2“Always look at what you have left. Never look at what you have lost.” Robert Shuller
3Objectives Describe the different types of cosmetics and their uses. Demonstrate an understanding of cosmetic color theory.Demonstrate a basic makeup procedure for any occasion.LEARNING MOTIVATION (WHY?)Today’s aging society is doing anything possible to feel and look younger. Fortunately for women, the application of cosmetics can do a great deal to emphasize their most attractive facial features and to minimize those features that are not so attractive or that are out of balance. Applying color to the face is not a new trend. Recorded history shows that both the men and the women of the New Stone Age used tattooing and body paint for ornamentation. Makeup has been used to indicate status in society, for tribal identification, for important religious ceremonies, for preparation for war, and any number of other events. You may remember how dramatic Elizabeth Taylor’s makeup was when she played Cleopatra, making those Egyptian eyes famous. Makeup in the days of the Egyptians was usually a combination of ground alabaster or starch mixed with vegetable dyes and mineral salts.Cosmetics really became an industry of its own in the 1930s with Elizabeth Arden and Max Factor introducing lines and opening salons devoted to beauty. As the demand increased, cosmetics were soon available for all economic levels.As a professional cosmetologist, you will consider the structure of the client’s face; the color of the eyes, skin and hair; how the client wants to look; and the reasonable results you can achieve. You will truly become an artist when you can apply color, shading and highlighting to create illusions that are most flattering to a client’s appearance. You will have the advantage with your license as a cosmetologist because you will not only be able to provide the client with effective skin care services and cosmetic application, but you will also be able to provide the appropriate color and hair design to create the best possible image for your clients. Never forget, a client who projects a total, together look will be your best advertisement!
4Objectives–Cont’dIdentify different facial types and demonstrate procedures for basic corrective makeup.Demonstrate the application and removal of artificial lashes.List safety measures to be followed during makeup application.
5Enhancing Natural Beauty OBJECTIVE: To emphasize the client’s most attractive facial features while minimizing those features that are less attractive.Varies from client to client, based on face shape analysis and client’s individual needs. Consider face structure, eye color, skin and hair, client’s wants, and the results you can realistically achieve.
7Foundation Chemistry Liquid Cream Mineral powder FOUNDATION: A tinted cosmetic also known as base makeup; used to cover or even out skin coloring, conceal minor imperfections of the skin, and protects the skin from climate, dirt, and debris. Available in liquid, stick, and cream forms. Newest trend is mineral powder makeup.CHEMISTRY: Most liquid and cream forms are mixtures of water and oil spreading agents as a base containing a significant amount of talc and different color agents pigments.• Liquid. Also called water-based foundation, made up of mostly water and emollients such as mineral oil or a silicone such as cyclomethicone. Some may contain alcohol or drying agents. The mixture of water and oil help apply the makeup color agents evenly.• Cream. Known as oil-based and thicker than liquid. They provide heavier coverage. Usually intended for dry skin types. Not recommended for oily or acneic skin.• Mineral powder
8Foundation Selection and Use Match to skin tone.Blend with disposable makeup sponge.Avoid lines of demarcation.Mineral powder is applied with fluffy brush.FOUNDATION SELECTION: Match as closely as possible to actual skin tone. If too light, it will have a chalky or gray appearance. If too dark, it will look dirty or muddy. Determine correct foundation color by applying a stripe of color to clean skin on the jawline. Blend slightly. Color that disappears on the skin is the correct tone.
9Concealers Use to cover blemishes and discolorations. Match color to skin.Apply with sponge or disposable cotton swab.Use sparingly and soften edges.CONCEALERS: Used to cover blemishes and discolorations. Available in tins, jars, or tubes with wands.Using concealer. Removed from container with a sanitized spatula and applied with a sponge or disposable cotton swab. Match color to skin as closely as possible. Use sparingly and soften edges.
10Face Powder Adds matte finish, absorbs oil, and “sets” foundation. Mixture of talc or cornstarch and pigment.Uses binders like zinc stearate.Applied with large powder brush.FACE POWDER: Fine cosmetic powder used to add a matte or dull finish to the face. Helps absorb excess oil, minimize oily shine, and “set” the foundation. Comes in loose and pressed varieties. Both are a mixture of talc or cornstarch with color pigments added.Chemistry. Loose powder and pressed powder have the same basic composition. Pressed powders are compressed and held together with binders. Loose powders don’t contain much color and are called translucent. Pressing agents or binders like zinc stearate are added to press the foundation and help its adherence to the skin.Applying face powder. Applied with large powder brush. Remove some and place in a disposable cup or tissue. Dip brush in powder and fluff it across the face. Cover all areas of face; remove any excess powder. Avoid a caked, streaked, or blotchy application.
