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TMD Diagnosis & Therapeutic Intervention

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1 TMD Diagnosis & Therapeutic Intervention
 Module 2 

2 Epidemiology of TMD & Orofacial Pain
Lipton et al surveyed 45,711 American households (1993) 22% reported at least 1 of 5 types of orofacial pain Most common = toothache – 12.2% TMJ pain = 5.3% Face or cheek pain = 1.4% 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

3 Studies of non-patient populations
75% have at least one sign of TMD 33% have at least one symptom Average age = 33 Women to men ratio: Non-patient population is equal Patient population: 3:1 to 9:1 Why? I am seeing a great increase in teenager referrals I surmise 3 possible reasons: increased stress levels, worsening posture, increased use of computers/hand-held devices 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

4 Classification of TMD Three major categories:
Malocclusion = “bad bite” Arthrogenous = Joint-related Myogenous= Muscle-related As PT’s, we can primarily effect only the latter two categories These often overlap 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

5 Comorbid Conditions Orofacial pain is seldom an isolated complaint in just the trigeminal system Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, headache, depression, panic disorder, gastroesophageal reflux disorder, irritable bowel syndrome, or posttraumatic stress disorder may coexist with this condition Consider having resources available to refer patients to, such as counselors, psychologists, women’s crisis hotline 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

6 Cardinal Symptoms of TMD
Pain/discomfort located in the preauricular area which increases with jaw movement (chewing, talking, yawning) Joint noises during movement of jaw (Note that clicking & popping without pain or other symptoms does not normally require intervention, other than education) Limitation or difficulty in jaw movement 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

7 Red/Yellow Flags for Neoplasm in Head & Neck Region
Neurologic signs (e.g. numbness) Swelling and/or lymphadenopathy Nosebleed or stuffiness, drainage, and dysphagia Unexplained weight loss Auditory complaints (hearing loss, tinnitus) Constant pain unrelated to jaw movements Unchanging or worsening symptoms in spite of several different treatments Note: the last 3 are not as obvious or clear-cut according to Steven Kraus (Kraus SL, 1994) = yellow flags 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

8 Symptoms that may suggest referral to otolaryngologist (ENT):
Tinnitus, sensations of blockage, fullness, pressure, or fluid accumulation in the ears may suggest a primary otologic disturbance Symptoms that may suggest referral to neurologist: Sensory loss, hemifacial spasms (tic), visual disturbance, vestibular disturbance 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

9 Diagnostic Tests Panorex or panoramic x-ray Tomography MRI
r/o fracture, confirm DJD, neoplasm Tomography Two cone beam best choice, but not commonly done MRI Most common secondary test, should be done with contrast if looking to r/o tumor Best way to visualize disc Insurance often won’t cover; really unneeded unless surgery is seriously being considered 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

10 Malocclusion This is primarily the dentists’ domain
Wesley Shankland states in TMJ: It’s Many Faces, 2nd edition “One important comment must be made about malocclusion. Virtually every dentist believes that malocclusion can cause a TMJ problem. However, there has never been a scientifically controlled study to prove this concept.” 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

11 However, Shankland also states in the same section that malocclusion may be one cause of bruxism, setting up a “vicious cycle” Review of literature by McNamara, et al found the relationship of TMD to occlusion was minor, estimated the total contribution of occlusal factors to TMD was % 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

12 Occlusal factors implicated:
1. Skeletal anterior open bite 2. Overjets > 6-7 mm 3. RCP/ICP slides > 4 mm 4. Unilateral lingual crossbite 5. Five or more missing posterior teeth 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

13 The conclusion is that malocclusion should not be considered a major factor in the etiology of TMD
Despite this, a lot of money is spent in dentist or orthodontist offices’ “correcting the bite” This can create potential conflict with orthodontists and neuromuscular dentists 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

14 Diagnostic Procedures by PT’s
Evaluation of patient’s chief complaint by taking a history, to include parafunctional behaviors Basic physical examination techniques performed by skilled PT’s, to include cervical screen Obtaining screening radiographs, such as panorex (if not done prior to referral) - optional 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

