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STAAR STRATEGIES for Poetry Analysis

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1 STAAR STRATEGIES for Poetry Analysis

2 ELEMENTS OF POETRY Sound Devices Figurative Language Imagery Structure
Rhyme Rhythm and Meter The art of poetry makes use of the following deices within its genre

3 Sound Devices Alliteration: Repetition of beginning consonants sounds
Sound Devices are a method of adding music and mood to writing. They are very common in poetry but can be found in prose writing also. The sounds are meant to sound pleasant or unpleasant to the ear, depending on the mood the writer wants to create. Alliteration: Repetition of beginning consonants sounds Examples: ten tiny tin men tumbled from the shelf a mighty man managed to mend the sail Consonance: Repetition of consonant sounds anywhere within the words. the silky sounds of silence *(“ce” makes the “s” sound, too) the bomb blasted and bombarded the buildings Assonance: Repetition of vowel sounds within words jingle bells tinkle and clink as we sing (short I vowel) Ease into sleep and enjoy the sweet peace (long e vowel) Onomatopoeia: Words that are spelled so as to imitate noises and sounds we hear. The old rusty truck clanked and chugged down the road. The lonely owl hooted from his perch in the tree. All the dishes fell to the floor with a loud clatter. Certain sounds will add a percussive effect to the poetic line, while others are meant to soothe the ear of the listener. The subject matter of the poem most often influences the kinds of sounds the author employ.

4 Figurative Language Figurative language achieves a level of creativity not possible with literal language. Students must go beyond recognizing that the figurative language is there to what the figurative language achieves in the written work. Here is a quick review f figuratie language as well as the rigor expected in analyzing.

5 FIGURTIVE LANGUAGE Simile: a comparison between two seemingly unlike things using Like or As. Metaphor: a comparison of two unlike things without the use of Like or As. The statement will say something IS the other thing rather than saying it is LIKE it. Personification: giving human qualities or abilities to nonhuman things. Hyperbole: exaggeration for the purpose of impact or emphasis Oxymoron: word pair or combination that expresses a contradiction Paradox: a statement that expresses a contradiction What is this an example of? Don’t go near water until you’ve learned to swim. Remember: We must teach students to understand and recognize figurative language, and if we want them to achieve on STAAR they must go beyond that and ask WHY is this used? WHY did the author use THIS device HERE? What does the use of the device achieve?

6 Imagery or Sensory Languages
TYPE SENSE Visual Imagery Sight Example: The horizon glowed a deep red orange. Auditory Imagery Hearing Example: A cat screeched and wailed in the alley. Tactile Imagery Touch Grandpa’s beard was scratchy on my cheek. Olfactory imagery Smell Example: I smell fresh baked buttery bread! Gustatory imagery Taste Example: The creamy vanilla ice cream melted

7 Imagery or Sensory Language
There are two more types of imagery that deals with movement that we can perceive. Here are their types and examples Kinetic Imagery: This is movement of objects through another force like gravity, being thrown, pushed, moved by electrical or engine power etc… Example: The loosened boulder down the hillside.

8 Kinesthetic imagery: This is movement of living thing
Kinesthetic imagery: This is movement of living thing. They choose when and how to move, and under their own power. Examples: The gymnast ran down the mat, flipping and twirling as she went. A panther leaped from the cavern edge and pounced on the deer. Kids as about people or things that are NOT moving under their own power… Like someone throwing a person’s body out of the car… Yeah, in that case it is kinetic rather than kinesthetic imagery.

9 The Structure of Poetry
Lines of poetry can be any length… one word or all the way across the page. Line breaks occur wen a line of poetry does not extend into remaining space on the page but instead begins again on the line beneath. Enjambment occurs when one line and its meaning flow into another with no stopping punctuation. A Stanza is a group of poetic lines much like a paragraph is a group of prose sentences. These terms have to do with how the poem is PUT DOWN ON THE PAGE. (Tell them about publishing poetry and the editing process. Cipher in the Snow)

10 The Structure of Poetry
The use of the above devices, their placement, their number, etc., I entirely decided by the author or it can be dictated by the form of the poetry. Next are some common poetry types.