11Cheek Color Called blush or rouge. Comes in powder, gel, or cream. Used to add natural glow and color.CHEEK COLOR: Also called blush or rouge; comes in powder, gel, and cream. Cream is used after foundation and before powder. Powder is used after foundation and cream have been applied.Application should look soft and natural. Too little is better than too much. Never apply in a circle on the cheek, beyond the corner of the eye, or inward between the cheekbone and nose.
12Lip Color Lipstick or gloss Lip liner Formulas of oils, waxes, and dyesLip linerUsed to outline lips; keeps lip color from feathering; coordinate with lip colorLIP COLOR: Also called lipstick or gloss. A cosmetic in paste form, available in a variety of colors. Used to enhance or correct the shape of the lips. Some contain sunscreen, others contain moisturizers.Chemistry. Available in variety of forms: creams, glosses, pencils, gels and sticks. All are formulas of oils, waxes, and dyes.Using lip color. Consider the client’s preferences, eye color, skin tone and lip shape. Do not apply directly from container, unless it belongs to the client. Use a spatula to remove the lip color from the container and take it from the spatula with a disposable lip brush.LIP LINER: Used to outline the lips. Also helps keep lip color from feathering. Coordinate lip liner with chosen lip color. Sharpen the lipliner and sanitize the sharpener before every use.
13Eye Shadows Make eyes brighter and more expressive. Forms Colors Highlight colorBase colorContour colorEYE SHADOW: Applied on the eyelids to accentuate or contour them. Available in almost every color and in a variety of finishes, including metallic, matte, frost, shimmer, or dewy.Using eye shadow. Makes the eyes appear brighter and more expressive. Darker shade of eye color makes the natural color of the iris appear lighter, while a lighter shade makes the iris appear deeper. Makeup colors should enhance the client’s eyes.Forms. Stick, cream, pressed, and dry powder form.ColorsHighlight color. Lighter than the client’s skin tone and may have any finish. Highlight a specific area such as the brow bone. Lighter color will make an area appear larger.Base color. A medium tone that is close to the client’s skin tone. Used to even skin tone on the eye. Applied all over the lid and brow bone before other colors are applied.Contour color. Deeper and darker than the client’s skin tone. Applied to minimize a specific area, to create contour in a crease, or define the eyelash line.
14Eyeliners Used to outline and emphasize the eye. Consist of wax or hardened oil base with color additives.Apply with short strokes and gentle pressure.EYELINER: Used to outline and emphasize the eye. Available in pencil, liquid, pressed (cake), or felt-tip pen. Make the eyes appear larger and lashes fuller.Chemistry. Consists of a wax (paraffin) or hardened oil base (petrolatum) with a variety of additives to create color.CAUTION: According to the American Medical Association, eye pencils should not be used to color the inner rim of the eyes, because this can lead to infection of the tear duct, causing tearing, blurring of vision, and permanent pigmentation of the mucous membrane lining the inside of the eye.Using eyeliner. Be cautious when applying. Have a steady hand. Sharpen the eyeliner, wipe with clean tissue, and sanitize the sharpener before each use. Apply with short strokes and gentle pressure close to lash line. Brush may be wet to use with powder liner.
15Eyebrow Color Used to add color and contour brows. Chemistry similar to eyeliner pencils.Avoid harsh contrasts with haircolor.EYEBROW COLOR: Eyebrow pencils or shadows used to add color and shape to the eyebrows. Can darken the eyebrows, fill in sparse areas, or correct misshapen brows.Chemistry. Chemistry is similar to that of eyeliner pencils and ingredients are similar to those in eye shadows.Using eyebrow color. Sharpen the pencil, wipe clean with tissue, and sanitize the sharpener before each use. Avoid harsh contrasts between hair and eyebrow color.
16Mascara Used to darken and thicken lashes. Chemistry Pigments ApplicationMASCARA. Used to darken, define, and thicken the eyelashes. Available in liquid, cake, and cream form. Enhances the natural lashes, making them appear thicker and longer. Lashes should be darker than the eyebrows.Chemistry. Polymer products that include water, wax, thickeners, film-formers, and preservatives in their formulation.Pigments. Pigments are carbon black, carmine, ultramarine, chromium oxide, and iron oxides. Some contain rayon or nylon fibers to lengthen and thicken the hair fibers.Application. May be used on all lashes from the inner to outer corners. Dispose of the wand. NEVER double-dip.
17Other Cosmetics Eye makeup removers Grease paint Cake (pancake) makeup Eye makeup removers. Oil-based or water-based. Used to remove makeup.Grease paint. Heavy makeup used for theatrical purposes.Cake or pancake makeup. A shaped, solid mass applied to the face with a moistened cosmetic sponge. Gives good coverage and used to cover scars and pigmentation defects.
