Presentation on theme: "Art History - Iconography CHRISTI IMAGO: IMAGE PROJECTION AND COMPARISON WITH THE SHROUD Presented by Dr. Michelina (Le Margie) Iannone and Joel Rosano-Alvarez."— Presentation transcript:
Art History - Iconography CHRISTI IMAGO: IMAGE PROJECTION AND COMPARISON WITH THE SHROUD Presented by Dr. Michelina (Le Margie) Iannone and Joel Rosano-Alvarez
“VERA EFFIGIES SACHI VULTUS DOMINI NOSTRI JESU CHRISTI” from Rome with Vatican City’s Seal. (Private Collection). Head of Christ. 2 nd Century. Sacristy of St. Peter’s Rome Head of Christ 2 nd. Century Church of S. Bartolomeo, Genoa
Br. Ambrose Carroll-Moorman, Orthodox monk at Mount Angel Abbey Saint Benedict, OR IN MEMORY
Introduction to Presentation Russian Orthodox Center – Our Lady of Tikhvin – Saint Benedict, Oregon. THE HOLY SHROUD EXHIBIT – This exhibit represents the work of IMAGO CHRISTI, A SHROUD INTEREST GROUP, INC., P.O. BOX 50, MOUNT ANGEL, OR 97362. The Holy Shroud has a place in the culture of the local Old Orthodox community due to the fact of its influence on ikons of Christ, especially that of the “Image not made by hands” with an annual feast day on August 29/16 each year. An ikon of Christ Enshrouded is also used in the services of the Orthodox Church on the Holy and Great Saturday before the Easter or Paschal Service. (GUIDE TO THE RUSSIAN MUSEUM – Our Lady of Tikhvin Center, Saint Benedict, OR 97373). Theology of ICON – IKON ICON - Image of the Invisible – Shroud of Turin “THE HISTORY OF IKONS – The word “ikon” (also written “icon”) derives from the Greek word for “image” – eikon. It is far from being an art form, but is a theological term centered on the Eastern Orthodox understanding of the world in the sense that visible things reveal or make present images (ikons – eikones) of the invisible.” A good example as to how an ikon is based on reality is that known as the “Ikon of Christ Not Made by Hands”. (Byzantine Iconography by Brother Ambrose Carroll-Moorman, Orthodox monk at Mount Angel Abbey).
Comparison of Christ the Pantocrator VI with the Shroud of Turin This presentation suggests that the Pantocrator sixth century encaustic icon is the “Icon image of Christ” and has a basic origin from the Battle of Constantine at the Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312 whereby Constantine (Roman Emperor 306-337) won the battle that invoked Christianity. As recorded by Lactantius (c240-c320) who was the tutor for Constantine’s son “Crispus”. Constantine (272-337) had a dream whereby he was told to mark the heavenly sign of God on the shields of the soldiers. Constantine was successful and won the battle. The “mark” on the shields of his soldiers was the Chi-Rho (“labarum”) that resulted in early images of Christ as Christ the King and Christ’s sovereignty over the world. Starting with Constantine, we find these labarums, with the image of Christ and his vicar the emperor, represented on ivories and medals - the image of Christ “not made with human hands” (acheiropoietos) shown on the veil attached to the crossbar of the labarum. In 622, the emperor Heraclius carried this image and showed it to his troops before a battle against the Persians. “The role therefore of this image, miraculously given over every enemy, that is over evil”. (The Icon – Image of the Invisible - Egon Sendler). ACHEIROPOETA The Holy Face not made with Human Hands Pantocrator, sixth-century encaustic icon. Mount Sinai Saint Peter, sixth-century encaustic icon. Mount Sinai Christ in the Center
At the beginning of the seventh century there developed a religious, rather than a purely commemorative, veneration of the portrait of Christ. During the period of the Middle Ages, Christian art in the West underwent a change - the holy image became the devotional image resulting in a more individualized form of religious art. The mystical image worked its way back again into pictorial art shaped by the imaginative fantasy of the individual artist. In the East, the church still abided by the ecclesiastical dogma; nothing could be changed in the heavenly prototypes. There was a contrast between the abstraction of Byzantine art and the naturalism of western art. This "naturalism" was carried over into the period known as the "Renaissance". IMAGE COMPARISONS WITH THE SHROUD OF TURIN AND CHRIST PANTOCRATOR With the first photograph of the Shroud by Lawyer Secondo Pia in 1898 and later by Giuseppe Enrie in 1931 comparisons could be done with