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Chapter 5: Digestive System Alimentary Canal Gastrointestinal Tract.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5: Digestive System Alimentary Canal Gastrointestinal Tract."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5: Digestive System Alimentary Canal Gastrointestinal Tract

2 In this chapter you will  Name the organs of the digestive system and describe their locations and functions.  Define combining forms for organs and the meaning of related terminology using these word parts.

3 Functions of the Digestive System 1. Ingestion 2. Digestion 3. Absorption 1. Elimination

4 Anatomy and Physiology

5 Oral Cavity (p. 143) cheek lip hard palate soft palate uvula tongue tonsils gums teethMastication Deglutition Papillae

6 Teeth p. 143 central incisor lateral incisor canine first premolar second premolar first molar second molar third molar wisdom tooth

7 Tooth p. 144 crown root enamel dentin pulp

8 Salivary Glands p. 145 Parotid gland Submandibular gland Sublingual gland

9 Gastrointestinal Tract p. 146 esophagus stomach duodenum liver gallbladder

10 Gastrointestinal Tract p. 146 liver gallbladder duodenum stomach pancreas jejunum ileum cecum appendix ascending colon transverse colon descending colon sigmoid colon rectum anus

11 Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas (p. 149) liver gallbladder common bile duct pancreas pancreatic duct duodenum

12 Liver Besides producing bile and releasing bilirubin, the liver:  helps maintain normal blood glucose levels  manufactures blood proteins necessary for clotting  removes toxins and poisons from the blood

13 Pathway of Food Through GI Tract – page 151

14 Chapter 5 Terminology P

15 perianal  peri- surroungd  an/o: anus  -al- pertaining to  Pertaining to surrounding the anus

16 appendectomy  append/o: appendix  -ectomy  Surgical removal of the appendix

17 appendicitis  appendic/o: appendix  -itis: inflammation  Inflammation of the appendix

18 buccal mucosa  bucc/o: cheek  -al  The mucous membrane lining the cheek

19 cecal  cec/o: cecum (where the small and large intestines connect)  -al  Pertaining to the cecum

20 celiac  celi/o: abdomen, belly  -ac  Pertaining to the abdomen

21 cheilosis  cheil/o: lip  -osis: abnormal condition  Abnormal condition of the lip

22 cholecystectomy  cholecyst/o: gallbladder  -ectomy  Removal of the gallbladder

23 choledochotomy  choledoch/o: common bile duct  -tomy:  Incision of the common bile duct

24 colostomy  col/o: colon (large intestine)  -stomy  New opening of the colon to the outside of the body

25

26 colonic  colon/o: colon (large intestine)  -ic  Pertaining to the colon

27 colonoscopy  colon/o  -scopy  Process of visual examination of the colon

28 dentibuccal  dent/i: teeth  bucc/o: cheek  -al  Pertaining to tooth and cheek

29 duodenal  duoden/o: duodenum (first part of the small intestine)  -al:  Pertaining to the duodenum

30 enterocolitis  enter/o – small intestine  col/o – large intestine  -itis - inflammation  Inflammation of the small and large intestines

31 enterocolostomy  enter/o - small intestine  col/o – large intestine  -stomy – new opening  New opening between the small and large intestines

32 mesentery  mes/o: middle  enter/o  Membrane that holds the intestines together Literally: middle of the intestines Literally: middle of the intestines

33 parenteral  par-: apart from, abnormal  enter/o - intestines  -al  Pertaining to apart from the intestines Delivery of substances any way other than through the digestive tract Delivery of substances any way other than through the digestive tract

34

35 esophageal  esophag/o: esophagus  -eal  Pertaining to the esophagus

36 facial  faci/o: face  -al  Pertaining to the face

37 gastrostomy  gastr/o  -stomy  New opening into the stomach through the abdominal wall May be necessary to introduce food into the stomach May be necessary to introduce food into the stomach

38 PEG – percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

39 gingivitis  gingiv/o: gums  -itis  Inflammation of the gums

40 hypoglossal  hypo-  gloss/o  -al  Pertaining to under the tongue

41 hepatoma  hepat/o  -oma  Tumor of the liver Malignant Malignant

42 hepatomegaly  hepat/o  -megaly  Enlargement of the liver

43 ileocecal sphincter  ile/o: ileum  cec/o: cecum  -al  Sphincter: ring of muscles  Pertaining to the ring of muscles between the ileum and the cecum

44 ileitis  ile/o - ileum  -itis - inflammation   Inflammation of the ileum

45 ileostomy  ile/o - ileum  -stomy- new opening  New opening of the ileum to the outside of the body

46

47 choledochojejunostomy  choledoch/o – common bile duct  jejun/o - jejunum  -stomy – new opening  New opening between the common bile duct and the jejunum

48 gastrojejunostomy  gastr/o - stomach  jejun/o: jejunum  -stomy- new opening  New opening between the stomach and the jejunum