19Makeup Brushes–Cont’d Angle brushLash and brow brush
20Makeup Tools Tweezers Eyelash curler Sponges Powder or cotton puffs Mascara wandsSpatulasDisposable lip brushesSponge-tipped shadow applicatorsCotton pads or puffsPencil sharpener
21Color Theory Primary colors Secondary colors Tertiary colors Complementary colorsPRIMARY COLOR: Cannot be obtained from a mixture. Yellow, red and blue.SECONDARY COLOR: Obtained by mixing equal parts of two primary colors. Orange, violet, green.TERTIARY COLOR: Formed by mixing equal amounts of a secondary color and its neighboring primary color.COMPLEMENTARY COLORS: Primary and secondary colors directly opposite each other on the color wheel. When mixed, they cancel each other out to create a neutral brown or gray color.
22Warm and Cool Colors Warm Cool WARM AND COOL COLORS Warm. Range from yellow and gold through oranges, red-oranges, most reds, and even some yellow-greens.Cool. Dominated by blues, greens, violets, and blue-reds.
24Selecting Makeup Colors Light skin colorMedium skin colorDark skin colorSELECTING MAKEUP COLOR: Consider skin color, eye color, and hair color.Skin color. Decide if the skin is light, medium, or dark in level.Light skin color. Use light colors for a soft, natural look. Medium to dark colors will create a more dramatic look.Medium skin color. Medium tones will create an understated look. Light or dark tones will provide more contrast and appear bolder.Dark skin color. Dark tones will be most subtle. Medium to light tones will be striking and vivid.
25Color Selection Steps Determine skin level. Determine skin undertone. Determine eye color.Determine complementary colors.Determine hair color.Choose eye makeup colors.Coordinate cheek and lip colors.Apply makeup.COLOR SELECTION STEPSDetermine skin level: light, medium, or dark.Determine skin undertone: warm, cool, or neutral.Determine eye color: blue, green, brown, etc.Determine complementary colors.Determine hair color: warm or cool.Choose eye makeup colors based on complementary or contrasting colors.Coordinate cheek and lip colors within same color family: warm, cool, or neutral.Apply makeup.
26Complementary Colors for Eyes Neutrals: safestBlue eyesGold, peach, copper, mauve, plum, taupe, camelCOLORS FOR EYES: Neutrals are always safest choice. Contrasting eye color with complementary colors will emphasize the color most effectively.COMPLEMENTARY COLORS:Blue eyes: orange. Choices include gold, warm orange-browns like peach and copper; red-browns like mauve and plum; and neutrals like taupe or camel.Green eyes: red. Choices include brown-based reds, red-orange, red-violet, and violet; coppers, rusts, pinks, plums, mauve, and purples.Brown eyes: neutral and can wear any color. Contrasting colors such as greens, blues, grays, and slivers.
27Complementary Colors for Eyes–Cont’d Green eyesBrown-based reds, red-orange, red-violet, violet, coppers, rusts, pinks, plums, mauve, and purples
28Complementary Colors for Eyes–Cont’d Brown eyesCan wear any color: greens, blues, grays, silvers
29Complementary Colors for Eyes–Cont’d Cheek and lip colorCoordinate in same color family as eye makeupHair color and eye colorHair color impacts the complementary colors chosenCHEEK AND LIP COLOR: Coordinate in the same color family as the eye makeup.HAIR COLOR AND EYE COLOR: Hair color needs to be taken into account when determining eye makeup color.
31Client Consultation Consultation area Lighting Gather information Sell retailCLIENT CONSULTATION: Your role is to listen and then make recommendations.Consultation area. Should be clean and tidy. Keep a portfolio that includes photographs of your work or pictures from magazines.Lighting. Essential for both the consultation and application of the makeup process. Face should be evenly lit without dark shadows. Natural light is best. If necessary to use artificial light, should be a combination of incandescent light and fluorescent light.Gather information. Skin condition, how much or how little makeup she wears, daily vs. special occasion makeup, amount of time spent applying makeup, color likes and dislikes, and any trouble areas. Record on client consultation card.Sell retail. Reviewing and restating your written advice with the client at the end of the service will help sell retail products.
34Makeup Application Preparation Perform client consultation.Wash hands.Drape client.Apply cleanser.PREPARATIONPerform client consultation. Determine the client’s needs and choose products and colors accordingly.Wash your hands.Drape the client. Use a headband or hair clip to keep the client’s hair out of her face.Apply cleansing cream or lotion. Remove a small quantity of cleanser from the container with a spatula and place it in the palm of the left hand or apply a dab of lotion to an applicator. With the fingertips of the right hand, place dabs of cleanser on the forehead, nose, cheeks, chin, and neck. Spread the cleanser over the face and neck with light upward and outward circular movements.
