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Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall7-1 Managing Behavior In Organizations Sixth Edition Jerald Greenberg.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall7-1 Managing Behavior In Organizations Sixth Edition Jerald Greenberg."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall7-1 Managing Behavior In Organizations Sixth Edition Jerald Greenberg

2 Interpersonal Behavior in the Workplace: Conflict, Cooperation, Trust, and Deviance Chapter Seven

3 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-3 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Learning Objectives  DESCRIBE two types of psychological contracts that develop in work relationships  DISTINGUISH between various forms of trust that are likely to exist in the workplace  DESCRIBE organizational citizenship behavior and ways in which it may be promoted  DISTINGUISH between cooperation and competition as they occur in work organizations  DESCRIBE the causes competition and why it is inevitable in organizations  DESCRIBE the causes and effects of conflict in organizations  DISTINGUISH between constructive and destructive types of workplace deviance and DESCRIBE various forms of each

4 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-4 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Interpersonal Behavior Three Good Reasons Why You Should Care About... Interpersonal Behavior 1.Cooperation between people can make life on the job not only more pleasant, but more productive as well. 2.If managed properly, potentially harmful effects of conflict in the workplace can be avoided. 3.Managers can take several effective steps to reduce the likelihood of deviant organizational behavior, thereby avoiding its disruptive costs

5 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-5 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Interpersonal Behavior  Interpersonal behavior refers to the processes of working with others and against them. –Trust –Negotiation –Cooperation –Competition  Prosocial behavior - the tendency for people to help others on the job

6 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-6 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Psychological Contracts  Psychological contract - a person’s perceptions and expectations about the mutual obligations in an employment relationship –Guide what we expect of others  Two dimensions –Time frame –Performance requirements

7 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-7 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Types of Psychological Contracts  Transactional contract - characterized by an exclusively economic focus, a brief time span, an unchanging nature, and is narrow and well-defined in scope  Relational contract - parties involved have a long-term and widely defined relationship with a vast focus  Balanced contract – informal expectations between people that result in each side receiving some benefit from others

8 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-8 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Effects of Psychological Contracts  The three kinds of psychological contracts play a role in organizational behavior  For example: –Relational and balanced contracts encourage people to go beyond the basic requirements of their jobs. –People who are low in emotional stability and highly sensitive to being treated unfairly tend to form transactional contracts. –People who are high in conscientiousness and self esteem tend to form relational contracts.

9 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-9 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Trust in Working Relationships  Trust reflects a person’s degree of confidence in the words and actions of another.  Three kinds of trust: 1.Calculus based 2.Identification based 3.Swift

10 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-10 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Calculus Based Trust  Calculus based trust is based on the use of threats and deterrents. –Each side knows what it is expected to deliver

11 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-11 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Identification Based Trust  Identification based trust is based on accepting and understanding another person’s wants and desires  Important elements of this trust include: –Familiarity –Shared experience –Reciprocal disclosure –Fulfilled promises –Demonstrations of non-exploitation and vulnerability

12 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-12 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Swift Trust  Swift trust refers to trust that occurs as a set of collective perceptions develops among members of temporary groups where: –Outcomes are interdependent –Time constraints exist –Group members focus on task and professional roles –A trust broker is in place

13 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-13 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Developing Trust Worthiness  Three factors are especially important in developing trust between followers and leaders: –Ability - managers need to demonstrate that they know how to work effectively with people –Benevolence - the more benevolent leaders have been to their followers, the more likely the followers are to trust them –Integrity – people are less inclined to trust leaders who do not consistently display high moral character

14 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-14 Guidelines for Promoting Trust  How to promote trust: –Always meet deadlines –Follow through as promised –Share personal values and goals –“Walk the talk” –Give people a chance to express themselves –Make sure that people know about you

15 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-15 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Organizational Citizenship Behavior  Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) can be defined as acts that exceed the formal requirements of one’s job. –Going beyond the call of duty

16 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-16 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Forms of OCB Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) can take many different forms, most of which fall into the five major categories shown here. Also as indicated, these may be direct either at individuals (categorized as OCB-I) or organizations (categorized as OBC-O). Altruism: Helping a coworker with a project (OCB-I) Switching vacation dates with another at his or her request (OCB-I) Volunteering for companywide projects (OBC-O) Conscientiousness Never missing a day of work (OCB-O) Coming to work early if needed (OCB-O) Not spending time on personal calls (OCB-O) Civic Virtue: Attending voluntary meetings and functions (OCB-O) Reading memos; keeping up with new information (OCB-O) Sportsmanship: Making do without complaint (“Grin and bear it!”) (OCB-O) Not finding fault with the organization (OCB-O) Courtesy: “Turning the other cheek to avoid problems (OCB-I) Not “blowing up” when provoked

17 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-17 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Forms of OCB  OCB-I organizational citizenship behavior that is directed at individuals  OCB-O organizational citizenship behavior that is directed at organizations

18 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-18 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Why Does OCB Occur?  The more people believe they are treated fairly by the organization:  the more they trust its management.  the more willing they are to go the extra mile to help out when needed.  OCB also occurs when employees:  have good relationships with their supervisors.  are highly conscientious.  are highly empathic.

19 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-19 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Does OCB Really Matter?  Yes!  Although the effects of OCB may be indirect and difficult to measure, they can be very profound –Most people believe that relative to core task behavior, OCB should count for % of performance appraisals.