the Shroud image. Professor Alan D. Whanger, M.D. of Duke University used his “Polarized Image Overlay Technique” in 1991. He makes use of a twin projector and the use of a polarized filter for comparison by showing many points of “congruence” with the Shroud face image and “The Icon of Christ the Pantocrator”. Professor Whanger, was an adjunct professor on Dr. Iannone’s Doctoral Committee and introduced her to his technique giving the necessary equipment for her use in comparisons with religious art. Kept at the Icon Museum of Constantinople, this painting on polished wood (real size 0.84 by 0.45 m.)is from the Saint Catherine’s Monastery on Mount Sinai. Kurt Weitzmann (photographer) dates it from the reign of Justinian I (527-565). Father Heindrich Pfeiffer, German Jesuit Father and Professor of Art History at the Pontifical Gregorian University recognizes in this admirable portrait the prototype of Christ the Pantocrator, dear to Byzantine iconography, prior to the iconoclastic destruction. Its origin is easily discoverable; it is the “Face of Christ kept at Turin”. “But nothing demonstrates this better than superimposing the positive photograph of the Holy Shroud on this painting”. Kurt Weitzmann.
Image Comparison Using the Computer Recent computerized studies by Prof. Nello Ballosino of the Department of Information Technology, Turin University, seem to show that several faces of Christ produced in the first millennium of the Christian era may have been derived from the Shroud image. Recent computerized studies by Prof. Nello Ballosino of the Department of Information Technology, Turin University, seem to show that several faces of Christ produced in the first millennium of the Christian era may have been derived from the Shroud image. In the four examples reproduced below, where the features of these ancient depictions have been superimposed on the Shroud face, the matching may suggest as much. Reference: The Shroud A Guide (1998), Gino Moretto, Page 53, First published in 1998 by ST. PAULS, UK-Eire
Durer, copy of the Holy Shroud, 1516 - (Lier copy). “Four groups of red stains are clearly shown on this copy. The artist assumed they were bloodstains but they are instead, burn holes”. (Indiana Center for Shroud Studies). Pray Code 12 th Century – Shroud – four holes can be seen. “In 1454, Pope Sixtus IV authorized Louis I to build a sanctuary for it (the Shroud) at his seat in Chambery. During the troubled times that followed, the Shroud was once again moved from one part of France to another, and at one time it even travelled as far as Lier in Belgium, where in 1516, Albrecht Durer saw and copied it. His copy may be seen to this day in the Church of St. Gomer, in Lier. Later on the Shroud returned to Chambery”. Reference: R.W. Hynek, The True Likeness - London and New York, Sheed and Ward, 1951. Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) Self Portrait (1498)
Self-portrait by Albrecht Durer compared with the Shroud Face. - Overall Resemblance: Frontal Pose - Facial Configuration: Symmetrical. Elongated face. Wide forehead. Hairline reproduces hairline of shroud image. Forelock congruent to match blood stains on shroud image. Hairline at side of face in complete congruence. Identical prominent nose. Wide moustache-lines on upper lip complete congruence. Wide set eyes with complete congruence. Swelling at upper right lid of eye – outer corner congruent. Long hair – parted in center. Growth of beard low on cheeks-lines of beard at top and bottom. Shadow at right forehead overlays bloodstains on shroud image. Outline of eyes complete congruence. Self-portrait by Albrecht Durer compared with The Icon of Jesus. - Overall Resemblance: Frontal pose and stance similar.999999 Open eyed stare similar. Symmetry of features. - Facial Configuration: Nose prominent – similar in configuration except for the length. Shape of lips congruent. Left eye larger – swollen in appearance. Wide moustache – angles down from corners of mouth – joins beard. Beard centered in a single point with shadow and point of beard growth over center of the chin. Left eyebrow overlays with complete congruence. Right eyebrow is higher than icon with swollen appearance congruent. Triangular shadow shape at the right corner of the eye overlays. Cheek at right side of face – shadow is congruent. Long hair – parted in center. Forehead – width is congruent. Double forelock (does not appear in the Icon of Jesus) incongruent.