35Makeup Application Preparation–Cont’d Remove cleanser.Apply astringent lotion or toner.Apply moisturizer.Groom eyebrows.Remove cleanser. Use a tissue, mitts, or moistened cotton pads to remove the cleanser, using an upward and outward motion. Be especially gentle around the eyes. If makeup or color is particularly heavy on the eyes and lips, apply the cleanser a second time, as needed.Apply astringent lotion or toner. For oily skin, apply astringent lotion; for dry skin, apply a skin toner. Moisten a cotton pad with the lotion and pat it lightly over the entire face and under the chin and neck. Blot off excess moisture with tissues or a cotton pad.Apply moisturizer. When necessary, as in the case of dry and delicate skin, apply a moisturizing lotion. Dab a small amount of the moisturizer on the forehead, cheeks, and chin. Blend upward over the face. Remove excess with a tissue, cotton pad, or facial sponge.Groom eyebrows. Eyebrow arching (tweezing) is a complete service in itself. You may, however, choose to remove a few stray hairs before a facial makeup by tweezing the hair in the same direction in which it grows.
36Makeup Application Procedure Apply foundation.PROCEDUREApply foundation. Test the color by blending the foundation on the client’s jawline. When you are satisfied with your choice, place a small amount of the foundation in the palm or back of your hand and, using the tips of your fingers, apply sparingly and evenly over the entire face and around the neckline. Starting at the center of the face, blend with outward and downward motions. Blend near the hairline and remove excess foundation with a cosmetic sponge or pledget.
37Makeup Application Procedure–Cont’d Apply concealer.Apply concealer. Select the appropriate type and color of concealer and then scrape a small amount onto a spatula. Using a brush or fingertips, apply the concealer lightly where needed (under the eyes, over blemishes, to cover redness). Blend in with a patting motion. If a powder foundation is being used, the concealer must be applied before the foundation. (NOTE: Your instructor may prefer a different method that may be equally correct.)
38Makeup Application Procedure–Cont’d Apply powder.Apply powder. Apply the powder with a sanitary puff or cosmetic sponge, pressing it over the face and shaking off the excess with a puff or powder brush. A moistened cosmetic sponge may be pressed over the finished makeup to give the face a matte look.
39Makeup Application Procedure–Cont’d Apply eye color.Apply eyeliner.Apply eyebrow color.Apply eye color. Select a complementary color in a medium tone and then, beginning at the lash line or crease, apply lightly and blend outward with a brush or disposable applicator.Apply eyeliner. Select cake or liquid liner in a color to harmonize with the mascara you will be applying. Pull the eyelid taut as the client looks down, and draw a very fine line along the entire lid. You may apply to the top lash line and/or bottom lash line. If eyeliner pencil is used, the point should be fine and care should be taken to avoid injury or discomfort. Be sure to trim the pencil before each use.Apply eyebrow color. Brush the brows in place. With light feathery strokes, apply color with a fine pointed pencil or fill in with a brush and shadow. Excess color can be removed with a cotton-tipped swab.
40Makeup Application Procedure–Cont’d Apply mascara.Apply mascara. Apply to the top and underside of the upper lashes with careful, gentle strokes until the desired effect is achieved. Use a fresh brush or applicator to separate the lashes. Mascara may be applied to lower lashes if desired, but the effect should be subtle.
41Makeup Application Procedure–Cont’d Apply cheek color.Apply cheek color. (Cheek color is sometimes applied after the foundation and before powdering.) Have the client smile, to raise the cheeks, and then apply liquid or cream cheek color with a sanitized applicator, blending outward and upward toward the temples. Powder cheek color is brushed on following the application of powder. Use the same procedure as with a cream or liquid.
42Makeup Application Procedure–Cont’d Apply lip color.Apply lip color. Use a freshly sharpened pencil to line the lips, beginning at the outer corner of the upper lip and working toward the middle. Repeat on the opposite side. Connect the center peaks using rounded strokes, following the natural line of the lip. Outline the lower lip from the outer corners in, and then apply liner on the lips, staying within the outline. For sanitary reasons, lip color must not be applied directly from the container unless it belongs to the client. Use a spatula to remove the lip color from the container, then take it from the spatula with a lip brush. Rest your ring finger on the client’s chin to steady your hand. Ask the client to relax her lips and part them slightly. Brush on the lip color. Then ask the client to smile slightly so that you can smooth the lip color into any small crevices. Blot the lips with tissue to remove excess product and set the lip color. Powdering is not recommended, because a moist look is more desirable for lips.
43Cleanup and Sanitation Discard disposable items.Disinfect implements.Clean and sanitize brushes.Place towels and linens.Sanitize work station.Wash hands.CLEANUP AND SANITATIONDiscard all disposable items, such as sponges, pads, spatulas, and applicators, after each use.Disinfect implements such as eyelash curlers.Clean and sanitize brushes using a commercial brush sanitizer.Place towels, linens, makeup cape, and other washable items in a hamper.Sanitize your workstation.Wash your hands with soap and warm water.
