Presentation on theme: "Equine Dentistry The importance of proper equine dental care"— Presentation transcript:
1Equine Dentistry The importance of proper equine dental care
2The Basics of Horse Anatomy Oral AnatomyEquine Chewing CycleAge-Related Facts
3From Ancient to Modern Horse Horses were forest animals55 million years ago (Eohippus-the dawn horse)Small (50 lbs)Short, square brachydont teethDiet of succulent forageFive toes
4From Ancient to Modern Horse Evolved/adapted to live on grasslandsBegan in North America32 extinct genera150 species of fossil horses4.5 million years ago, now a single toeReintroduced to North America 16th century
6Oral Anatomy Equine tooth made of— Cementum Dentin Enamel Allows tooth to be self-sharpeningEach arcade has—3 incisors, 3 premolars, 3 molarsMay have one canineMay have one vestigial pre-molar (wolf tooth)
8Eruption Times of Equine Teeth At birth, foal’s face cannot accommodate full complement of teeth.3 deciduous incisors erupt starting from the center at 7 days, 7 weeks and 7 months.All 12 deciduous premolars present at birth or erupt soon after.Molars do not have a deciduous precursor.Molars erupt at 1, 2 and 3.5 years.
9Eruption Times of Equine Teeth Permanent incisors (center to corner) replace their deciduous precursors at:2.5 years3.5 years4.5 yearsDeciduous premolars are replaced at:2 years, 8 months3 years, 8 months
10Eruption Times of Equine Teeth In 2 years, 24 deciduous teeth are replaced by permanent counterparts.Scrutiny of the horse’s mouth is important during this time.
11Eruption Times of Equine Teeth Canines (fighting teeth) usually erupt at 4 – 6 years in males. Often absent or rudimentary in mares.Wolf teeth (vestigial 1st premolars) usually erupt at months of age.Neither of these teeth serve a purpose in chewing.
12Why Horses Need Dental Care Goals of Proper Equine Dental CareWhat about the Wild Horse?Elements of the Dental Exam
13Goals of Proper Equine Dental Care Thorough oral exam necessaryAbnormalityAcquired diseaseOptimize jaw and mouth functionRemove excessive chewing forces on individual teeth (malocclusions)Preserve tooth structure (equilibrate eruption)Prevent periodontal diseaseAlleviate painAddress any issues preventing horse from functioning at optimum level
14Goals of Proper Equine Dental Care Make dentistry a regular element of good health care—Prevent early problems from becoming lifelong, expensiveFind hidden, painful problems to alleviate sufferingAllow horses to keep functional teeth for entire lives
15Elements of the Dental Exam Treat the whole horseHave and know how to use proper equipmentThorough knowledge of equine surgery, medicine and dentistryHave access to additional diagnostics
16Elements of the Dental Exam Most important? Interest, desire, education, proper training.The mouth is only a part of the whole horse.General exam and evaluation of the whole horse.Not unusual to find other significant health issues.“4% of horses examined don’t get dentistry that day,” says Bob Gregory, DVM
17Elements of the Dental Exam HistoryPhysical examSedationFull mouth speculumBright light sourceCorrect equipment (mirror, cheek retractor, picks, etc.)Access to additional diagnostics (lab, X- ray, MRI)
18Popular Myths about Dental Care “Young horses don’t need dental care.”“Wild horses don’t get dental care so my horses don’t need it.”“Horses only need dental care every few years.”“I am able to tell when my horse needs dental care.”
19The Facts about Proper Dental Care Birth to 2 years— Evaluate to determine if everything developed correctly.2-5 years— Evaluate to determine if all permanent teeth erupted as they should.5-20 years— Regular checkups to make sure no disease or injury threatens the health of the horse.Geriatrics— Evaluate to ensure the horse can eat properly, is not in pain, answer questions on feeding a geriatric horse.All ages benefit from regular dental exams!
20Who Should Provide Dental Care A Team ApproachVeterinary EducationMyths and FactsLicensed Veterinary Professionals
21A Team ApproachA concerned owner- veterinarian team is best for the horse.Care on a regular basis can assure health, longevity.Dentistry is ONE element of good health care. Must be coupled with a complete physical exam.
22Veterinary Education & Licensure To provide thorough, competent equine dental care—Understand anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, pathology and clinical applicationsAssess the whole horse, recognize health issuesApply clinical skills, correctly use medical drugs and sedatives, have access to diagnostics (lab, X-ray, MRI)Only licensed veterinarians have the necessary training and are allowed by law to diagnose, treat, prescribe
23Myths and Facts Myth—”Veterinarians are not educated in dentistry.” Fact—Dental education encompasses all 4 years of Veterinary School and beyond.Myth—”Veterinarians are not interested in dentistry.”Fact— Committed veterinarians are part of a network of Equine Health Care Professionals. Some veterinarians prefer to refer dental care.Myth—”Lay people who do teeth are more qualified.”Fact— “Floating only” training cannot substitute for a comprehensive veterinary education. Veterinarians are trained, licensed to use sedation, take X-rays. Continuing education is required throughout their careers.
24Equine DentistryYour horse’s health and well-being are best served by licensed veterinary professionals—Veterinarians (DVMs)Veterinary Technicians (LVTs)WA State Dept of Health establishes requirements forTraining—initial and ongoingLicensingAccountability Expect and demand competent treatment. Lay people without proper training, operating outside the law should not provide dental care.
25Thank you [Presenter’s name, clinic] [Presenter’s contact info]