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Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human Anatomy & Physiology SEVENTH EDITION Elaine N. Marieb Katja Hoehn PowerPoint.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human Anatomy & Physiology SEVENTH EDITION Elaine N. Marieb Katja Hoehn PowerPoint."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human Anatomy & Physiology SEVENTH EDITION Elaine N. Marieb Katja Hoehn PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Vince Austin, Bluegrass Technical and Community College C H A P T E R 1 The Human Body: An Orientation P A R T B

2 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Anatomical Position  Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from body Figure 1.7a

3 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Directional Terms  Superior and inferior – toward and away from the head, respectively  Anterior and posterior – toward the front and back of the body  Medial, lateral, and intermediate – toward the midline, away from the midline, and between a more medial and lateral structure

4 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Directional Terms  Proximal and distal – closer to and farther from the origin of the body part  Superficial and deep – toward and away from the body surface

5 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Directional Terms Table 1.1a

6 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Directional Terms Table 1.1b

7 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Regional Terms: Anterior View Figure 1.7a Nasal (nose) Oral (mouth) Cervical (neck) Frontal (forehead) Orbital (eye) Buccal (cheek) Mental (chin) (a) Anterior

8 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Regional Terms: Anterior View Figure 1.7a Nasal (nose) Oral (mouth) Cervical (neck) Acromial (point of shoulder) Axillary (armpit) Brachial (arm) Antecubital (front of elbow) Abdominal (abdomen) Pelvic (pelvis) Antebrachial (forearm) Carpal (wrist) Palmar (palm) Pollex (thumb) Digital (fingers) Mammary (breast) Frontal (forehead) Orbital (eye) Buccal (cheek) Sternal (breastbone) Thoracic (chest) Mental (chin) Umbilical (navel) (a) Anterior

9 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Regional Terms: Anterior View Figure 1.7a Nasal (nose) Oral (mouth) Cervical (neck) Acromial (point of shoulder) Axillary (armpit) Brachial (arm) Antecubital (front of elbow) Abdominal (abdomen) Pelvic (pelvis) Antebrachial (forearm) Carpal (wrist) Palmar (palm) Pollex (thumb) Digital (fingers) Pubic (genital region) Patellar (anterior knee) Crural (leg) Tarsal (ankle) Pedal (foot) Digital (toes) Inguinal (groin) Coxal (hip) Femoral (thigh) Fibular, or peroneal (side of leg) Hallux (great toe) Mammary (breast) Frontal (forehead) Orbital (eye) Buccal (cheek) Sternal (breastbone) Thoracic (chest) Mental (chin) Umbilical (navel) (a) Anterior

10 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Regional Terms: Posterior View Figure 1.7b Otic (ear) Occipital (back of head or base of skull) Cephalic (head) (b) Posterior

11 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Regional Terms: Posterior View Figure 1.7b Brachial (arm) Otic (ear) Occipital (back of head or base of skull) Acromial (point of shoulder) Vertebral (spinal column) Scapular (shoulder blade) Dorsum or dorsal (back) Olecranal (back of elbow) Lumbar (loin) Sacral (between hips) Manus (hand) Upper extremity Cephalic (head) (b) Posterior

12 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Regional Terms: Posterior View Figure 1.7b Brachial (arm) Otic (ear) Occipital (back of head or base of skull) Acromial (point of shoulder) Vertebral (spinal column) Scapular (shoulder blade) Dorsum or dorsal (back) Olecranal (back of elbow) Lumbar (loin) Sacral (between hips) Gluteal (buttock) Perineal (region between the anus and external genitalia) Femoral (thigh) Popliteal (back of knee) Sural (calf) Calcaneal (heel) Plantar (sole) Manus (hand) Upper extremity Cephalic (head) Lower extremity (b) Posterior

13 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Body Planes  Sagittal – divides the body into right and left parts  Midsagittal or medial – sagittal plane that lies on the midline  Frontal or coronal – divides the body into anterior and posterior parts  Transverse or horizontal (cross section) – divides the body into superior and inferior parts  Oblique section – cuts made diagonally

14 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Body Planes Figure 1.8

15 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Anatomical Variability  Humans vary slightly in both external and internal anatomy  Over 90% of all anatomical structures match textbook descriptions, but:  Nerves or blood vessels may be somewhat out of place  Small muscles may be missing  Extreme anatomical variations are seldom seen

16 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Body Cavities  Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisions  Cranial cavity – within the skull; encases the brain  Vertebral cavity – runs within the vertebral column; encases the spinal cord  Ventral cavity houses the internal organs (viscera), and is divided into two subdivisions  Thoracic  Abdominopelvic

17 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Body Cavities Figure 1.9a Cranial cavity (contains brain) Dorsal body cavity Diaphragm Abdominal cavity (contains digestive viscera) Pelvic cavity (contains bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum) Vertebral cavity (contains spinal cord) Key: Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity Thoracic cavity (contains heart and lungs) (a) Lateral view

18 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Body Cavities Figure 1.9b Ventral body cavity (thoracic and abdomino- pelvic cavities) Abdomino- pelvic cavity Superior mediastinum Pleural cavity Cranial cavity Vertebral cavity Pericardial cavity within the mediastinum Diaphragm Abdominal cavity (contains digestive viscera) Pelvic cavity (contains bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum) Thoracic cavity (contains heart and lungs) (b) Anterior view Key: Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity

19 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Body Cavities  Thoracic cavity is subdivided into two pleural cavities, the mediastinum, and the pericardial cavity  Pleural cavities – each houses a lung  Mediastinum – contains the pericardial cavity; surrounds the remaining thoracic organs  Pericardial cavity – encloses the heart

20 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Body Cavities  The abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the dome-shaped diaphragm  It is composed of two subdivisions  Abdominal cavity – contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs  Pelvic cavity – lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum

21 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ventral Body Cavity Membranes  Parietal serosa lines internal body walls  Visceral serosa covers the internal organs  Serous fluid separates the serosae

22 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Serous Membrane Relationship Figure 1.10a

23 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Heart Serosae Figure 1.10b

24 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Other Body Cavities  Oral and digestive – mouth and cavities of the digestive organs  Nasal –located within and posterior to the nose  Orbital – house the eyes  Middle ear – contains bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations  Synovial – joint cavities

25 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Other Body Cavities Figure 1.13

26 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Abdominopelvic Regions Figure 1.11a

27 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Organs of the Abdominopelvic Regions Figure 1.11b

28 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Abdominopelvic Quadrants  Right upper  Left upper  Right lower  Left lower Figure 1.12

29 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review Questions  When someone becomes dehydrated, we usually feel thirsty, which causes us to drink fluids. Decide whether the thirst sensation is part of a negative or positive feedback control system and defend your choice.  Mr. Harvey, a computer programmer, has been complaining of numbness and pain in his right hand. The nurse practitioner diagnosed his problem as carpal tunnel syndrome and prescribe use of a splint. Where will Mr. Harvey apply the splint?

30 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Directional term review:  Distal: elbow/wrist  Lateral: hip bone/umbilicus  Superior: nose/chin  Anterior: toes/heel  Superficial: scalp/skull


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