44Striking Contour Eyes Base color from lashes to brow. Medium tone on lid.Medium to deep tone in crease and blend.Highlight shadow under brow bone.Eyeliner from outside corner tapering in.Shadow over eyeliner.Apply mascara.SPECIAL OCCASION MAKEUP FOR EYESOPTION 1: Striking Contour EyesApply the base color from the lashes to the brow with a shadow brush or applicator.Apply medium tone on the lid, blending from lash line to crease with the shadow brush or applicator.Apply medium to deep color in the crease, blending up toward the eyebrow, but ending below it.Apply highlight shadow under the brow bone with the shadow brush or applicator.Apply eyeliner on the upper lash line from the outside corner in, tapering as you reach the inner corner. Blend with the small brush or applicator.Apply shadow in the same color as the liner, directly over the liner. This will give longevity and intensity to the liner. Repeat on the bottom lash line, if desired.Apply mascara with a disposable wand.
46Dramatic Smoky Eyes Encircle with gray, brown, or black liner. Smudge eyeliner.Dark shadow from upper lash to crease.Repeat on lower lash line.Highlight color to upper brow area.Apply mascara.Add individual or band lashes.OPTION 2: Dramatic Smoky EyesEncircle the eye with dark gray, dark brown, or black eyeliner.Smudge with a small shadow brush or disposable applicator.Using the shadow brush or applicator, apply dark shadow from the upper lash line to the crease, softening and blending as you approach the crease. The shadow should be dark from outer to inner corner. You may choose shimmering or matte finish eye shadows.Repeat on the lower lash line, carefully blending any hard edges.If desired, add a highlight color in a shimmering or matte finish to the upper brow area with the shadow brush or applicator.Apply mascara with a disposable wand.Add individual or band lashes if desired.
48Special Occasion–Cheeks Add definition under cheekbones.Use shimmer or glitter for highlight.SPECIAL OCCASION MAKEUP FOR CHEEKSRefer to corrective makeup for techniques you can use to remedy less attractive aspects of the cheeks. You can also try either of these two steps.Use a darker blush color under the cheekbones to add definition.Apply with a blush brush or applicator and blend carefully. Add a brighter, lighter cheek color to the apples of the cheeks and blend.Use a cheek color with shimmer or glitter over the cheekbones for highlight. You may use cream or powder colors.
49Special Occasion–Lips Line lips and fill with lip pencil and blot.Add lip color.Apply gloss to center of lips.SPECIAL OCCASION MAKEUP FOR LIPSMost clients prefer brighter or darker colors for special occasions. You may use shimmer colors or matte colors, if desired.Apply liner color to the lips. Fill in the lip line with pencil and blot.Add similar color in lipstick over the entire mouth with a lip brush or applicator.Apply gloss to the center of the lips with a lip brush or applicator.
50Corrective Makeup Emphasizes good features. Minimizes imperfections. Highlighting is used to emphasize.Shadowing minimizes features.CORRECTIVE MAKEUP: Facial features can be accented with proper highlighting, subdued with correct shadowing or shading, and balanced with the proper hairstyle. A basic rule is that highlighting emphasizes a feature, while shadowing minimizes it.
51Analyzing Face Shapes Oval Round ANALYZING FEATURES AND FACE SHAPE Oval-shaped face. Artistically ideal proportions and features. The face is divided into three equal horizontal sections. The first third is measured from the hairline to the top of the eyebrows. The second third is measured from the top of the eyebrows to the end of the nose. The last third is measured from the end of the nose to the bottom of the chin. The ideal oval face is approximately three-fourths as wide as it is long. The distance between the eyes is the width of one eye.Round face. Usually broader in proportion to its length. Rounding chin and hairline. Apply corrective makeup to slenderize and lengthen the face.
52Analyzing Face Shapes–Cont’d SquareTriangularHeart-shapedSquare-shaped face. Composed of straight lines with a wide forehead and square jawline. Apply corrective makeup to offset the squareness and soften the hard lines around the face.Triangular (pear-shaped) face. Characterized by a jaw that is wider than the forehead. Apply corrective makeup to create width at the forehead, slenderize the jaw line, and add length to the face.Inverted triangle (heart-shaped) face. Has a wide forehead and narrow, pointed chin. Apply corrective makeup to minimize the width of the forehead and to increase the width of the jawline.
53Analyzing Face Shapes–Cont’d DiamondOblongDiamond-shaped face. Has a narrow forehead with the greatest width across the cheekbones. Apply corrective makeup to reduce the width across the cheekbone line.Oblong face. Has greater length in proportion to its width than the square or round face. Long and narrow. Apply corrective makeup to create the illusion of width across the cheekbone line, making the face appear shorter.
54Forehead Area Low forehead Protruding forehead FOREHEAD AREA Low forehead. Applying a lighter foundation lends a broader appearance between the brows and hairline.Protruding forehead. Applying a darker foundation over the prominent area gives an illusion of fullness to the rest of the face and minimizes the bulging forehead.
