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Chapter 5: Digestive System

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5: Digestive System"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5: Digestive System
Alimentary Canal Gastrointestinal Tract

2 In this chapter you will
Name the organs of the digestive system and describe their locations and functions. Define combining forms for organs and the meaning of related terminology using these word parts.

3 Functions of the Digestive System
Ingestion Digestion Absorption Elimination

4 Anatomy and Physiology

5 Oral Cavity (p. 143) gums teeth Mastication Deglutition Papillae
hard palate soft palate uvula tonsils cheek tongue lip

6 Teeth p. 143 central incisor lateral incisor canine first premolar
second premolar first molar second molar third molar wisdom tooth

7 Tooth p. 144 enamel crown dentin pulp root

8 Salivary Glands p. 145 Parotid gland Sublingual gland Submandibular

9 Gastrointestinal Tract p. 146
esophagus liver gallbladder stomach duodenum

10 Gastrointestinal Tract p. 146
liver gallbladder stomach duodenum pancreas transverse colon jejunum descending colon ascending colon ileum sigmoid colon cecum rectum appendix anus

11 Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas (p. 149)
common bile duct pancreatic duct duodenum pancreas

12 Liver Besides producing bile and releasing bilirubin, the liver:
helps maintain normal blood glucose levels manufactures blood proteins necessary for clotting removes toxins and poisons from the blood

13 Pathway of Food Through GI Tract – page 151

14 Chapter 5 Terminology P

15 perianal peri- surroungd an/o: anus -al - pertaining to
Pertaining to surrounding the anus

16 appendectomy append/o: appendix -ectomy
Surgical removal of the appendix

17 appendicitis appendic/o: appendix -itis: inflammation
Inflammation of the appendix

18 buccal mucosa bucc/o: cheek -al The mucous membrane lining the cheek

19 cecal cec/o: cecum (where the small and large intestines connect) -al
Pertaining to the cecum

20 celiac celi/o: abdomen, belly -ac Pertaining to the abdomen

21 cheilosis cheil/o: lip -osis: abnormal condition
Abnormal condition of the lip

22 cholecystectomy cholecyst/o: gallbladder -ectomy
Removal of the gallbladder

23 choledochotomy choledoch/o: common bile duct -tomy:
Incision of the common bile duct

24 colostomy col/o: colon (large intestine) -stomy
New opening of the colon to the outside of the body


26 colonic colon/o: colon (large intestine) -ic Pertaining to the colon

27 colonoscopy colon/o -scopy Process of visual examination of the colon

28 dentibuccal dent/i: teeth bucc/o: cheek -al
Pertaining to tooth and cheek

29 duodenal duoden/o: duodenum (first part of the small intestine) -al:
Pertaining to the duodenum

30 enterocolitis enter/o – small intestine col/o – large intestine
-itis - inflammation Inflammation of the small and large intestines

31 enterocolostomy enter/o - small intestine col/o – large intestine
-stomy – new opening New opening between the small and large intestines

32 mesentery mes/o: middle enter/o
Membrane that holds the intestines together Literally: middle of the intestines

33 parenteral par-: apart from, abnormal enter/o - intestines -al
Pertaining to apart from the intestines Delivery of substances any way other than through the digestive tract


35 esophageal esophag/o: esophagus -eal Pertaining to the esophagus

36 facial faci/o: face -al Pertaining to the face

37 gastrostomy gastr/o -stomy
New opening into the stomach through the abdominal wall May be necessary to introduce food into the stomach

38 PEG – percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

39 gingivitis gingiv/o: gums -itis Inflammation of the gums

40 hypoglossal hypo- gloss/o -al Pertaining to under the tongue

41 hepatoma hepat/o -oma Tumor of the liver Malignant

42 hepatomegaly hepat/o -megaly Enlargement of the liver

43 ileocecal sphincter ile/o: ileum cec/o: cecum -al
Sphincter: ring of muscles Pertaining to the ring of muscles between the ileum and the cecum

44 ileitis ile/o - ileum -itis - inflammation Inflammation of the ileum

45 ileostomy ile/o - ileum -stomy - new opening
New opening of the ileum to the outside of the body


47 choledochojejunostomy
choledoch/o – common bile duct jejun/o - jejunum -stomy – new opening New opening between the common bile duct and the jejunum

48 gastrojejunostomy gastr/o - stomach jejun/o: jejunum
-stomy - new opening New opening between the stomach and the jejunum