11 TYPES OF POEMS Haiku: a three line poem with a 5,7,5 syllable pattern usually written on a subject from nature. Cinquain: a five line poem where Line 1 is one word (the title), Line 2 is two words that describe the title, Line 3 is three words that tell the action, Line 4 is four words that express the feeling, Line 5 is one word that recalls the title. I am sure these are very familiar to you…

12 TYPES OF POEMS Limerick is a kind of humorous, or nonsense poem especially one in five-line structure, including a specific rhythm and a strict rhyme scheme (aabba) Narrative poetry: A narrative poem tells a story and may be long or brief. They usually have a tight structure of stanzas and a rhyme pattern that is determined by the author. Two common types are epics and ballads. Can anyone name a example of narrative poetry that you have seen or heard? Paul Revere… Casey at the Bat… Poe’s Poems

13 Types of Poems Ballads are narrative poems that are usually not very long They have a strict rhyme scheme and often have a refrain or repeated line that may occur at the end of the beginning of each stanza. Ballads originated as songs with the lines of the poem put to music. Many of today’s country music hits are ballads… And if you take the lyrics and put them down on paper, you can see the rhyme pater ad hear the rhythm. It is a great project to let kids find a song, write out the lyrics and then analyze it for poetry elements and narrative elements because it tells a story too!

14 Types of Poems Epic poems are long, formal narrative poems that can be the length of a short novel they are usually written about the deeds of a hero. The rhyme and meter differs depending on the author This form of poetry dates back to the origins of poetry when the form was only spoken and passed down form generation to generation by retelling and memorization. Two very famous epic poems are The Iliad and The Odyssey by the Greek poet Homer.

15 Types of Poems Lyrics poem are poems that express personal emotions on a subject. They are structured with meter and rhyme, but no set type is required, nor is there any specific length. It is determined by the author. This form of poem is quite open in the sense that it is suited to any emotional or reflective topic This is the most common form of poetry. There is more freedom in its form and sine people often release feelings through writing. It is common poetic expression.

16 Types of Poems Sonnets are lyric poems exactly 14 lines long with a strict rhyme scheme and rhythm patter. Sonnet means little song, and they were often written to express love or admiration for another. Free Verse This is a modern form of poetry where anything goes. There is no pattern in rhyme, rhythm, or line length. There is the use of poetic elements and poetic lines of varying lengths, but there is no pattern, allowing for an open expression. Sonnets are tough to write… And since hey are an older form of Poetry, they give kids trouble a the vocabulary used is not familiar to them.

17 Rhythm and Meter in Poetry
Poetic lines have a rhythm made up of accented and unaccented syllables in words. When combined in a line they make a pattern with the voice. Many nursery rhymes are noted for the rhythm created in the lines. Different patterns (feet) have names and the number of groupings of patterns (called meter) have names as well. Below is a chart showing the pattern of the rhythm and what we call that foot. Do the rhythm of your name appear here?

18 Rhythm and Meter in Poetry
Iamb /Iambic/Unstressed + Stressed I saw a ship a-sailing, A-sailing on the sea. And, oh, but it was laden With pretty things for thee Trochee/Trochaic/Stressed + Unstressed Twinkle Twinkle Little Star How I wonder what you are? Anapest/Anapestic/Unstressed + Unstressed + Stressed Ride a fine horse to Banbury Cross To see a fine lady upon a white horse. Rings on her fingers and bells on her toes, She shall have music wherever she goes. Dactyl/Dactylic/Stressed + Unstressed + Unstressed Hickory, dickory dock, The mouse ran up the clock. The clock struck one, The mouse ran down! Hickory, dickory, dock

19 Rhythm and Meter in Poetry
Two Less common feet…. Spondee/Spondaic/Stressed + Stressed Pyrrhic/Pyrrhic/Unstressed + Unstressed Depending how many groupings of accented; unaccented syllables of a certain foot tat you have in a line, this will determine the meter. Row Row Row your boat

20 Meter Hexameter = six feet Heptameter = seven feet
Below is a listing of names of the different meter lengths. Many of the prefixes help indicate the number of feet in the line. Monometer = one foot Dimeter = two feet Trimeter = three feet Tetramete = four feet Pentameter = five feet Hexameter = six feet Heptameter = seven feet Octameter = eight feet

21 Help for Scanning Poetic Lines
Say the line as naturally as you can and listen for the emphasized syllables. Mark the accented syllables first. (/) Read the line again and see if your emphasis I really happening as you marked it. Adjust if necessary. Then mark the unstressed syllables with a scoop mark.

