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Facial Fractures Lisa Publicover August 2005. Outline of Lecture Introduction Skeletal Anatomy Fracture Patterns Nasal Zygomatic Maxilla Blowout Frontal.

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Presentation on theme: "Facial Fractures Lisa Publicover August 2005. Outline of Lecture Introduction Skeletal Anatomy Fracture Patterns Nasal Zygomatic Maxilla Blowout Frontal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Facial Fractures Lisa Publicover August 2005

2 Outline of Lecture Introduction Skeletal Anatomy Fracture Patterns Nasal Zygomatic Maxilla Blowout Frontal Sinus and Nasoethmoidal Mandibular Approach to a Suspected Facial Fracture

3 Anatomy The face is composed of 14 bones: 1.Mandible (1) 2.Vomer (1) 3.Maxilla (2) 4.Zygomata (2) 5.Nasal (2) 6.Lacrimals (2) 7.Palatines (2) 8.Inferior Nasal Conchae (2)

4 Image from

5 The Mandible Lower jawbone Strongest facial bone Articulates with the temporal bone Contains foramens for the passage of nerves and blood vessels to the face

6 The Volmer A small, narrow bone Forms the inferior part of the nasal septum

7 The Maxilla Paired Form the upper jawbone Articulates will every other facial bone except the mandible Contains the maxillary sinuses Forms the inferior floor of the orbits Contains a foramen to allow passage of the maxillary/infraorbital nerve

8 The Zygomata Paired Form the “cheekbones” Articulate with the temporal, frontal, and maxillary bones Their prominent position and shape renders them susceptible to injury

9 The Nasal Bones Paired Join in the midline to form the nasal bridge They articulate with the frontal, maxillary, and ethmoid bones.

10 The Lacrimal Bones Paired Small & Fragile Located in the medial wall of each orbit Contains a small fossa, which houses the lacrimal apparatus

11 The Palatine Bones Paired Located posterior to the maxilla Form the posterior part of the lateral wall of the nasal cavity

12 The Inferior Nasal Conchae Paired Located within the nasal cavity Project medially from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity

13 Fracture Patterns Nasal Lateral Blow Other Zygomatic Maxilla LeFort I LeFort II LeFort III Blowout Frontal Sinus & Nasoethmoid Mandibular

14 Nasal Fractures I: Lateral Blow Cause: Lateral force Signs & Symptoms: Pain Swelling Epistaxis Lacerations Respiratory Obstruction Treatment: Emergency care, reduction & referral if presentation is delayed.

15 Fracture Patterns Nasal Lateral Blow Other Zygomatic Maxilla LeFort I LeFort II LeFort III Blowout Frontal Sinus & Nasoethmoid Mandibular

16 Nasal Fractures II: Other Cause: Anterior force Signs & Symptoms: Similar to lateral blow fractures Treatment: Require referral for treatment. Treatment involves adequate reduction, packing (24-48h), and fixation with a plaster cast or splint.

17 Fracture Patterns Nasal Lateral Blow Other Zygomatic Maxilla LeFort I LeFort II LeFort III Blowout Frontal Sinus & Nasoethmoid Mandibular

18 Zygomatic Fractures Cause: Blunt Force Signs & Symptoms: –Pain –Numbness of the cheek, infraorbital region & upper teeth on injured side –Eyelid swelling –Inability to close mouth properly –Swelling, Edema, Ecchymoses –Flattened cheekbone –Palpable depression at fracture site Treatment: Reduction & fixation

19 Fracture Patterns Nasal Lateral Blow Other Zygomatic Maxilla LeFort I LeFort II LeFort III Blowout Frontal Sinus & Nasoethmoid Mandibular

20 Maxillary Fractures Complex, Bilateral fracture that have an unstable “floating” fragment. Classified as LeFort I, II, or III based on the plane of the fracture. LeFort I – Transmaxillary LeFort II – Pyramidal/Subzygomatic LeFort III – Craniofacial Image from

21 LeFort I : Transmaxillary The fracture occurs along the nasal and maxillary floor Almost always involves the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone May involve the maxillary sinuses The resultant “floating” component is the lower part of the maxilla and its teeth

22 LeFort II : Pyramidal/Subzygomatic Result from a downward force on the nose The fracture runs from the peak of the nasal bone laterally beneath the orbits.

23 LeFort III : Craniofacial Most severe Often associated with extensive soft tissue injury Large force is necessary to cause this type of fracture The resultant “floating” component is virtually the entire face

24 Fracture Patterns Nasal Lateral Blow Other Zygomatic Maxilla LeFort I LeFort II LeFort III Blowout Frontal Sinus & Nasoethmoid Mandibular

25 Blowout Fracture Downward displacement of the orbital floor with protrusion of orbital contents into the maxillary sinus. Caused by a force applied to the eye, which causes an increased intraorbital pressure. The elevated intraorbital pressure causes a fracture at the weakest point (posterior medial floor) Treatment involves surgical repair of the defect in the orbital floor

26 Fracture Patterns Nasal Lateral Blow Other Zygomatic Maxilla LeFort I LeFort II LeFort III Blowout Frontal Sinus & Nasoethmoid Mandibular

27 Frontal Sinus & Nasoethmoid Caused by a force applied to the anterior aspect of the face Potentially dangerous (sharp edges can penetrate dura resulting in leakage of CSF) Treatment is surgical reduction, fixation, and repair of any damaged ligaments.

28 Fracture Patterns Nasal Lateral Blow Other Zygomatic Maxilla LeFort I LeFort II LeFort III Blowout Frontal Sinus & Nasoethmoid Mandibular

29 Mandibular Fractures (1) Involved in ~ 2/3 of all facial fractures Fractures are classified as open or closed: Open: With a break in the skin or mucosa Closed: No break in the skin or mucosa Described as: Oblique Transverse Comminuted Greenstick

30 Mandibular Fractures (2) Signs & Symptoms: Pain Malocclusion Excessive salivation Dysphagia Swelling Crepitation Discoloration Deformity

31 Approach to a Suspected Fracture History Symptoms Physical Examination Imaging

32 History Cause of Fracture Degree of Force Specific Symptoms Time since injury Allergies Medications Etc.

33 Physical Examination Symmetry/Deformity Lacerations/Abrasions/Ec chymoses Palpable step deformities –Orbital rims –Zygomatic arches –Nose –Frontal Bones –Mandibular borders Movement of dental arches Fractured/Avulsed/Mobile teeth Visual disturbances Diplopia Reflexes Extraocular muscle function Acuity Fields Intranasal Inspection Hematoma Airway Obstruction CSF rhinorrhea Facial movement (including jaw excursions) Facial sensation

34 Radiographic Examination Structure Mandible Condyle/Coronoid Ramus/Body Condyle & Neck Symphysis Symphysis/Body/Ramus Maxilla & Zygoma Frontal & Orbital Floor Best View Lateral Oblique Waters Reverse Townes Occlusal Panoramic Waters Lateral Caldwell Waters

35 References Grabb, W. & Smith,J. (1979). Plastic Surgery (3 rd Ed.). Little, Brown and Company: Boston, MA University of Washington School of Medicine:http://www.rad.washington.edu/ mskbook/facialfx.htmlhttp://www.rad.washington.edu/ mskbook/facialfx.html


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