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Sensation and Perception Chapter 3 Sensation & Perception There are five primary senses: vision, hearing, touch, taste, and smell— And several secondary.

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Presentation on theme: "Sensation and Perception Chapter 3 Sensation & Perception There are five primary senses: vision, hearing, touch, taste, and smell— And several secondary."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Sensation and Perception Chapter 3

3 Sensation & Perception There are five primary senses: vision, hearing, touch, taste, and smell— And several secondary senses including: balance and pain. Copyright M. Tulloch for USD

4 Chapter Goals Learn how the senses detect sensory information Learn how this sensory information is actively organized interpreted Copyright M. Tulloch for USD

5 What is the difference between Sensation and Perception? Sensation and perception are intimately related in everyday experience, but they are not the same. Sensation is the sensory process that detects visual, auditory, and other sensory stimuli and transmits them to the brain. Perception is the brain process that: actively organizes sensory information and interpretes sensory information Sensation furnishes the raw material of sensory experience, while perception provides the finished product.

6 Sensation Basic Definitions Absolute Threshold Difference Threshold Signal Detection Theory Transduction Sensory Adaptation

7 Absolute Threshold The minimum stimulus intensity that a person can detect. Psychologists arbitrarily define the absolute threshold as “the minimum amount of sensory stimulation that can be detected 50% of the time.”

8 Absolute thresholds for the five primary senses in humans 1. Vision, a candle flame ? mile(s) away on a clear night 2. Hearing, a watch ticking ? feet away; 3. Taste, 1 teaspoon of sugar dissolved in ? of water 4. Smell, a single drop of perfume in a ?. 5. Touch, a bee’s wing falling a distance of ? onto your cheek. Let’s see how well y’all do at estimating these thresholds

9 Absolute thresholds for the five primary senses in humans 1. vision, a candle flame 30 miles away on a clear night 2. hearing, a watch ticking 20 feet away 3. taste, 1 teaspoon of sugar dissolved in 2 gallons of water 4. smell, a single drop of perfume in a three-room house 5. touch, a bee’s wing falling a distance of 1 centimeter onto the cheek.

10 Difference Threshold The minimum amount by which stimulus intensity must be changed in order to produce a just noticeable change in sensation. The JND is the smallest change in sensation that a person is able to detect 50% of the time.

11 Weber’s law: The law states that the just noticeable difference (JND) for all the senses depends on a proportion or percentage of change in a stimulus rather than on a fixed amount of change.

12 Signal Detection Theory A quantitative treatment of detection and discrimination performance, in which the observer is characterized as a maker of statistical decisions. The system also prescribes techniques that allow the observer's sensitivity to the stimulus to be estimated independently of the observer's criterion, or preference for particular responses. The view that the detection of a sensory stimulus involves both discriminating that stimulus from “noise” and deciding whether the stimulus is actually present. Deciding that a stimulus is present depends partly on the probability that the stimulus will occur and partly on the receiver biases. Also called signal decision theory.

13 Noise Two Types: External Internal Characteristics Always present Independent of signal Level varies Sensory systems always attempting to compensate for noise.

14 Transduction The process where by receptors change or convert the sensory stimulation into neural impulses. The neural impulses are transmitted to precise locations in the brain You experience a sensation only when the appropriate part of the brain is stimulated. Copyright M. Tulloch for USD

15 Sensory receptors The body’s sense organs contain specialized cells called sensory receptors They detect and respond to one type of sensory stimuli They provide the essential link between the physical sensory world and the brain. discriminating a stimulus from background “noise” deciding whether the stimulus is actually present. They can be stimulated by noise but are designed to minimize these effects.

16 Inappropriate Stimulation Can result in unusual sensations!

17 Sensory Adaptation - Definition The process of becoming less sensitive to an unchanging sensory stimulus over time. Copyright M. Tulloch for USD

18 Sensory Adaptation All of our senses are more receptive, more finely tuned, to changes in sensory stimuli than to sameness. After a time the sensory receptors grow accustomed to constant,unchanging levels of stimuli so that we notice them less and less, or not at all.

19 After Images in Color Stare at the eye of the red parrot while you count slowly to 20, then look immediately at one spot in the empty bird cage. The faint, ghostly image of a blue-green bird will appear in the cage. Try the same thing with the green cardinal. A faint magenta bird will appear in the cage.