55Nose and Chin Areas Large or protruding nose Short and flat nose Broad noseProtruding chin and receding noseReceding chinSagging double chinNOSE AND CHIN AREASLarge or protruding nose. Apply a darker foundation on the nose and a lighter foundation on the cheeks at the sides of the nose. Avoid placing cheek color close to the nose.Short and flat nose. Apply a lighter foundation down the center of the nose, ending at the tip.Broad nose. Use a darker foundation on the sides of the nose and nostrils.Protruding chin and receding nose. Shadow the chin with a darker foundation and highlight the nose with a lighter foundation.Receding chin. Highlight the chin by using a lighter foundation than the one used on the face.Sagging double chin. Use a darker foundation on the sagging portion and use a natural skin tone foundation on the face.
56Jawline and Neck Area Broad jawline Narrow jawline Round, square, or triangular faceShort, thick neckLong, thin neckJawline and neck area. Blend the foundation onto the neck so that the client’s color is consistent from face to neck. Set with a translucent powder.Broad jawline. Apply a darker shade of foundation over the heavy area of the jaw, starting at the temples. This will minimize the lower part of the face and create an illusion of width in the upper part of the face.Narrow jawline. Highlight by using a lighter foundation shade.Round, square, or triangular face. Apply a darker shade of foundation over the prominent part of the jawline. The jaw will appear softer and more oval.Small face, short, thick neck. Use a darker foundation on the neck than the one used on the face. The neck will appear thinner.Long, thin neck. Apply a lighter shade of foundation on the neck than the one used on the face. Will create fullness and counteract the long, thin appearance of the neck.
57Corrective Makeup for the Eyes Round eyesClose-set eyesCORRECTIVE MAKEUP FOR THE EYESRound eyes. Lengthen by extending the shadow beyond the outer corner of the eyes.Close-set eyes. Are closer together than the length of one eye. Lightly apply shadow up from the outer edge of the eyes.
58Corrective Makeup for the Eyes–Cont’d Bulging eyesHeavy-lidded eyesProtruding or bulging eyes. Minimize by blending the shadow carefully over the prominent part of the upper lid, carrying it lightly toward the eyebrow.Heavy-lidded eyes. Shadow evenly and lightly across the lid from the edge of the eyelash line to the small crease in the eye socket.
59Corrective Makeup for the Eyes–Cont’d Small eyesWide-set eyesDeep-set eyesDark circlesSmall eyes. Make them appear larger by extending the shadow slightly above, beyond, and below the eyes.Wide-set eyes. Apply the shadow on the upper inner side of the eyelid, toward the nose, and blend carefully.Deep-set eyes. Use bright, light, reflective colors. Use the lightest color in the crease and a light to medium color sparingly on the lid and brow bone.Dark circles under eyes. Apply concealer over the dark area, blending and smoothing it into the surrounding area. Set lightly with translucent powder.
60Eyebrows The ideal eyebrow shape EYEBROWS: The eyebrow is the frame for the eye. The ideal shape can be drawn in three lines.
61Eyebrows–Cont’d Low forehead Wide-set eyes Close-set eyes Round face Long faceSquare faceLow forehead. A low arch gives more height to a very low forehead.Wide-set eyes. Eyes can appear close by extending the eyebrow lines to the inside corner of the eyes.Close-set eyes. Make the eyes appear farther apart, widen the distance between the eyebrows, and slightly extend them outward.Round face. Arch the brows high to make the face appear narrower.Long face. Making the eyebrows almost straight can create the illusion of a shorter face. Do not extend the line farther than the outside corners of the eyes. Square face. High arch on the ends of the eyebrows
62The LipsTHE LIPS: Lips are usually proportioned so that the curves or peaks of the upper lip fall directly in line with the nostrils.
64Skin Tone and Wrinkles Ruddy skin (red) Sallow skin (yellow) Minimizing wrinkles with foundationSKIN TONESRuddy skin. Skin that is red, wind-burned, or affected by rosacea. Apply a yellow or green foundation, blending carefully. Apply a light layer of foundation with a yellow base over the entire complexion. Set with translucent or yellow-based powder.Sallow skin. Skin that has a yellowish hue. Apply a pink-based foundation on the affected areas and blend. Set with a translucent powder.Wrinkles. Can be minimized with a foundation. Apply sparingly and evenly in a light, outward, circular motion. Remove any foundation that collects in lines and wrinkles of the face.
65Artificial Eyelashes Band or strip lashes Individual lashes Adhesive Allergy testARTIFICIAL EYELASHESBand lashes. Also called strip lashes are eyelashes on a strip that are applied with adhesive to the natural lash line.Individual lashes. Are separate artificial eyelashes that are applied to the eyelids one at a time.Eyelash adhesive. The product used to make artificial eyelashes adhere or stick to the natural lash line.Allergy testSome clients may be allergic to adhesive. When in doubt, give the client an allergy test before applying the lashes. This test may be done in one of two ways:Put a drop of the adhesive behind one ear.Attach a single individual eyelash to each eyelid.In either case, if there is no reaction within 24 hours, it is probably safe to proceed with the application.
