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SPE 3273 INTRODUCTION TO ASSESSMENT Week 1. Course Overview and Review of Competencies Demonstrate knowledge of historical and legal perspectives of early.

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Presentation on theme: "SPE 3273 INTRODUCTION TO ASSESSMENT Week 1. Course Overview and Review of Competencies Demonstrate knowledge of historical and legal perspectives of early."— Presentation transcript:


2 Course Overview and Review of Competencies Demonstrate knowledge of historical and legal perspectives of early assessment and intervention. Demonstrate knowledge of IDEA regulations for assessment of children from birth to three. Demonstrate knowledge of roles and responsibilities of different early childhood and early intervention personnel in the assessment process. Demonstrate knowledge of the genetic, organic and environmental determinants of risk factors and atypical development in infancy Demonstrate knowledge of causes and characteristics of disabling conditions in infancy. Demonstrate knowledge of observational procedures used to evaluate infant and toddler environments. Demonstrate knowledge of environmental arrangement strategies for assessment. Demonstrate knowledge of the different types and purposes of assessment and importance of involving families in all assessment and intervention activities. Demonstrate knowledge of the importance of a functional and developmentally appropriate environment for assessment activities Demonstrate knowledge of assessment procedures appropriate for use in different early intervention program models. Demonstrate knowledge of how assessment results are used to develop educational and intervention programs for infants. Demonstrate knowledge of qualitative and quantitative methods for monitoring progress. Demonstrate knowledge of future trends and issues in early assessment.

3 Historical Perspectives Constancy of IQ: Concept of Predeterminism:

4 People-First Language According to the National Organization on Disability, more and more people believe living with a disability "should mean living in a supportive community" and thus "they are...changing their language to show respect for persons with disabilities."

5 Legal Perspectives Civil Rights Movement Many authorities believe that the civil rights movement was the major impetus for the gradual acquisition of rights for individuals with disabilities. We will discuss early litigation and litigation related to individuals with disabilities.

6 Early Litigation 1954Brown v. Board of Education –Challenged: Separate-but-equal stance of the public schools, many local public school districts operated separate schools for white children and separate schools for black children –Ruling: 1967Hobsen v. Hansen –Challenged: Procedure of placing children in educational tracks based on test scores, many children from underrepresented groups and low income homes placed in special education tracks –Ruling: 1970Diana v. Board of Education 1972Larry P. v. Riles –Challenged: Inappropriate or incorrect labeling of children from underrepresented groups –Ruling:

7 Litigation Related to Individuals with Disabilities 1971PARC v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 1972Mills v. Board of Education of Washington D.C. –Challenged: Exclusion of children from public schools who were diagnosed as mentally retarded –Ruling: 1971Wyatt v. Stickney –Challenged: Inappropriate treatment of individuals who resided in large state residential facilities –Ruling: 1972New York ARC v. Rockefeller (Willowbrook Case) –Challenged: inhumane treatment of individuals who resided in large state residential facilities –Ruling:

8 Theoretical Perspectives Nativist - Development is genetically determined and occurs through maturation. Behaviorist - Development is viewed as resulting from the external reinforcement of associations between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses. Interactionist - Development is viewed as resulting from interactions between the organism and the environment. Information Processing - Development is viewed in terms of changes in memory storage capacities and use of different types of cognitive strategies. Connectionist - Development or the acquisition of knowledge is similar to the central nervous system, in which neurons activate and inhibit each other in complex networks. Social- Constructivist - Development is viewed as the internalization, and transformation of routines, skills and ideas that children learn through participation in shared activities with adults or more capable peers. Systems Theory - Development occurs as a result of complex interactions among interdependent subcomponents of a system. New global patterns of behaviors that are different from the sum of their individual components emerge.

9 IDEA Eligibility Policies and Assessment Regulations Public Law 94-142: The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 Mandated a free and appropriate public education for all children with disabilities from 6 through 21 years Ensured right to due process Mandated education in the least restrictive environment Mandated Individualized Education Programs

10 Public Law 94-142 Amendment 1 Public Law 99-457: The Education for all Handicapped Children Act Amendment of 1986 Established program to assist states in the development of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and statewide system of early intervention services for infants and toddlers from birth to age 3 Authorized discretionary programs Included guidelines for transition plans

11 Public Law 94-142 Amendment 2 Public Law 101-476: The Education for all Handicapped Children Act Amendment of 1990 Changed the name of the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA) to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Reauthorized and expanded discretionary programs Mandated transition services and assistive technology services to be included in a child's or youth's IEP Added autism and traumatic brain injury to the list of categories of children and youth eligible for special education and related services.