Piero della Francesca (c. 1420-92) (Piero di Benedetto dei Franceschi) Resurrection by Piero della Francesca compared with Icon of Jesus. - Overall Resemblance: Frontal pose and stance similar. Transverse line (crease) at base of neck, line congruent. - Facial Configuration: Long oval face. General shape and size of nose and length congruent. Long prominent nose. High cheekbones – line of cheekbones congruent. Wide forehead. Wide-set eyes with straight forwards gaze. Long hair parted in middle. Wide moustaches extending beyond angles of mouth- lines congruent. Shape of beard congruent – similar configuration of beard growth. Line of shadows at side of cheek beneath cheekbones congruent. The stigmata (wounds made by the nails) are visible on Christ's left hand and foot and a narrow wound from the spear of the soldier who pierced his side has drops of blood flowing from it. Christ holds the red-cross banner of triumph in His right hand, symbolic of the Cross of St. George of the Crusades. He represents the Resurrection as an event of triumph and of truth. Christ stands, with one foot on the sepulcher, with the fixed, hypnotic presence of a Byzantine Pantocrator"
El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos) (C. 1541-1614). The Savior by El Greco compared with The Icon of Jesus. - Overall Resemblance: Pose similar with straightforward gaze. - Facial Configuration: Forehead – width and height congruent. Cheekbones – shadows congruent. Nose length and shape congruent. Nose – tip of nose congruent. Long hair – parted in center. Lower lip line congruent. Hairline at forehead nearly congruent. Eyebrows nearly congruent – asymmetry in icon relic not as evident. Moustache – tips meet lines of beard at corners of mouth – outer corners a little wider but nearly congruent. Beard shape similar with growth beginning low on cheek – beard lines nearly congruent – dark area on right cheek congruent. Christ Blessing (The Saviour of the World) about 1600 El Greco makes the viewer aware of the mystery and the miracle inherent in his versions of the crucifixion. El Greco painted a "Christ" in the icon image of the "Blessing Christ" with a triangularly shaped halo. Another example of the Byzantine influence on his portrayal of Christ's features is the Face of Christ of the Passion"(Mandylion)". The same narrow, elongated form is shown in the icon in encaustic at Mt. Sinai. El Greco was in close contact with the Croatian miniature painter Giulio Clovio, who painted “Sacra Sindone Gesu Coperto dal Sudario”.
Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) Supper at Emmaus (1648) Detail of Supper at Emmaus (1648) Christ at Emmaus by Rembrandt van Rijn (detail of the Head of Christ) compared with the Shroud Face. - Overall Resemblance: Frontal pose – softer in contour – face upturned slightly. - Facial Configuration: Long hair – parted in center. Top hairline – congruent. Eyebrows – lines nearly congruent. Left eye – white area congruent with white area on shroud image. Left eye – shadow at outer corner congruent with shadow on shroud. Right eye – white area congruent with light area on shroud image. Right eye – dark line on upper lid congruent with dark line on shroud image. Nose – shadows congruent. Cheek – shadows congruent. Lip line – upper – meets the lower in congruency. Lip line – lower – shape congruent – mouth more open. Moustache – congruent with shadows of moustache on shroud image. Chin – highlight overlays beard shadow area on the shroud image. Note: Of particular note is the congruence of the light and shadow areas. Rembrandt uses his technique of light to depict similarities with the Shroud image in this portrait of Christ.
Nail wounds in the wrist Acrylic on Wood 2000 Nicolas Oramas Solis Benedictine Brother Detail of “spike” wounds in the wrist as on the Shroud Once the Shroud was known (1357 and afterward) and was well publicized throughout Europe numerous artists utilized the Shroud’s features. Rubens and Durer did so more than once. Reference: R.W. Hynek, The True Likeness - London and New York, Sheed and Ward, 1951. Christ on the Cross (1610) Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)
Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564) Only Michelangelo portrayed Jesus rising naked from the tomb. (1520-25) Heads of Christ Leonardo Da Vinci (1452 – 1519)