66Band Application Supplies Wet sanitizerHeadband/hair clipTweezersCotton swabs/padsEyelash brushesAdjustable lampMakeup chairLash adhesiveTraysCleanserEyelash removerIMPLEMENTS AND MATERIALSWet sanitizer for metal implements, headband or hair clip, tweezers, cotton swabs, eyelash curler, eyelash brushes, hand mirror, manicure scissors, adjustable light, makeup chair, lash adhesive, adhesive tray, eyelid and eyelash cleanser, eyelash remover, cotton pads, eye makeup remover, makeup cape, trays of artificial eyelashes, pencil sharpener.
68Band Lash Preparation Give client consultation. Wash hands. Seat client.Drape client.Remove contact lenses.Remove eye makeup.220.127.116.11.5.6.PREPARATIONClient consultation. Discuss with the client the desired length of the lashes and the effect she hopes to achieve.Wash your hands.Place the client in the makeup chair with her head at a comfortable working height. The client’s face should be well and evenly lit, but avoid shining the light directly into the eyes. Work from behind or to the side of the client. Avoid working directly in front of the client whenever possible.Properly drape the client to protect her clothing and have her use a hairline strip, headband, or turban during the procedure.If the client wears contact lenses, they must be removed before starting the procedure.If the client has not already done so, remove all eye makeup so that the lash adhesive will adhere properly. Work carefully and gently. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions carefully.
69Band Lash Procedure Prepare lashes. Shape eyelash strip. Feather lash. Apply adhesive.PROCEDUREBrush the client’s eyelashes to make sure they are clean and free of foreign matter, such as mascara particles. If the client’s lashes are straight, they can be curled with an eyelash curler before you apply the artificial lashes.Carefully remove the eyelash band from the package.Start with the upper lash. If it is too long to fit the curve of the upper eyelid, trim the outside edge. Use your fingers to bend the lash into a horseshoe shape to make it more flexible so it fits the contour of the eyelid.Feather the lash by nipping into it with the points of your scissors. This creates a more natural look.Apply a thin strip of lash adhesive to the base of the lash and allow a few seconds for it to set.
70Band Lash Procedure–Cont’d Apply the lash.Apply lower lash (optional)Apply the lash. Start with the shorter part of the lash and place it on the inner corner of the eye, toward the nose. Position the rest of the artificial lash as close to the client’s own lash as possible. Use the rounded end of a lash liner brush or tweezers to press on the lash. Be very careful and gentle when applying the lashes. If eyeliner is to be used, the line is usually drawn on the eyelid before the lash is applied and retouched when the artificial lash is in place.Apply the lower lash if desired. Lower lash application is optional, as it tends to look more unnatural. Trim the lash as necessary and apply adhesive in the same way you did for the upper lash. Place the lash on the top of the client’s lower lash. Place the shorter lash toward the center of the eye and the longer lash toward the outer part of the lid.
71Removing Band Lashes Commercial preparations Soften with warm water and gentle cleanserStart at outer cornerLift gentlyUse cotton tips to remove makeup or adhesiveREMOVING BAND EYELASHESYou may use commercial preparations, such as pads saturated with special lotions, to remove band eyelashes. The lash base may also be softened by applying a face cloth or cotton pad saturated with warm water and a gentle facial cleanser. Hold the cloth over the eyes for a few seconds to soften the adhesive. Starting from the outer corner, remove the lashes carefully to avoid pulling out the client’s own lashes. Use cotton tips to remove any makeup and adhesive remaining on the eyelid.
72Individual Lashes Known as eye tabbing Individual lashes Synthetic Attached directly to client’s eyelashesFollow manufacturer’s directions
73Safety Precautions Wash hands. Drape properly. Protect hair and skin. Keep fingernails smooth.Use sanitized brushes and implements.Use shaker for loose powder.Pour lotions from bottles.SAFETY PRECAUTIONSWash your hands thoroughly with soap and warm water before and after every makeup application.Properly drape the client to protect her clothing and have her use a headband or hair clip during the makeup procedure.Protect the client’s hair and skin from direct contact with the facial chair.Keep your fingernails smooth to avoid scratching the client’s skin.Use only sanitized brushes and implements.Use a shaker-type container for loose powder.Pour all lotions from bottle containers.Always use a clean spatula or cosmetic applicator to remove cosmetics from their containers.Never apply lip color directly from the container to the client’s lips. Use a spatula or disposable applicator to remove the product from the container, then use a brush to apply.Use an antiseptic on tweezed areas of the eyebrow to avoid infection.Discard all disposable items, such as sponges, pads, spatulas, and applicators, after use.Place all towels, linens, makeup capes, and other items that can be washed and sanitized in the proper containers.Keep your workstation sanitary, neat, and well organized.
74Safety Precautions–Cont’d Use clean spatulas and applicators.Use spatula and disposable applicators for lip color.Use antiseptic on tweezed areas of brow.
75Safety Precautions–Cont’d Discard disposables.Place towels and linens in hamper.Keep workstation sanitary and neat.
