ACTION PLAN LESSON: “CELLS AND TISSUES’ Prepared by: Saba Naz Khurshid DA, MHS, BEACH VIEW
LESSON:CELLS AND TISSUES (BIOLOGY) CLASS: VII BOOK:NEW SECONDARY SCIENCE (BOOK 2) DURATION:8 PERIODS PRESENTER:SABA NAZ KHURSHID (DA MODEL HIGH SCHOOL BEACHVIEW ) SUBJECT SPECIALIST:IMRANA SHEHNAZ (DA O AND A PUBLIC SCHOOL) JULY 25 th – 28 th, 2011 ANNUAL TEACHERS REFRESHER TRAINING JULY, 2011
LEARNING OBJECTIVES LEARNING OBJECTIVES UNDER LIGHT OF BLOOM’S TAXONOMY: REMEMBERING: Brain storming session will be conducted in class room prior to the deliverance of the lecture to assess the student’s previous knowledge and perception of the topic. UNDERSTANDING: Lesson explanation and concepts will be taught and discussed, e.g. (microscope, cell shape and parts, tissues, organs etc) APPLYING: Students will be explained about the working of a microscope and will be taught how to make slides, showing plant and animal cells. Chart, video clippings/demonstrations of slides to be examined, will provide a practical opportunity to the students in acquiring conceptual knowledge. ANALYZING: Worksheets, class room quiz, discussions, collaborative learning activities and assignments will facilitate to serve the purpose. EVALUATION: Students will be examined by their logical reasoning by checking their answers, worksheets, class/monthly tests/orals and practical. CREATING: Students will be asked to explore and implement their ideas. They will be asked to plan and organize research work to sharpen and develop their initiative and creativity skills. They will be asked to make a model of a plant or animal cell with the help of browsing on the internet. Students will be given an incentive in the form of a certificate of appreciation.
LONG TERM GOALS Rising demand and challenges of today’s science learning needs constant effort to structure a young mind to acquire conceptual knowledge and use research tools with related Quranic references which would enhance the student’s ability to think out of the box to meet the educational challenges of the 21 st Century.
SHORT TERM GOALS Develop insight and perception - leading to analyze the difference between animal and plant cells, identify the different parts of a microscope through collaborative learning activities. Cognitive development will be evaluated through assessment. Students will explore and implement their ideas by making a model of animal and plant cell to develop their creativity skills.
INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES AND TASKS New student centered approach will be introduced. Feed back will be taken about the lesson. Access to computers will be provided in school. An interclass competition of “making cell model” will be held to promote creativity skills. Certificates will be awarded to all participants. Students should have unlimited access to related information through different modes. Students will be instructed and encouraged to engage themselves in collaborative discussions. Opportunities will be provided to students to use internet for related lesson information. Students will be advised to surf the internet for their project and visit www.youtube.com and www.yahoo.com/video for assistance.www.youtube.comwww.yahoo.com/video
SOLUTIONS TO ANTICIPATED CHALLENGES CHALLENGES Possible time limitation due to unforeseen closure of school. Students and parents may consider extra classes as a waste of time. Prolonged power failures. Availability and setting up of laboratory/ Resource Centers SOLUTIONS Arranging extra classes. Emphasize the need and importance of these classes to motivate them. Generators for back-up to maintain comfort in class rooms. Planning for a laboratory/Resource Center.
TEACHING AIDS AND RESOURCE MATERIAL Text Book Laboratory Internet Charts Visual Aids Library
TIME LINE LESSON: CELLS AND TISSUES. Discovery of cell and its description: [Communication skills- collaborative thinking] Assessment-- Questioning and Discussions. [Accountability- Adaptability- Analytical Thinking- Conceptual Learning] Projects aided with internet browsing, practical demonstration. [Creativity] 2 PERIODS Explanation about the working of a microscope and its parts. Students will be taught how to make slides. [Motivation- Intellectual Curiosity].
MICROSCOPE Students will be told that a microscope is an instrument which is used in school laboratories for studying microscopic objects on the slides. In a compound microscope more than one convex lens are used which magnify the objects many times.
