2FactsA single puff of tobacco smoke exposes the body to more that 4,000 chemicals.Almost all of these make the body unable to work as it should.At least 43 of the chemicals in tobacco smoke are known to cause cancer in smokers.Called carcinogensSmoke also harms the health of nonsmokers.Even smokeless tobacco causes health problems, including cancer in its users.
3Scary FactsSmoking kills more people than AIDS, drug abuse, car accidents, and murder – combined.6,000 teenagers light up every day for the very first time.More than 3,000 kids become regular smokers each day.Over 430,000 people die each year in the US from smoking.
4What is in Tobacco? Nicotine: is an addictive drug found in tobacco. It makes tobacco users crave more nicotine.Causes both stimulant & depressant effects:Stimulation for approximately minutes.Depressant effects if another cigarette is not used.
5What is in Tobacco? Tar: is a thick dark liquid that forms when tobacco burns.This liquid covers the lining of thelungs.Carbon Monoxide: is a colorless,odorless, poisonous gas producedwhen tobacco burns.
6Other Chemicals in Tobacco Smoke: Formaldehyde: irritating acidic gasthat is used in lab disinfectants and preservatives.Cyanide: is a deadly poison.Methanol: a poisonous liquid alcohol, is known to cause blindness.
7Tobacco in Many Forms It comes in several forms: Cigarettes: Smoked or chewed.Most common is smoked.Cigarettes:Made from shredded tobacco leaves.Filters in cigarettes can reduce amount of nicotine & tar in cigarette smoke.They do not help to decrease the amount of carbon monoxide and other disease-causing chemicals.
8Tobacco in Many Forms Smokeless Tobacco: Two forms of tobacco are placed in the mouth instead of being smoked.Chewing Tobacco: Made from compressed, coarsely ground leaves.A wad is placed between the cheek and gum, where it is sucked or chewed.Snuff: if a finely ground, powdery substance. It is placed between the lower lip & gum, where it mixes with saliva and is absorbed.
9Tobacco in Many FormsSmokeless Tobacco is NOT a safe alternative to smoking.The nicotine is just as harmful & addictive.Also linked to increased incidence of mouth cancer and cancers of the esophagus, larynx and pancreas.Also inflamed gums, bad breath, yellowed teeth, and stomach ulcers.
10Tobacco in Many Forms Pipes & Cigars: Also use shredded tobacco leaves, some of which may be flavored.These smoker usually develop lung cancers less often because they usually inhale less smoke.More likely than cigarette smokers to develop cancers of lip, mouth, tongue and throat.
11Tobacco & Your BodyNervous system: Smoking reduces the flow of oxygen to the brain, possibly leading to a stroke.Circulatory system: Smoking weakens the blood vessels.Smoking also causes a fatty buildup that clogs the blood vessels, increasing the risk of heart attack or a stroke.
12Tobacco & Your BodyRespiratory system: Tar & other chemicals leave a sticky residue that destroys structures in the lungs.Also damages the alveoli, the tiny air sacs in the lungs. This damage causes difficulty in breathing & prevents oxygen from getting to the rest of the body.Smokers are 10X more likely than nonsmokers to develop lung cancer.
13Tobacco & Your Body Digestive system: Tobacco causes bad breath. It stains the teeth & makes them susceptible to cavities.Tobacco dulls the taste buds and can cause cancer of the mouth and throat.It is also a cause of stomach ulcers.Excretory System: Smoking increases the danger of bladder cancer.Smokers have 2X the risk of bladder cancer than nonsmokers have.
14The Costs to Society Smokers pay a high price: Price of tobacco productsPack of cigarettes now costs $5 W. Virginia, $9 here, $12.50 in NY.Cost of health careOne MRI scan can cost up to $3000.In 1965 health warnings began to appear on cigarette packs.1971 cigarette advertisements were banned from radio & TV.1996 regulations were approved to limit access persons under 18.
16Tobacco AddictionAddiction: a physical or psychological need for a drug or other substance.Withdrawal: unpleasant symptoms that occur when someone stops using an addictive substance.Become anxious, depressed, irritable & tired.Nicotine cause TWO kinds of addiction: physiological and psychological.
17Tobacco AddictionPhysiological dependence: a type of addiction in which the body itself feels a direct need for a drug. - Nicotine.This is strong in smokers: Smokers will not feel normal again until they have another dose of the drug.As body becomes more accustomed to the drug, the body needs it more & more often to feel its effect.
18Tobacco Addiction Physiological: Brain: Nicotine inhaled from a cigarette reaches the brain in 20 seconds.Leads to increased HR and BP.Heart: Nicotine increases the HR by as much as 33 BPM.
19Tobacco AddictionPsychological: Is an addiction in which the mind sends the body the message that it needs more of a substance.Habits: smoking after a meal, reading newspaper, work break, etc.Feel calmer after smoke, but only feeding the addiction, not actually calmer.
20Short-Term Effects Increased heart rate Vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels)Lowered skin temperatureDiarrhea & intestinal crampsRestricted blood flow to the skin – may interfere with healing & causes premature ageing.
21Long-Term Effects Heart & Blood vessels Cardiovascular disease – heart attacks, stroke, hypertensionAtherosclerosis & arteriosclerosisHardening of arteriesWhy? Carbon monoxide attaches to hemoglobin – prevents oxygen from getting to cells.(oxygen attaches to hemoglobin)
24Long-Term Effects Leukoplakia – chewing tobacco Leathery, pre-cancerous white patches in the mouth where a person has repeatedly used chewing tobacco.
25Long-Term Effects Hairy Tongue – chewing tobacco Elongation of the papillae on the tongue: resembles hair.
26Effects on Embryo/Fetus Nicotine is found in breast milk & passes through the placenta.High risk of stillbirth & miscarriageHigh risk of hearing impairments.Low birth weight (less than 5.5lbs)Growth & intellectual deficienciesMore prone to SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)Higher risk of birth defects.
27Staying Tobacco Free Pages 287 – 291 Saying No to Tobacco - 287 Kicking the habit – 288Programs that help – 289How tobacco affects nonsmokers – 290