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1 The Microscopic World Microscope Use Stomata Protists.

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1 1 The Microscopic World Microscope Use Stomata Protists

2 2 I. Using the Microscope 1. The Microscope (Turn to Page 807) A.Demonstrate carrying of Microscope. 1 B.Placing of Microscope on table. 2 C.Prepare Microscope for use. 4 D.Draw a Microscope in Notes. Label PartsLabel Parts Define Parts (page 806 will help)Define Parts (page 806 will help)

3 3 Body Tube Revolving Nosepiece Stage Clips

4 4 E. Parts of the Compound Microscope 1.Ocular lens – “Eye piece” magnifies ____ X 2.Objective lens – Low Power = _____ XLow Power = _____ X High Power = _____ XHigh Power = _____ X 3.Revolving Nosepiece – holds the objective lens and can be rotated to change the magnification 4.Body Tube – maintains the correct distance between the ocular lens and the objective lens 5.Coarse adjustment knob - Use to make initial focus 6.Fine adjustment knob – Use to make final focus 7.Stage – place slide on this platform 8.Stage clips – hold slide in place 9.Light – Needed to see through the slide 10.Arm – Use to carry microscope 11.Base – Use to carry microscope

5 5 2. How to make a Wet Mount slide for viewing A.Obtain/Make a clean slide and cover slip B.Place object to view on slide C.Use a dropper to place 1 drop on object D.Hold coverslip at the edge of the water at a 45° angle. Make sure water adheres along the edge of the coverslip. E.Lower coverslip slowly. Goal: No air bubbles! F.You can add or take away water during viewing. See Page 807 #6 for an explanation. Movie (How to Use a Microscope, 1989 United Learning)

6 6 Microscope Use Lab I. Objective: To learn proper use of the microscope and to demonstrate the ability to create working wet mount slides. II. Materials: Microscope Microscope Slide and Coverslip Slide and Coverslip Dropper and Beaker of water / Iodine & Water Dropper and Beaker of water / Iodine & Water Scissors Scissors Piece of Newspaper Piece of Newspaper Toothpick Toothpick

7 7 III. Hypothesis Part A: The Letter “e”. Draw what a newspaper letter “e” might look like magnified with a microscope. Make one written observation of what you may see/learn. ________________________________________________________ Part B: Human Cheek Cells. Draw what Human Cheek Cells might look like magnified with a microscope. Make one written observation of what you may see/learn. __________________________________________________________

8 8 IV. Procedure: Part A: The Letter “e”. Follow Directions for Microscope Use and Making a Wet Mount Slide.Follow Directions for Microscope Use and Making a Wet Mount Slide. Your object is a letter “e” cut out of a newspaper.Your object is a letter “e” cut out of a newspaper. View the letter under Low Power and draw/make observations of what you see. All drawings and observations go in the Data Section.View the letter under Low Power and draw/make observations of what you see. All drawings and observations go in the Data Section. View the letter under High Power and draw/make observations of what you see.View the letter under High Power and draw/make observations of what you see. Clean slide & coverslip and go on to Part B.Clean slide & coverslip and go on to Part B. Part B: Human Cheek Cells. 1.Same as above substituting cheek cells for letter “e”. 2.Substitute Iodine/Water for plain water.

9 9 V. Data Part A: The Letter “e”. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

10 10 V. Data Part B: The Human Cheek Cells _____________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

11 11 VI. Analyze Data and Draw Conclusions Compare/Contrast your Hypothesis Drawings with your Data Drawings. Compare/Contrast your Hypothesis potential observations with your Data observations. Include also: What surprised you the most. What surprised you the most. What interested you the most. What interested you the most. What you learned that you didn’t know before. What you learned that you didn’t know before. What questions did this lab cause you to wonder. What questions did this lab cause you to wonder.

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14 14 II. Microscopic Plant World 1. Prepared Slides of Stems. A.Create a Lab to view Monocot vs. Dicot stems. B.Include Objective, Materials, Hypothesis, Procedure, Data, Analysis and ConclusionObjective, Materials, Hypothesis, Procedure, Data, Analysis and Conclusion C.Be careful with the prepared slides! D.Due Tomorrow, END of class.

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16 16 2. Wet-Mount of Stomata. A.Create a Lab to view the Stomata of Plant Leaves. B.Include Objective, Materials, Hypothesis, Procedure, Data, Analysis and ConclusionObjective, Materials, Hypothesis, Procedure, Data, Analysis and Conclusion C.Follow Wet-Mount procedure. D.DEMO: How to get good stomata! E.Due Tomorrow, END of class.