15 Diagnosing Inflammation
History: pain/discomfort are influenced by functional and/or parafunctional activities Receives some relief from use of heating pad, anti-inflammatory medicine, e.g. ibuprophen Physical exam: TMJ palpation & joint loading 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

16 Diagnosing Hypermobility
History: Patient reports that jaw goes “out of place” when opening mouth wide, i.e. h/o open lock Physical exam: Palpating the lateral poles during opening and closing, a “jutter” is felt at the end of mouth opening and at the beginning of mouth closing Occlusal opening >60mm 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

17 Diagnosing Hypomobility
These are the classic signs of unilateral joint hypomobility: Mandible depression: deflection to the side of the involved joint Mandible protrusion: deflection to the side of the involved joint Lateral excursion: decreased to the opposite side of the involved joint; normal to the same side of the involved joint 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

18 Pathological TMJ Function During Opening
Stage I Disc Displacement (Disc Displacement with Reduction) Aka Disc displacement with reduction (DDwR) Stage II Disc Displacement (Disc Displacement without Reduction) Aka Disc Displacement without reduction (DDwoR) Stage III Disc Displacement DJD, osteoathrosis – characterized by crepitus, sand-paper feeling, crunching; has h/o clicking & popping and limited opening



21 Diagnosing Masticatory Muscle Hyperactivity
History: Patient aware of clenching and grinding (sleep bruxism). In AM, pt. aware of soreness/tension in the area of the TMJ Physical exam: Increased tone and/or tenderness of the masseter, temporalis, and medial pterygoid muscles (though all masticatory muscles can be considered) 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

22 Cervical Spine Disorder and TMD
Proposed influences of the cervical spine on TMD May cause parafunctional activity (e.g. clenching, forward head posture, etc.) May influence mandibular mobility and positioning May be primary source of cephalic symptoms, thus mimicking symptoms thought to be related to TMD 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

23 10/18/13 T. Henkelmann, PT,MS,CCTT

24 Posture Correction is a Priority
“Restoration of normal posture, particularly normal head positioning, is the crucial first step in the management of almost any chronic head and neck pain condition. This is because myofascial trigger points are almost always a contributing, if not causative factor, and anterior head positioning perpetuates these.” – Jaeger B, 1999 10/18/13 T. Henkelmann, PT,MS,CCTT

25 Exercises for Posture Chin tucks – start in supine if poor motor control Shoulder blade squeezes Corner stretch Anterior neck stretch – “The office workers’ stretch” 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

26 Time for everyone to stand up and stretch back!
3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

27 Comprehensive Treatment of TMD Diagnostic subsets of TMD
Arthrogenous Myogenous Masticatory Muscle Pain: Arthralgia Hypermobility Myofascial trigger points Disc displacements DDwR Trismus DDwoR Lateral Pterygoid spasm 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

28 Treatments for TMD Modalities Therapeutic Procedures
Behavioral Modification 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

29 Treatment Considerations
Acute Inflammation and Pain (acute, chronic) Modalities Cold pack first hrs., can be used after if tolerated Moist heat thereafter – 2 cervical hp’s, one around neck, one around jaw fastening around crown of head Pulsed (50%) ultrasound, w/cm² x 6-8 minutes Iontophoresis (if not responding to above two within 3-4 visits) TENS vs. Pre-Mod Interferential E. S. NSAIDS Rest - soft diet

30 Ultrasound US energy is absorbed mostly in tissues with high collagen content. Primary tissues would be muscle, ligament, capsule, tendon, and scar tissue US encourages healing in the soft tissues, decreases inflammation, and reduces pain Therapeutic ultrasound in the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions. Falconer J., Hayes MA, Chang TW. Arthritis & Rheumatism Vol. 3 (2), 1990; 85-91 This is a mainstay in my therapeutic toolbox 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