DISCOVERY OF CELL Robert Hooke Hooke’s drawing of his microscope Hooke viewed a thin cutting of leaf and discovered empty spaces contained by walls which he termed cells. Robert Hooke was an English Physicist, Mathematician and inventor born on July 18, 1635. In 1665 Robert Hooke made an observation, while examining a sliver of Cork tree with a crude light microscope made by himself to observe a cork and noticed some ‘pores or cells’. He named them cells, meaning ‘small rooms’. He did not see any living material in these pores which were dead plant cell. These pores appeared like empty compartments with common walls. Within decades research proved that cells contains living matter. Robert Hooke earned credit for discovering the building blocks of life.
THE CELL AS A UNIT OF ALL LIVING THINGS Trees in a forest, fish in a river, horse flies on a farm,, lemurs in the jungle, reeds in a pond, worms in the soil – all these plants and animals are made up of the building blocks which we call cells. Cells are the structural and fundamental unit of all living organisms. Each cell is an amazing world unto itself. It can take in nutrients, convert these nutrients into energy, and carry out specialized functions and reproduction as well. All living things including plants and animals are made up of cells. They are actually about 50 – 75 trillion cells in the human body. The cell is the smallest unit in any living thing. The simplest living things consist of only one cell and are usually too small to be seen with a naked eye.
THE PARTS OF A CELL A typical cell consists of two main parts, the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm and the nucleus form the protoplasm which is the living material in a cell.
QURANIC REFERANCE Two verses from the Holy Quran will be quoted, signifying the presence of protoplasm in Holy Quran centuries ago. It says about the origin of life that “We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe? (Sura Anbiyah 21, Ayah 30) “And Allah has created every animal from water. Of them there are some that creep on their bellies. Some that walk on two legs and some that walks on four. Allah creates power over all things.” (Sura Nur 24, Ayah 45)
THE MAIN PARTS OF AN ANIMAL CELL CELL MEMBRANE CYTOPLASM NUCLEUS CHROMOSOME VACUOLE
EXPERIMENT: EXAMINING SOME CHEEK LINING CELLS. Things required: Dilute Iodine/Eosin solution Glass slide Cover slips Scrap of the cheek lining Cotton bud METHOD: Put a drop of dilute Iodine /Eosin solution in the middle of a clean glass slide. Scrap gently the inside of your cheek with a clean cotton bud. Transfer some of the scrapings from the cotton bud to the drop of eosin on the slide. Place a cover slip over the drop of eosin. Look at the slide under the microscope. OBSERVATION: Typical cells showing nucleus and cytoplasm will be seen under a microscope.
THE DISTINCTIVE PARTS OF A PLANT CELL CELL WALL VACUOLE CHLOROPLAST
EXPERIMENT Experiment 1: (Examining some onion cells) Things required: Microscope Onion Glass Slides Cover slips Iodine solution Water/Dropper Method: Gently peel off thin, transparent skin from the inside of an onion. Place a small piece of the onion skin on a glass slide. Add a drop of Iodine solution to the onion skin on the slide. Place a cover slip over the onion skin. Look at the slide under the power microscope. Observation: You will see the onion cells clearly.
SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ANIMAL AND PLANT CELL
SHAPES OF CELLS THE CELLS OF DIFFERENT ANIMALS AND PLANTS ARE DIFFERENT IN SHAPE AND SIZE Some cells are designed ….. to carry messages ….. to carry oxygen around the body …….to store fat NERVE CELLS RED BLOOD CELLS FAT CELLS ONION CELLS HUMAN CHEEK CELLS
ONE – CELLED OR UNICELLULAR ORGANISM Unicellular organisms can only be visible under a microscope. Euglena is amongst such unicellular organisms which have both animal and plant characteristics. Other few examples of such organisms are bacteria, fungi and algae which are unicellular plants. Protozoa are unicellular organisms. The amoeba is a protozoa and is classified as the simplest of protozoa.
FROM CELLS TO TISSUES A tissue is a group of cells having the same structure and function, example connective, muscular, vascular(blood) etc. In multicellular plants some common tissues are epidermis, cork and vascular tissues.
FROM TISSUES TO ORGANS An organ is a group of tissues involved in some common function. Examples of organs are the brain, heart, lungs, stomach etc. In plants the root, leaf, pistil, fruit etc. are examples of plant organs.
FROM ORGANS TO SYSTEMS In a very complex multi-cellular organisms, such as a man, several organs are linked together to form a body system which performs a particular system example muscular, respiratory, nervous etc. In plants the transport system involves the whole plant, its roots, stem and leaves. The function of the transport system is to transport water, mineral salts and food to various parts of the plant.