49 labial  labi/o: lip  -al  Pertaining to the li p

50 laparoscopy  lapar/o - abdomen  -scopy- visual examination  Visual examination of the abdomen

51

52 sublingual  sub-: under, below  lingu/o: tongue  -al  Pertaining to under the tongue

53

54 submandibular  sub-  mandibul/o: mandible (lower jaw bone)  -ar  Pertaining to under the lower jaw

55 orthodontist  orth/o: straight  odont/o: tooth  -ist  Dentist specializing in straightening teeth

56 periodontist  peri-  odont/o  -ist  Dentist specializing in gums

57 endodontist  endo- within  odont/o  -ist  Dentist specializing in operating within the tooth root canal specialist root canal specialist

58 oral  or/o: mouth  -al  Pertaining to the mouth

59 palatoplasty  palat/o: palate (roof of the mouth)  -plasty  Surgical repair of the palate

60 pancreatitis  pancrat/o: pancreas  -itis  Inflammation of the pancreas

61 peritonitis  peritone/o: peritoneum  -itis  Inflammation of the peritoneum

62 pharyngeal  pharyng/o: pharynx  -eal  Pertaining to the throat

63 proctologist  proct/o: anus and rectum  log/o: study of  -ist: specialist  Specialist in the study of anus and rectum

64 pyloroplasty  pylor/o: pylorus, pyloric sphincter  -plasty  Surgical repair of the pyloric sphincter

65 rectocele  rect/o: rectum  -cele: hernia  Hernia of the rectum

66 sialadenitis  sialaden/o: salivary gland  -itis  Inflammation of salivary glands

67 sigmoidoscopy  sigmoid/o: sigmoid colon  -scopy  Visual examination of the sigmoid colon

68 stomatitis  stomat/o: mouth  -itis  Inflammation of the mouth

69 amylase  amyl/o: starch  -ase: enzyme  Enzyme that digests starch

70 biliary  bil/i: bile  -ary  Pertaining to bile

71 hyperbilirubinemia  hyper-  bilirubin/o: bilirubin  -emia  Excess bilirubin in the blood

72 cholelithiasis  chol/e: bile, gall  lith/o: stone  -iasis: abnormal condition  Abnormal condition of gall stones

73 achlorhydria  a- without, lack of  chlorhydr/o: hydrochloric acid  -ia  Pertaining to a lack of hydrochloric acid

74 gluconeogenesis  gluc/o – sugar  ne/o – new  -genesis – production/formation   Production of new sugar from proteins and fats from proteins and fats Done by the liver Done by the liver

75 hyperglycemia  hyper-  glyc/o  -emia  High blood sugar

76 glycogenolysis  glycogen/o  -lysis  Breakdown of glycogen to form sugar (glucose) to form sugar (glucose)

77 lipoma  lip/o - fat  -oma - tumor  Tumor of fat benign benign

78 cholecystolithiasis  cholecyst/o – gall bladder  lith/o - stones  -iasis- abnormal condition  Abnormal condition of stones in the gallbladder

79 protease  prote/o: protein  -ase - enzyme   Enzyme that digests protein

80 sialolith  sial/o: saliva  -lith: stone  Salivary (gland) stone

81 steatorrhea  steat/o: fat  -rrhea: flow, discharge  Discharge of fats (in feces)

82 lipase  lip/o - fat  -ase – enzyme   Enzyme to digest fats

83 hematochezia  hemat/o - blood  -chezia: defecation, elimination of wastes  Bright red blood in the feces

84 choledocholithiasis  choledoch/o – common bile duct  lith/o  -iasis  Abnormal condition of stones in the common bile duct

85 postprandial  post- after  -prandial - meal  Pertaining to after meals

86 Pathology of Digestive System  Anorexia – Lack of appetite  Ascites – Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen  Dysphagia – Difficulty swallowoing

87 Pathology of the Digestive System  Jaundice – yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood. Occurs with Hemoloysis Hemoloysis Liver Disease Liver Disease Obstruction of bile flow into duodenum Obstruction of bile flow into duodenum

88 Pathology of the Digestive System  Melena – black tarry stools indicating digested blood from bleeding in upper GI tract.  Esophageal Varices – Swollen, twisted veins at the lower end of the eshagus

89 Pathology of the Digestive System  GERD – Gastroesophageal reflux disease  Crohn Disease – Chronic inflammation of the GI tract. IBD – irritable bowel disease  Diverticulitis – Abnormal outpouchings in the intestinal wall

90 Pathology of the Digestive System  Cirrhosis – chronic, degenerative disease of the liver.  Hepatitis – Inflammation of the liver caused by a virus  HEP A, B, and C

91 Pathology of the Digestive System  Cancers of the GI Tract Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic Cancer Colon-Rectal Cancer Colon-Rectal Cancer Gastric Cancer Gastric Cancer Esophageal Cancer Esophageal Cancer

92 Abbreviations – Page 200  GI  MRI  PEG Tube  TPN  BE  HBV


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