31 Iontophoresis Is an efficient and desirable method to administer topical steroids (dexamethasone) to localized regions of inflammation Schiffman E. TMJ Iontophoresis: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. JOP; :2 Consider this a 2nd phase intervention, when not seeing results from HP-US-TENS/ES Need prescription from referring dentist/doctor “Dex-meth for ionto., 4mg/ml in 30 ml vial” 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

32 Electrical Stimulation vs TENS
From Steve Kraus, PT: Pre-Mod Interferential Current Less discomfort than other electric stimulation Penetrates deeper than other forms of ES Increase in localized blood flow for better muscle relaxation Pain reduction is better than other forms of ES TENS: 1 or 2 channels, Continuous, Modulated 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

33 Stage I Disc Displacement
Dentist may prescribe intraoral appliance to take stress off disc and posterior attachment to allow healing. Ideally, should be thin, hard acrylic with shallow stops (so not locked into only one position when closed) Neuromuscular control exercises to correct deviations, re-teach proper opening Remember that this usually does not need rx, unless associated with pain & limited opening

34 Stage II Disc Displacement
Joint mobs. to attempt reduction, using distraction combined with anterior translation. If successful, patient should obtain an appliance from dentist Sometimes, we just control the pain and stretch it out. Follow-up with modalities, neuromuscular control exercises

35 Capsular Restrictions
Stretch capsule with joint mobs -distraction, translation, lateral excursion intraorally Tongue blade self-distraction techniques and low load prolonged stretch (often do during moist heat, and have do at home)

36 Intraoral Massage Myofascial and trigger point release techniques to
Temporalis Masseter – intraorally Lateral & medial pterygoids SCM Upper cervical paraspinal muscles

37 Basic Stretches Partial Opening with Guidance
1 finger-width side glides & protrusion Cervical rotation with overpressure (for SCM) Upper trapezius stretch 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

38 Neuromuscular Control Exercises
Resting tongue position on palate Tongue hanging – is subtle. Mouth open, tongue hanging out, fully relaxed, use mirror, 10 secs. each Making cluck-like sounds Tongue up and open without deviation done with mirror feedback, first with finger on chin, then without finger as gains control Rhythmic stabilization – brief side-to-side isometrics

39 Isometric Stabilization & Strengthening Exercises
Isometrics in resting position: opening, side glide, protrusion Isometrics with mouth open 1 finger breadth and tongue up Isometrics with 2 finger breadth opening

40 Surface EMG Biofeedback
Use in masseter muscle relaxation training Use to stop clenching behavior Problems Not very practical Is not covered by insurances 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

41 Short Upper Lip Short upper lip results in an increase in mandibular elevator muscle activity Upper lip should cover ¾ of maxillary central incisors Constant state of parafunction Stretching results in approx., 1mm of month increase in length Stretch it down manually – hold secs. 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

42 Overview of Surgeries Arthrocentesis Arthroscopy Modified condylectomy
Arthrotomy: Disc repositioning Discectomy TMJ replacement Due to resection of condyle, the lateral pterygoid muscle is no longer working, so cannot side glide 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

43 Pharmacolgic Coinsiderations
Use of OTC ibuprophen for short-term use to reduce inflammation/synovitis/capsulitis Muscle relaxant before bed for sleep bruxism Flexoril, Soma Dentists are comfortable with this Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs) for sleep bruxism Amitryptyline (Elavil) – 1st generation type, bad side effects Doxapin (Sinequan) Nortriptylene (Pamelar 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

44 Other Diagnoses Brief overview
Trigeminal Neuralgia Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia Burning Mouth Syndrome 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

45 Practical Matters Use care in the use of “TMJ” and “TMJ Disorder” on documentation and TMJ diagnostic codes ICD-9 Codes recommended: Jaw pain Muscle spasm 784.0 Headache or face pain Cervicocranial syndrome 729.1 Myofascial pain ICD-9 Codes not recommended (unless MC, Auto, WC) 524 & 526 codes 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

46 Marketing Suggestions
To Dentists To Oral surgeons To Orthodontists 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT

47 Thank you for Your Attention
QUESTIONS? 3/8/14 T. Henkelmann, PT, MS, CCTT


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