12 Public Law 94-142 Amendment 3 Public Law 102-119: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendment of 1991 Refined and clarified sections of IDEA With respect to family assessment, the phrase "strengths and needs" was replaced with "resources, priorities, and concerns Required that IFSPs include a statement of the natural environments in which early intervention services will be provided Added that the service coordinator can be a person who is qualified to carry out all responsibilities under Part C.Required informed written consent from parents before early intervention services are provided

13 Public Law 94-142 Amendment 4 Public Law 105-17: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendment of 1997 Enhanced the emphasis on parent involvement Included modifications for individualized education programs in relation to the general curriculum Emphasized a focus on collaboration between regular and special educators

14 Public Law 94-142 Amendment 5 Public Law 108-446: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendment of 2004 Standard for highly qualified teachers established State Personnel Development Grants will be used to recruit, prepare and retain well-qualified teachers States have option to develop a seamless system to for children birth through five When there are parent complaints, law requires that resolution of the problem must be attempted before a due process hearing can occur Alternate assessments are part of state and local accountability systems and aligned to alternative state standards

15 Types of Assessment Norm-Referenced Assessments. This type of assessment compares a student's development to a group of other students who are similar in age, sex, geographic location, income level, race, disability and/or cultural background. Criterion-Referenced Assessments. This type of assessment compares a student's abilities to a specified level of accuracy or "criteria." –Curriculum-based assessment is a special type of criterion-referenced assessment. Curricular ideas or activities are provided for each assessment item on this type of assessment.

16 Measurement Processes Screening tells us whether the student is in need of further assessment in one or more areas of development. Screening instruments are generally norm-referenced. Diagnosis tells us whether or not a problem exists, identifies the nature of the problem, and tells us whether the student is eligible for services. Diagnostic assessments are generally norm- referenced. Program assessment tells us a student's current skill level or baseline skills before intervention. Program assessments are frequently criterion-referenced. Evaluation tells us how students progress over time by comparing a student's skills before and after intervention.

17 Teams and Teamwork Multidisciplinary teams maintain their respective discipline boundaries with only minimal, if any, coordination, collaboration, or communication across disciplines. Each professional or service provider provides assessment and intervention services to children and families separately. Interdisciplinary teams have more coordination and collaboration across disciplines as one team member is assigned to coordinate services. Transdisciplinary teams consist of discipline representatives, caregivers and parents who provide continued support, consultation, and direct assistance to one another and to the team member who is the service provider.

18 Stages of Team Development Stage 1 - The Forming Stage Stage 2 - The Storming Stage Stage 3 – The Norming Stage Stage 4 - The Performing Stage

19 Characteristics of Effective Teams Organizational Support Clear Roles Including the Leadership/Facilitator Role Clear Goals Shared Norms Including a Common Language An Understanding and Appreciation for Each Other’s Values Clear Decision-Making Process Open Communication Creative Conflict Management A Plan for Monitoring, Discussing, and Adjusting Team Process and Structure

20 Rationale for Interagency Collaboration Can result in: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

21 Interagency Coordinating Council The ICC consists of parents, representatives from public and private providers of early intervention, representation from the state legislature, representation from institutions of higher education, and representatives from the appropriate state agencies involved in the provision of or payment for early intervention services. Thus, at the direction of the law, a state-level council is in place appointed by the governor, to advise and assist in planning, developing, and implementing a coordinated, comprehensive interagency program of early intervention services. Many states have extended the concept to the development of local or community ICCs.

22 Service Coordination Role-Focused Approaches Resource Procurement Approaches Family Empowerment Approaches

23 Barriers to Interagency Collaboration Competitiveness Parochial Interests Lack of Communication Skills Resistance to Change Concerns about Client Confidentiality Inadequate Knowledge about Other Agencies and Programs Negative Attitudes about Other Agencies and Programs Political Naivete

24 Responsibilities of the Service Coordinator Coordinating the Performance of Evaluations and Assessments Facilitating and Participating in the Development, Review, and Evaluation of the IFSP Helping Families Identify Available Service Providers Coordinating and Monitoring the Delivery of Available Services Informing Families of the Availability of Advocacy Services Coordinating with Medical and Health Providers Facilitating the Development of a Transition Plan to Preschool Services, If Appropriate

25 Determinants of Risk in Infancy Prenatal Period (Period Extending from Conception to Birth) Genetic Factors Chromosome Abnormalities Mother's Age Adequacy of Prenatal Care Maternal Health Problems General Health and Nutrition