APPLICATION: ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING OUTCOME: The ability of the students will be assessed by listening to their discussions and checking the answers of the questions. Some class assignments and monthly tests would be of great help to serve the purpose. LESSON NOTE: Students will write answers of the following questions after the explanation of the lesson and reading the book thoroughly. They will be encouraged to write answers in their own words in order for them to express their understanding of the lesson. They will be guided and monitored to enhance their grasping power of the lesson. The following questions will be given as their class assignments: DETAILED QUESTIONS: 1) What is a Microscope and name its parts and uses. 2) What do you know about the discovery of cells? 3) Describe the main parts of a living cell. 4) Give the differences and similarities between plant and animal cells. SHORT QUESTIONS 1) What is a cell? 2) What are unicellular and multi-cellular organisms? Give examples. 3) Define tissue, organ and system. FILL IN THE BLANKS 1) The smallest unit of a living thing is a ____________. 2) _____________ is the living material that makes up a cell and it is made up of a nucleus and a cytoplasm. 3) A ___________ is made up of a group of cells having the same functions. 4) Vacuoles are usually present in ___________ cells. 5) The Amoeba is a _____________ organism. 6) Plant cells have a _____________ cell wall.
SUBJECT: GENERAL SCIENCE LESSON: CELLS AND TISSUES ASSESSMENT: MAX MARKS 20 CLASS: VII Name: ___________________ Section A 1.Pick the odd one out. (1) a)Eye piece b)Body tube c)Nose pin d)Rough adjustment _______________________. 2. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ’s) (1) a)A ________ is the smallest unit in any living thing. Stirrup Cell Tissue b)A simplest living thing consists of only ______ cell. Two One Multiple 3. Write True or False. (1) a)Fungi and Algae are multicellular plants. _________________ b) Pseudo pods are buttons like projections. ____________________ 4. Complete the sentences. (1) a)A Tiger is much larger than a Rabbit not because its cells are bigger but because __________________________________. b)Chloroplasts are present in plants only because___________________________________________.
5. Fill in the blanks. (1) a)The _____________ is a protozoan. b)____________ have both animal and plant characteristics. 6. Riddles. (1) a)I am an optical instrument which helps us to see micro organisms which can not be seen by our naked eye. _____________________________. b) I am a group of cells having the same structure and functions. _____________________________. Section B: (4) 7. Explain the main parts of a cell. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________. 8. Write down the parts of a microscope and its uses. (4) _______________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Write any four differences of plant and animal cell. (4) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___ ____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________. Section C: (2) 10. Draw a plant or animal cell.
LABEL THE DIFFERNET PARTS OF MICROSCOPE WORKSHEET Name : _________ Class : __________ NAME : _______________________ Class : __________________ NAME : _______________________ Class : __________________
Name: _____________________ Class:_____________________ Drawing a Plant Cell Directions: In the space provided below, draw a plant cell. Make sure to draw and label all of the part listed below. Identify each part by coloring it the color indicated in the word box. cell membrane (yellow)cell wall (blue)chloroplast (green)cytoplasm (light green) nucleus (red)vacuole (brown)
HOME ASSIGNMENT Students will be asked to draw the following diagrams and label them. Plant cell and animal cell, Cheek cell, Onion cell and different types of tissues. LABELLING: Label the different parts of a microscope. INTERNET PROJECT WORK: Students will be assigned to make projects on animal or plant cells and they will be instructed to gather information from the internet. www.youtube.com &www.yahoo.com/videowww.youtube.com Certificates will be awarded to the participants to motivate them and enhance their curiosity and creativity skills.
CERTIFICATE OF RECOGNITION This certificate is awarded to ____________________of Class ________ For participating in the inter-class project display For the session 2010-2011. ______________ CLASS TEACHER
CONCLUSION To meet the educational challenges of the 21st century, student approach towards academics should be molded in a much stronger conceptual learning behavior, so that knowledge acquired is based on strong understanding of the lesson content. At the end of the lesson, students will gain conceptual knowledge about cells and tissues, through strategies I adopted in my teaching methodology, based on research and practical work. Blooms Taxonomy has been helpful to further update and strengthen current teaching practices.