76Summary and Review What is the main objective of makeup application? We have learned how to identify the basic face shapes and that the oval shape has artistically ideal proportions and features. Through corrective makeup, shadowing, and highlighting, we can create the illusion of oval for almost any face shape. We can contour, again through shadowing and highlighting, and minimize facial features that are unflattering. Corrective makeup procedures can be used to address large protruding noses, close- and wide-set eyes, double chins, and much more. Therefore, being able to effectively apply corrective makeup will make you as a professional very valuable to your clients, all of whom want to look their best.Let’s review.What is the main objective of makeup application?ANSWER: To emphasize the client’s most attractive facial features while minimizing those features that are less attractive.
77Summary and Review–Cont’d List 8 types of facial cosmetics and how they are used.List eight types of facial cosmetics and how they are used.ANSWER:Foundation evens skin tone and color, conceals minor imperfections of the skin and protects the skin from climate, dirt, and debris.Concealers cover blemishes and discolorations.Face powder adds a matte or dull finish to the face.Cheek color is used to color the cheeks and the skin beneath the cheekbones.Lip color is used to color the lips and enhance or correct the shape of the lips.Lip liner outlines the lips.Eye shadow accentuates or contours the eyes.Eyeliner outlines and emphasizes the eyes.Eyebrow pencils add color and shape to the eyebrows.Mascara darkens, defines, and thickens the eyelashes.
78Summary and Review–Cont’d Name the different types and uses of foundation.Name 3 types of cheek color.Name 3 types of eye shadow and how they are used.Name the different types and uses of foundation.ANSWER:Cream foundations are generally suited for dry to normal skin and give medium to full coverage.Liquid foundations are suited for clients with oily to normal skin conditions who desire a sheer to medium coverage foundation.Powder foundations are effective for oily skin.Mineral powder foundation contains pigment for coverage and is applied with a large, fluffy brush.Name three types of cheek color.ANSWER: cream, gel, and powder.Name the three different types of eye shadow and how they are used.A highlight color is lighter than the client’s skin tone and may have any finish.A base color is a medium tone that is close to the client’s skin tone.A contour color is a color, in any finish, that is deeper and darker than the client’s skin tone.
79Summary and Review–Cont’d List the primary and secondary colors.Name the colors in the warm and cool ranges.What are complementary colors?Summary and Review–Cont’dList the primary and secondary colors. Which ones are warm and which are cool.ANSWER:Primary colors: yellow, red, and blueSecondary colors: orange, violet, and greenName the colors in the warm range and the cool range.ANSWER: Warm colors range from yellow and gold through the oranges, red-oranges, most reds, and even yellow-greens. Cool colors are dominated by blues, greens, violets, and blue-reds.What are complementary colors?ANSWER: When mixed these colors cancel each other out to create a neutral brow or gray color.
80Summary and Review–Cont’d List the cosmetics used in a basic makeup procedure in the order they are applied.What are the 7 facial types?List the cosmetics used in basic makeup procedure, in the order in which they are applied.ANSWER: Foundation, concealer, powder, eye color, eyeliner, eyebrow color, mascara, cheek color, lip liner, and lip color.Name the seven facial types and describe basic makeup techniques for each.ANSWER:Oval shape face - idealRound face - corrective makeup can be applied to slenderize and lengthen the face.Square shaped face - offset the squareness and soften the hard lines around the face.Triangular (pear-shaped) face - width at the forehead, slenderize the jawline, and add length to the face.Inverted triangle (heart-shaped) face - minimize the width of the forehead and to increase the width of the jawline.Diamond shaped face - reduce the width across the cheekbone line.Oblong face - create the illusion of width across the cheekbone line, making the face appear shorter.
81Summary and Review–Cont’d Name and describe the 2 types of artificial eyelashes.Name and describe the two types of artificial eyelashes.ANSWER:Band lashes or strip lashes are eyelash hairs on a strip that are applied with adhesive to the natural lash line.Individual lashes are separate artificial eyelashes that are applied to the eyelids one at a time.
82Summary and Review–Cont’d List at least 10 safety precautions for makeup applications.List at least 10 safety measures that should be followed when applying makeup.ANSWER:Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and warm water before and after every makeup application.Properly drape the client to protect her clothing and have her use a headband or hair clip during the makeup procedure.Protect the client’s hair and skin from direct contact with the facial chair.Keep your fingernails smooth to avoid scratching the client’s skin.Use only sanitized brushes and implements.Use a shaker-type container for loose powder.Pour all lotions from bottle containers.Always use a clean spatula or cosmetic applicator to remove cosmetics from their containers.Never apply lip color directly form the container to the clients lips. Use a spatula or disposable applicator to remove the product from the container, then use a brush to apply.Use an antiseptic on tweezed areas of the eyebrow to avoid infection.Discard all disposable items, such as sponges, pads, spatulas, and applicators, after use.Place all towels, linens, makeup capes, and other washable items that can be washed and sanitized in the proper containers.Keep your workstation sanitary, neat, and well organized.
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