in late 1960s after government crackdown.
22An Organized Response SIT-INS February 1, 1960: Four African American college students walked into a Woolworth’s in Greensboro, North Carolina, and were refused service. They sat down and refused to move.Day 2: more than twenty African American students came to the store to join the sit-in.Day 3: Sixty people joined.Day 4: More than 300On July 25, 1960 black employees of the Greensboro’s Woolworth’s store were the first to be served at the store’s lunch counter.The next day the entire Woolworth’s chain was desegregated.-Policy was to serve “whites only” at the lunch counter. Manager asked them to leave, but they sat until the store closed.
23An organized response MARCHES 200,000 people from all across the U.S. met in Washington, D.C., in 1963 to promote action on civil rights issues.The “March on Washington” was supported by the NUL, NAACP, CORE, SCLC, and SNCCA peaceful march that culminated in the delivery of “I Have a Dream” by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
24An organized response STRIKES FEBRUARY 1, 1968: Two black sanitation workers were crushed to death when the compactor mechanism of the trash truck was accidentally triggered.On the same day, 22 black workers were sent home for the day while their white counterparts were kept on with pay.February 12, 1968: 1,100 of a possible 1,300 black sanitation workers began a strike for job safety, better wages and benefits, and union recognition.
26Landmark VictoriesCivil Rights Act of 1957: Nominally outlawed racial segregation and created a civil rights division within the Justice Department. More symbolic than legally significant.Civil Rights Act of 1964: Outlawed discrimination in public places and the workplace on the basis of race, religion, nationality, or gender. Also created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to ensure that people would abide by the law.Voting Rights Act of 1965: Outlawed literacy tests as a voting prerequisite and sent federal election officials into the South to help blacks register to vote. Some historians claim that its passing marked the true end of Reconstruction.Interracial Marriage: June 12, 1967, the U.S. Supreme Court voted unanimously to overturn the conviction of Richard and Mildred Loving, a young interracial couple from rural Caroline County, VA.1967 Supreme Court decision struck down the anti-miscegenation laws – written to prevent the mixing of the races that were on the books at the time in more than a dozen states, including Virginia.