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DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Part 1: Oral cavity and associated structures.

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Presentation on theme: "DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Part 1: Oral cavity and associated structures."— Presentation transcript:

1 DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Part 1: Oral cavity and associated structures

2 2 Digestive tube Oral cavity Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine and Large extrinsic glands Major salivary glands Pancreas Liver DIGESTIVE SYSTEM includes

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4 Oral cavity mucosa Masticatory Lining Sensory Constituents: Stratified squamous epithelium (nonkeratinized, or parakeratinized, or keratinized) Subepithelial connective tissue (lamina propria mucosa + tela submucosa) Oral cavity is characteristic by lack of lamina muscularis mucosae 4

5 5 Oral cavity constituents Lips Cheeks Palate Gingiva (Gums) Teeth Tongue Salivary glands Tonsils

6 Lip Cutaneous (exnernal) aspect –Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium –Hair follicles with hair shafts –Sebaceous glands Transitional part (vermilion zone) –Stratified squamous para-keratinized epithelium –High connective tissue papillae with blood vessels Mucous (internal) aspect –Stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium –Small labial salivary glands M.orbicularis oris skeletal muscle is having central location 6

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8 8 Вчена рада Львівського національного медичного університету клопоче про надання бюджетного фінансування на 2012р. на продовження виконання перехідних тем:  Вплив гострого інфаркту міокарда, артеріальної гіпертензії та цукрового діабету 2 типу на ультраструктурне ремоделювання міокарда і розвиток серцевої недостатності (фундаментальні дослідження) Виконання теми заплановано на 2011-2013 рр.  Вивчити особливості формування травматичної хвороби головного мозку (прикладні дослідження) Виконання теми заплановано на 2010-2012 рр.

9 Cheek Lining mucosa –Stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium with prominent connective tissue investment Buccal salivary glands Stratum musculare (skeletal muscle) Zona adiposa External cutaneous layer Topographically cheek includes three parts –Pars maxillaris –Pars mandibularis –Pars intermedia 9

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11 Gingiva (gums) Gingiva is covered by fully or partially keratinized (parakeratinized) epithelium with high connective tissue papillae As the epithelium of the gingiva approaches the tooth it attaches to the enamel surface, forming a collar around the neck of the tooth, and is known as junctional epithelium The 1-2-mm deep space between the gingiva and the tooth is the gingival sulcus 11

12 Palate The oral and nasal cavities are separated from each other by hard palate and soft palate The hard palate contains bony shelf, is immovable, is covered by masticatory mucosa on the oral and respiratory epithelium on the nasal aspect; it is rich in adipose tissue and mucus-secreting salivary glands The soft palate is movable, its core is formed by skeletal muscle and dense irregular connective tissue; orally is covered by lining mucosa The most posterior extension of the soft palate is the uvula, solely covered by stratified squamous non- keratinized (lining) epithelium 12

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14 Tongue Bulk of the tongue is composed of skeletal muscle fibers (extrinsic and intrinsic). Sulcus terminalis subdivides tongue into root and anterior 2/3 Dorsal surface of the tongue includes Filiform papillae (conical in the newborns) Fungiform papillae (contain taste buds) Circumvallate papillae (contain taste buds) Lenticulate papillae (lingual tonsil) Lateral surface of tongue includes Foliate papillae Undersurface is covered by lining mucosa 14

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17 Taste buds include Basal cells (type IV cells) Dark cells (type I cells) Light cells (type II cells) Intermediate cells (type III cells) 17

18 Taste buds location and structure 18

19 Tooth anatomy Crown Neck Root Pulp cavity Apical foramen 19

20 Tooth histology Enamel ↔ Enamel prisms (Enamel rods) Dentin ↔ Collagen fibers + Dentinal tubules + Processes of odontoblasts Cementum ↔ Collagen fibers + Cementoblasts + Cementocytes Dental pulp ↔ Cell bodies of odontoblasts + Pulpocytes Periodontium ↔ Collagen fibers 20

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22 Light micrograph of the crown and neck of a tooth 22

23 Tooth development (Odontogenesis) Dental lamina Tooth germ: (1) Bud stage; (2) Cap stage; (3) Bell stage: - Enamel organ ↔ Ameloblasts (Enameloblasts) + Enamel cuticle - Dental papilla ↔ Odontoblasts (Dentinoblasts) + Dental pulp -Dental sac ↔ Cementoblasts (Cementocytes) + Periodontal ligament Root formation (Hertwig epithelial root sheath) 23

24 Odontogenesis 24

25 Ameloblast and odontoblast schematic representation 25

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28 Salivary glands Major salivary glands Parotid Submandibular Sublingual Minor salivary glands Labial Buccal Lingual Palatine Molar 28

29 LARGE SALIVARY GLAND STRUCTURE Cellular composition of secretory units (acini): Serocytes (parotid) Serocytes (serous demilunes) + mucocytes (submandibular) – Mucocytes + serocytes (sublingual) Myoepitheliocytes (all three glands) 29

30 LARGE SALIVARY GLAND STRUCTURE Duct system: Intercalated ducts Striated ducts Interlobular ducts Common salivary duct 30

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