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18 18 III. Protists Clockwise from top left: 1. Amobae of Entamoeba histolytica, the cause of amoebic dysentery in humans; 2. Trypanosoma brucei, a flagellate protozoan causing sleeping sickness in humans; 3. Balantidium coli, a usually harmless ciliate parasite of the intestine of pigs; 4&5. Symbiotic ciliates from the rumen of cattle: one species is completely covered with cilia; the other is naked except for a crown of cilia at the anterior end of the organisms; 6. Babesia sp., an apicomplexan parasite in the red blood cells of an African lion.

19 19 1. General Characteristics A.Eukaryotic – Cells have a nucleus. Prokaryotic – Cells do not have a nucleusProkaryotic – Cells do not have a nucleus B.Single or Multi-cellular C.Producers and Consumers i.Fungus-Like = Decomposer Consumers ii.Plant-Like = Make food through Photosynthesis  Algae  Single Celled are called Phytoplankton  Provide most of the food for water organisms  Provide most of the Earth’s oxygen  Red Algae- Most of the Earth’s seaweeds  Green Algae- Most diverse group of plantlike protists. Movie (Biology: The Science of Life: The Microscopic World, 2002 United Learning)

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21 21  Diatoms  Single celled, photosynthesizers and make up phytoplankton  Silica in cell walls makes old diatoms useful as an abrasive in polishes, filters, and toothpaste.  Dinoflagellates  2 whiplike strands (flagellum) beat to spin them through the water.  Cause red-tides (poison toxic to humans not to the shellfish that eat them…)

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23 23  Euglenoids  Single celled and have characteristics of both plants and animals.  Photosynthesize  Low-Light they become consumers  Move like animals by propelling with a flagella.  MOVIE (Biology: The Science of Life: The Microscopic World, 2002 United Learning) Knock, Knock! Who’s There? Euglena. Euglena who? Euglena Do Questions 1-5, Page 249

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25 25 iii.Animal-Like = Must consume to get food.  Known as Protozoa  Amoeba like  Soft, jellylike protozoan  Found in fresh/salt water, soil, parasites  Highly structured single celled.  Move with pseudopodia (false feet)  Movie Life in a Drop of Water. Rainbow Educational Media unitedstreaming. 20 September 2005  Movie Life in a Drop of Water. Rainbow Educational Media unitedstreaming. 20 September 2005  Movie World of the Protozoa, The. United Learning unitedstreaming. 20 September 2005  Movie World of the Protozoa, The. United Learning unitedstreaming. 20 September 2005  Feed by engulfing food. Surround it, form a food vacuole and digest the contents into the cytoplasm.

26 26  Flagellates  Use flagella to move.  Giardia lamblia – Intestinal Parasite  Humans (Streams/Lakes w/Beaver)  Drink water and they get into you   Diarrhea and stomach cramps  Symbiosis – one organism lives closely with another organism, and each organism helps the other survive.  Termites and flagellates

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28 28  Ciliates  Most common complex protozoa  Move by beating back and forth hundred of tiny hairlike cilia.  Paramecium is the best known.  Feed by using cilia to push food into the food passageway  2 Nuclei. Macronucleus – controls cell functionMacronucleus – controls cell function Micronucleus – passes DNA on during sexual reproductionMicronucleus – passes DNA on during sexual reproduction Movie Feeding of Protozoa World of the Protozoa, The. United Learning unitedstreaming. 20 September 2005 World of the Protozoa, The. United Learning unitedstreaming. 20 September 2005

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30 30  Spore-forming  All are parasitites  Cannot move on their own…  Life cycles involve 2 or more hosts  Plasmodium vivax – causes malaria

31 31 iv.Reproduction of Protists  Asexual – offspring come from just one parent  Fission  Amoeba and Euglena  Sexual – requires 2 parents  Paramecium – Conjugation  2 paramecium join and exchange DNA  They then divide to make 4 new organisms  Many protists reproduce both asexually and sexually.  Movie World of the Protozoa, The. United Learning unitedstreaming. 20 September 2005  Movie World of the Protozoa, The. United Learning unitedstreaming. 20 September 2005 Do Questions 1-3, Page 254.

32 32 Live Protist Lab: A.Create a Lab to view: 1.Euglena 2.Amoeba 3.Paramecium B.Include Objective, Materials, Hypothesis, Procedure, Data, Analysis and ConclusionObjective, Materials, Hypothesis, Procedure, Data, Analysis and Conclusion C.Follow Wet-Mount procedure. (ProtoSlo) D.Due 2 Days from today, END of class.

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