26 Determinants of Risk in Infancy Perinatal Period (Period from the 12th Week of Gestation Through the Fourth Week after Birth) Medical Factors During Delivery Prematurity Low Birth Weight Intraventricular Hemorrhage Periventricular Echodensities Respiratory Problems Hyperbilirubinemia Metabolic Problems

27 Determinants of Risk in Infancy Postnatal Period (Period from 28 Days Following Birth to 11 Months) Quality of Attachment Non-accidental Injuries Mother's and Infants Quality of Nutrition Availability of Well Baby/Hospital Health Care Socioeconomic Status of Family Infants General State of Health

28 Abnormal Reflex Patterns Blink - To a flash of light or a puff of air, an infant closes both eyes Babinski - When the side of an infant’s foot is stroked from the heel toward the toes, the toes fan out and the foot twists inward Babkin - When an infant is lying on his back, pressure applied to the palms of both hands causes the head to turn straight ahead, the mouth to open, and the eyes to close Grasping - Pressure on an infant’s palms produced by an object like a parent’s finger causes the fingers to curl with a strong enough grasp to support the infant’s own weigh Moro - The reflex pattern, which involves extending the arms and then bringing them rapidly toward the midline while closing the fingers in a grasping action, can be triggered by several kinds of startling stimuli, such as a loud noise or holding the infant horizontally face-up and then rapidly lowering the baby about six inches

29 Abnormal Reflex Patterns Rooting - When an infant’s cheek is stroked lightly, he turns his head in the direction of the stroked cheek and opens his mouth to suck the object that stroked the cheek Stepping - When an infant is held above a surface, then lowered until the feet touch the surface, the infant will make stepping movements like walking. Sucking - When an object such as a nipple or a finger is inserted into an infant’s mouth, rhythmic sucking occurs. Tonic Neck - An infant placed on his back tends to turn his head to one side and to extend the arm and leg on that side while flexing the limbs on the other side.

30 Common Developmental Disorders in Infancy Health-Related Problems Failure to Thrive Infections Feeding Problems Craniosynostosis High Altitudes

31 Common Developmental Disorders in Infancy Sensory Disorders Hearing Impairment Visual Impairment Tactile Defensiveness

32 Common Developmental Disorders in Infancy Neuromotor Disorders Cerebral Palsy Spina Bifida Muscular Distrophy Seizure Disorders

33 Common Developmental Disorders in Infancy Congenital Disorders Genetic Disorders Chromosomal Disorders Cognitive Disorders Mental Retardation

34 Common Developmental Disorders in Infancy Social/Emotional/Communicative Disorders Attachment Disorders Pervasive Development Disorders Infantile Autism

35 Legal Requirements for an IFSP 1.A multidisciplinary assessment of strengths and needs of the infant or toddler and identification of services appropriate to meet such needs; 2.A family assessment of the resources, priorities, and concerns of the family and the identification of the supports and services necessary to enhance the family’s capacity to meet the developmental needs of their infant or toddler with a disability; and 3.A written individualized family service plan developed by a multidisciplinary team, including the parent or guardian.

36 Participants in Initial and Annual IFSP Meetings 1.The parent or parents of the child. 2.Other family members as desired by the family. 3.An advocate or person outside the family, if the parent requests that the person participate. 4.The service coordinator who has been working with the family since the initial referral or who has been designated by the public agency to be responsible for the implementation of the IFSP. 5.A person or persons directly involved in the assessment process. 6.As appropriate, persons who will be providing services to the child or the family.

37 Planning for an IFSP Meeting 1.Appoint a service coordinator to organize all aspects of the IFSP conference. 2.Solicit information from the family about their preferences and needs regarding the conference. 3.In collaboration with the family, decide who should attend the conference. 4.Contact and coordinate with other professionals who will attend the meeting. 5.Arrange a convenient time and location for the meeting. 6.Assist families with logistical needs such as transportation and child care.

38 Assessment of Family Resources, Priorities, and Concerns 1.Lack of appropriate instruments 2.Sends the wrong messages: a. b. c. d.

39 Development of an IFSP –A statement of the child’s present levels of academic achievement and functional performance –A statement of measurable annual goals –A description of how the child’s progress toward meeting the annual goals will be measured –A statement of the special education and related services and supplementary aids and services, based on peer-reviewed research to the extent practicable –A statement of the extent, if any, the child will not participate with non-disabled children in the regular class –A statement of any individual appropriate accommodations that are necessary to measure the academic achievement and functional performance of the child on State and district wide assessments –The projected date for beginning services and the duration of services –Beginning not later than the first IEP to be in effect when the child is 16, and updated annually thereafter, a statement of the transition needs

40 The End One class down, three to go… See you next week!

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