22 Help for Scanning Poetic Lines
If the poem has a regular and very “hearable” rhythm, this will work. But what if it doesn’t, and you can’t hear it? Here are Mrs. Moore’s CHEAT TIPS for Scanning Poetry!

23 Help for Scanning Poetic Lines
Mark the natural rhythm of any multi-syllable words with accented and unaccented marks. (Just like when you marked accents in our own name.) Following, mark any single syllable words with an accent by prioritizing in the following order. Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs

24 Help for Scanning Poetic Lines
This system makes sense because the CONTENT of the line will be found in its nouns and verbs, and then in lesser priority, the adjectives and adverbs that describe them. The next step is to mark the less important words with an unaccented mark. These include the articles, conjunctions and prepositions.

25 Help for Scanning Poetic Lines
After marking the line, try to read it with the accents where you have marked them. If he line does not sound awkward or unnatural, then you probably have it marked correctly. Another hint will be if you can easily see one of the patterns and groupings of feet. If you cannot see a regular pattern, you till may be correct, but you have an irregular line where the writer had to break his/her pattern.

26 Help for Scanning Poetic Lines
Remember, read naturally! Don’t try to FORCE the pattern you have marked by altering how you pronounce the words. Also, depending on which words come before or after a single syllable word, this can cause it to be accented in one line and unaccented in another line. You take them as they are within the line Finally, with scansion of poetry, the more you do it, the better you get! Practice makes perfect!!

27 Examples of Rhythm and Meter
“To be or not to be, that is the question.” (U / U / U / U / U /) Iambic (type of foot) Pentameter (number of feet in the line) Iambic Pentameter Trochaic Tetrameter Twink-le twink-le lit-tle star (/ u / u / u /)* An accent, *, alone will count as one more single foot. Dactylic Tetrameter “Take her up ten-der-y, Dar-ling my love.” (/ U U / U U / U U /) Anapestic Trimeter So I walk by the edge of a lake. (U U / U U / U U /)

28 RHYME IN POETRY Rhyme occurs when the ends of lines have the same sound in the ending vowels or in the ending vowel/ consonant combination usually found at the end of poetic lines where a rhyme pattern occurs. Below re some types of rhyme that are used in poetry.

29 TYPES OF RHYMES End Rhyme: rhyming words found at the ends of poetic lines Example: “You used to think monsters hid under your bed. Now we think so too, but it smells like they’re dead.”

30 TYPES OF RHYMES Alternating Rhyme: rhyming words that occur every other line, like they are taking turns (a,b, a,b, c,d c,d etc… ) Example: “All I have I give to you (a) You mean the world to me (b) And everything I say or do (a) I do so willingly” (d)

31 TYPES OF RHYMES Internal Rhyme: This occurs when words within a line of poetry rhyme. Example I stepped in blue goo and it made me so sick, What else could I do But turn a men green

32 TYPES OF RHYMES Near Rhyme: This occurs when there is a pair of words that nearly, or almost rhyme. The author cannot always find a perfect rhyme to grammatically fit into the grammar and meaning of the line, so sometimes they have to work with something close instead.

33 RHYME SCHEME Examples We said, “We can’t, we can’t!”
So he turned and away he went! My eyes, my ears, they cannot tell, The sights and sounds beyond the wall.

34 RHYME SCHEME In order to analyze a pattern of rhyme, one needs a way to mark the pattern. By assigning letters of the alphabet to each pair of rhyming and any that rhyme with them following, one can see the pattern of the rhyme. Each unique sound gets its own letter. Some poems follow a very specific, predetermined rhyme scheme, like sonnets. Tell them the pattern of the English Sonnet. ABAB CDCD EFEF GG

35 RHYME SCHEME Other rhyme schemes are created by the authors when they create the poem with their own pattern of rhyme. Poems like free verse, do not have a pattern of rhyme.

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