Objectives Students will be able to describe the general structure of the cerebrum and the cerebral cortex Students will be able to identify the cerebrum, the lobes of the brain, the cerebral cortex, and the major divisions Students will be able to describe the primary functions of the lobes and regions of the brain
The Cerebrum The largest part of the brain Divided into two hemispheres, each of which has four lobes
Cerebral Cortex Outermost part of the cerebrum Made of “gray matter”
Terms to Know GYRUS – Elevated ridges that wind around the brain SULCI – The small grooves between the gyri Central Sulcus divides the FRONTAL LOBE from the PARIETAL LOBE FISSURES – Deep grooves that usually divide main regions of the brain Longitudinal Fissure – divides the two hemispheres Transverse Fissure – Separates the cerebrum from cerebellum Lateral Fissure – Divides Temporal from Frontal and Parietal Lobes
What it all means Sulci (groove) Gyri (ridge) Fissure (deep groove)
Specific Sulci and Fissures Longitudinal Fissure
Phineas Gage (1848) First patient from whom we learned something about the relation between personality and the function of the front parts of the brain Phineas Gage was the foreman of a railway construction gang. On September 13, 1848, an accidental explosion of a charge he had set blew his tamping iron through his head. The tamping iron was 3 feet 7 inches long and weighed 13 1/2 pounds. The tamping iron went in point first under his left cheek bone and completely out through the top of his head, landing about 25 to 30 yards behind him.
Amazingly, he still remained conscious and physically recovered. Before the accident: capable and efficient foreman Well-balanced Shrewd, smart businessman Sociable After the accident: Fitful, disrespectful Profane Impatient and stubborn Unable to create and stick to future plans His friends said he was “No longer Gage.”
Parietal Lobe Senses and integrates sensations Spacial awareness and perception – where is my body in space and in relation to other parts of my body. How do I grab what I am looking at? Primary taste interpretation
Occipital Lobe Way in the back – primary function is vision and its associated interpretation
Temporal Lobes One on each side of brain Primary fuctions: Hearing Organization of Language Understanding language On the left side Retrieving memories Smell
Lobes and Structures Review A (groove) B C groove D E groove F G
B. Frontal Lobe G. Parietal Lobe F. Occipital Lobe D. Temporal Lobe A. Central Sulcus E. Transverse Fissure C. Sylvian/Lateral Fissure B. A. (groove) C. (groove) D. F. G. (groove)
Suggested Supplementary Materials: 1.Skeleton Outline for note-taking. 2.Multiple Diagrams of the Human Brain. * Students will label features/lobes * Students will color-code cortical regions 3. Worksheets (matching, short answer, etc.), centered around the functions of the lobes and regions of the cerebrum. 4. A more in depth article on Phineas Gage. Read and discuss as a class - time permitting. Suggested Assessments: 1.Class/individual questioning throughout (especially at the conclusion of) the presentation. 2.Homework worksheets - discussed or collected in class. 3.Students will take a test on the nervous system in which they will be responsible for the structures, lobes, regions, functions, etc.
National Standards THE BEHAVIOR OF ORGANISMS: Multicellular animals have nervous systems that generate behavior. Nervous systems are formed from specialized cells that conduct signals rapidly through the long cell extensions that make up nerves. The nerve cells communicate with each other by secreting specific excitatory and inhibitory molecules. In sense organs, specialized cells detect light, sound, and specific chemicals and enable animals to monitor what is going on in the world around them. Organisms have behavioral responses to internal changes and to external stimuli. Responses to external stimuli can result from interactions with the organism's own species and others, as well as environmental changes; these responses either can be innate or learned. The broad patterns of behavior exhibited by animals have evolved to ensure reproductive success. Animals often live in unpredictable environments, and so their behavior must be flexible enough to deal with uncertainty and change. Plants also respond to stimuli. Like other aspects of an organism's biology, behaviors have evolved through natural selection. Behaviors often have an adaptive logic when viewed in terms of evolutionary principles. Behavioral biology has implications for humans, as it provides links to psychology, sociology, and anthropology.