49 labial labi/o: lip -al Pertaining to the lip

50 laparoscopy lapar/o - abdomen -scopy - visual examination
Visual examination of the abdomen


52 sublingual sub-: under, below lingu/o: tongue -al
Pertaining to under the tongue


54 submandibular sub- mandibul/o: mandible (lower jaw bone) -ar
Pertaining to under the lower jaw

55 orthodontist orth/o: straight odont/o: tooth -ist
Dentist specializing in straightening teeth

56 periodontist peri- odont/o -ist Dentist specializing in gums

57 endodontist endo- within odont/o -ist
Dentist specializing in operating within the tooth root canal specialist

58 oral or/o: mouth -al Pertaining to the mouth

59 palatoplasty palat/o: palate (roof of the mouth) -plasty
Surgical repair of the palate

60 pancreatitis pancrat/o: pancreas -itis Inflammation of the pancreas

61 peritonitis peritone/o: peritoneum -itis
Inflammation of the peritoneum

62 pharyngeal pharyng/o: pharynx -eal Pertaining to the throat

63 proctologist proct/o: anus and rectum log/o: study of -ist: specialist
Specialist in the study of anus and rectum

64 pyloroplasty pylor/o: pylorus, pyloric sphincter -plasty
Surgical repair of the pyloric sphincter

65 rectocele rect/o: rectum -cele: hernia Hernia of the rectum

66 sialadenitis sialaden/o: salivary gland -itis
Inflammation of salivary glands

67 sigmoidoscopy sigmoid/o: sigmoid colon -scopy
Visual examination of the sigmoid colon

68 stomatitis stomat/o: mouth -itis Inflammation of the mouth

69 amylase amyl/o: starch -ase: enzyme Enzyme that digests starch

70 biliary bil/i: bile -ary Pertaining to bile

71 hyperbilirubinemia hyper- bilirubin/o: bilirubin -emia
Excess bilirubin in the blood

72 cholelithiasis chol/e: bile, gall lith/o: stone
-iasis: abnormal condition Abnormal condition of gall stones

73 achlorhydria a- without, lack of chlorhydr/o: hydrochloric acid -ia
Pertaining to a lack of hydrochloric acid

74 gluconeogenesis gluc/o – sugar ne/o – new
-genesis – production/formation Production of new sugar from proteins and fats Done by the liver

75 hyperglycemia hyper- glyc/o -emia High blood sugar

76 glycogenolysis glycogen/o -lysis Breakdown of glycogen
to form sugar (glucose)

77 lipoma lip/o - fat -oma - tumor Tumor of fat benign

78 cholecystolithiasis cholecyst/o – gall bladder lith/o - stones
-iasis - abnormal condition Abnormal condition of stones in the gallbladder

79 protease prote/o: protein -ase - enzyme Enzyme that digests protein

80 sialolith sial/o: saliva -lith: stone Salivary (gland) stone

81 steatorrhea steat/o: fat -rrhea: flow, discharge
Discharge of fats (in feces)

82 lipase lip/o - fat -ase – enzyme Enzyme to digest fats

83 hematochezia hemat/o - blood
-chezia: defecation, elimination of wastes Bright red blood in the feces

84 choledocholithiasis choledoch/o – common bile duct lith/o -iasis
Abnormal condition of stones in the common bile duct

85 postprandial post- after -prandial - meal Pertaining to after meals

86 Pathology of Digestive System
Anorexia – Lack of appetite Ascites – Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen Dysphagia – Difficulty swallowoing

87 Pathology of the Digestive System
Jaundice – yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood. Occurs with Hemoloysis Liver Disease Obstruction of bile flow into duodenum

88 Pathology of the Digestive System
Melena – black tarry stools indicating digested blood from bleeding in upper GI tract. Esophageal Varices – Swollen, twisted veins at the lower end of the eshagus

89 Pathology of the Digestive System
GERD – Gastroesophageal reflux disease Crohn Disease – Chronic inflammation of the GI tract. IBD – irritable bowel disease Diverticulitis – Abnormal outpouchings in the intestinal wall

90 Pathology of the Digestive System
Cirrhosis – chronic, degenerative disease of the liver. Hepatitis – Inflammation of the liver caused by a virus HEP A, B, and C

91 Pathology of the Digestive System
Cancers of the GI Tract Pancreatic Cancer Colon-Rectal Cancer Gastric Cancer Esophageal Cancer

92 Abbreviations – Page 200 GI MRI PEG Tube TPN BE HBV

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