20 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-20 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Promoting OCB  Be a model of helpful behavior  Demonstrate courtesy  Make voluntary functions fun  Don’t complain  Demonstrate conscientiousness  Don’t stand on ceremony  Treat employees fairly

21 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-21 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Cooperation  Cooperation - situations in which two or more individuals, teams or organizations work together toward some common goal  Factors that contribute to cooperation: –Reciprocity principle - the tendency to treat others as they have treated us –Personal orientation  Competitors  Individualists  Cooperators  Equalizers –Organizational reward systems  Team-based rewards vs. individual reward

22 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-22 Personal Orientations Individualists People who care almost exclusively about maximizing their own gain, and don’t care whether others do better or worse than themselves Competitors People whose primary motive is doing better than others, besting them in open competition Cooperators People who are concerned with maximizing joint outcomes, getting as much as possible for their team Equalizers People who are primarily interested in minimizing the differences between themselves and others

23 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-23 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Cooperation Among Organizations  It can be beneficial for organizations to work together to maximize joint profits –Partnering with suppliers –Research and development partnerships

24 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-24 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Competition  Why doesn’t cooperation always occur?  Some goals can’t be shared  Competition - a pattern of behavior in which each person, group, or organization seeks to maximize its own gains, often at the expense of others  Mixed motives – the motive to cooperate and the motive to compete at the same time

25 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-25 Cooperation vs. Competition When cooperating with one another, people contribute to attaining the same goal that they share. However, when competing against one another, people attempt to attain the same goal, which only one can have.

26 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-26 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Conflict Conflict may be defined as a process in which one party perceives that another party has taken or will take actions that are incompatible with one’s own interests.

27 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-27 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Types of Conflict  Substantive conflict occurs when people have different viewpoints and opinions with respect to a decision they are making with others.  Affective conflict occurs when people experience clashes of personalities or interpersonal tension of some sort.  Process conflict occurs when controversies arise about how various duties and resources will be allocated and with whom various responsibilities will reside.

28 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-28 Causes of Conflict Malevolent Attributions Destructive Criticism Distrust Competition over Scarce Resources Grudges

29 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-29 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Types of Criticism

30 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-30 Consequences of Conflict Positive Conflict may improve the quality of organizational decisions Conflict may bring out into the open problems that have been previously ignored Conflict may motivate people to appreciate each other’s positions more fully Conflict may encourage people to consider new ideas, thereby facilitating change Negative Conflict yields strong negative emotions Conflict may divert people’s attention from the task at hand Communication between individuals or teams may be so adversely affected that any coordination of effort between them is compromised Lowered coordination tends to lead to decrements in organizational functioning

31 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-31 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Managing Conflict Although conflict is inevitable, There are concrete steps that managers can take to avoid the negative consequences that result from conflict between people in the workplace. Some of the most effective ones are indentified here. Agree on a process for making decisions before a conflict arises. This way, when a conflict needs to be addressed, everyone knows how it is going to be handled. Make sure everyone knows his or her specific areas of responsibility, authority and accountability. Clarifying these matters avoids potential conflicts when people either ignore their responsibilities or overstep their authority. Recognize conflicts stemming from faulty organizational systems, such as pay system that rewards one department at the expense of another. In such cases, work to change the system rather than training employees. Recognize the emotional reactions to conflict. Conflicts will not go away until people’s hurt feelings are addressed. Consider how to avoid problems rather than assign blame for them. Questions such as, “Why did you do that?” only make things worse. It is more helpful to ask, “How can we make thing better?” Conflicts will not go away by making believe they don’t exist; doing so will only make them worse. Avoid the temptation not to speak to the other party. Instead, discuss your misunderstandings with this individual thoroughly.

32 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-32 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Managing Conflict Through Negotiation  Negotiation (bargaining) - the process by which two or more parties in dispute with one another work together to find a solution that is acceptable to all the parties involved  Win-win solutions - occur when outcomes are found for all sides that allow them to believe that they have “won” the negotiation process

33 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-33 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Tips for Negotiating Win-Win Solutions 1.Avoid making unreasonable offers 2.Seek the common ground 3.Broaden the scope of issues considered 4.Uncover the “real” issues

34 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-34 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Deviant Organizational Behavior  Deviant organizational behavior - actions on the part of employees that intentionally violate the norms of organizations and/or the formal rules of society, resulting in negative consequences –Destructive organizational deviance - violates both organizational and societal norms –Constructive organizational deviance - violates organizational norms, but is consistent with societal norms

35 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-35 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Whistle-Blowing  Whistle blowing - the disclosure by employees of illegal, immoral, or illegitimate practices by employers to people or organizations able to take action –Usually considered constructive behavior by society, but whistle blowers may become targets of retaliation by their organizations

36 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-36 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Cyberloafing  Cyberloafing refers to the use of company computers for personal use such as –Costly for companies, but efforts to move it are not well accepted and in some cases, illegal

37 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-37 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Workplace Aggression and Violence  Workplace aggression refers to any efforts by individuals to harm others with whom they work or have worked in the past, or their organizations  Three major categories: –Incivility and bullying –Obstructionism –Overt aggression

38 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-38 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Forms of Workplace Bullying Workplace bullying takes a variety of forms. Some of the most widely observed ones are summarized here. Constant Critic: Uses insulting and belittling comments, engages in name-calling Constantly harangues the victim about his or her incompetence Makes aggressive eye contact Two- Headed Snake: Denies victims the resources needed to work Demands that coworkers provide damning evidence against the victim Assigns meaningless work as punishment Vindictive Gatekeeper: Isolates the victim, ignoring him or her with “the silent treatment” Deliberately cuts the target out of the communication loop but expects the victim to have the missing information Screaming Mimi: Yells, screams, and curses Makes loud, angry outbursts and throws tantrums Intimidates by slamming and throwing objects

39 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 7-39 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Employee Theft  Employee theft: Taking company property for nonbusiness uses  Causes of employee theft: –Employees see coworkers doing it –Employees want to even the score

40 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall40


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