20 Vision Light Particle or wave? Electromagnetic spectrum Copyright M. Tulloch for USD

21 Electromagnetic Spectrum 760 – 380 nm

22 “Radio” Spectrum 1,000 Kilo Hertz (KHz)1 x ,000,000 Mega Hertz (MHz)1 x ,000,000,000 Giga Hertz (GHz)1 x 10 9 AM Radio 550 KHz to 1600 KHz FM Radio 88 MHz to 108 MHz Cordless Phone, Wi-Fi b 2.5 GHz Microwave oven 2.5 GHz New Cordless Phone Wi-Fi a 5 GHz Modern CPUs 1- 3 GHz Copyright M. Tulloch for USD

23 The Eye Cornea, Iris, and Pupil Lens and Retina Rods and Cones Retina to Brain Visual Cortex

24 The Pupils The pupils respond to emotions as well as to light. When a person looks at someone or something highly desirable, the pupils dilate The pupils also dilate when a person is frightened, telling a lie, or sexually aroused. Pupil size is also related to mental effort—the more intense the mental activity, the larger the pupils become.

25 That’s My Story Artist: Collin Raye she said Where you been; so I thought real hard and said I fell asleep in that hammoc in the yard she said You don't know it boy but you just blew it and I said Well that's my story and I'm stickin' to it That's my story - Oh that's my story Well I ain't got a witness and I can't prove it But that's my story and I'm stickin' to it (signature) I got that "deer in the headlight" look She read my face like a cover of a book and said Don't expect me to believe all that static Cause just last week I threw that hammoc in the attic I must've got sucked in, cause you can see right through it And I stutterred well that's my story and I'm stiiiiickin' to it That's my story - (that's my story) Oh that's my story - (that's my story) Yeah I ain't got a witness and I can't prove it But that's my story and I'm stickin' to it (slide solo) YOU KNOW THE TIME COMES WHEN A WISE MAN KNOWS THE BEST THING THAT HE CAN DO IS JUST LOOK HER IN THE EYE AND BEG FOR MERCY AND FACE THE BITTER TRUTH Well honey me and the boys played cards all night There wadn't any hanky panky; not a woman in sight I know I should've called and baby IIII'm really sorry Let's get a cellular phone and you won't have to worry You know how much I love you and I'm ready to prove it And that's my story and I'm stickin' to it That's my story - (that's my story) Wo that's my story - (that's my story) Well I ain't got a witness and you know I can't prove it But that's my story and man I'm stickin' to it You know I ain't gonna do a thing darlin' unless you approve it Well that's my story and I'm stickin' to it

26 The Lens Composed of many thin layers Looks like a transparent disc. Allows focusing on objects closer than 20 feet. It flattens as it focuses on objects viewed at a distance It becomes more spherical, bulging in the center, as it focuses on close objects. This flattening and bulging action of the lens is known as accommodation.

27 The Lens and Age With age, the lens loses some elasticity. it loses the ability to change its shape to accommodate for near vision, called presbyopia (“old eyes”).

28 Focus Errors

29 End Part “a”

30 Color Vision Hue Saturation Brightness Theories Trichromatic Opponent-Process News Flash! New receptors detected in the human eye. These receptors apparently send an “illumination level” Signal directly to the brain.

31 Hearing The Ear Outer Ear Middle Ear Inner Ear Theories of Hearing Place Theory Frequency Theory School&pathTitles=/Hearing_Balance_(Ear)/Anatomy_of_the_Ear/Ear_--_ general_description_diagrams&version=2&tg=Science

32 Hearing Additional Reading Additional Links: Auditory & vestibular pathways -- tutorial Cochlear fluids Ear -- general description & diagrams Ear -- general information With diagrams Inner ear anatomy -- diagram Inner ear anatomy -- pictures & descriptions Signals From a hair cell Virtual tour of the ear -- very comprehensive site What Is Earwax? High_School/Science/Sensory_Systems/Hearing_Balance_(Ear)/Anatomy_ of_the_Ear_54024.html

33 The Human Ear 2 Bone Conduction Description Issues for Hearing Aids Role of bone conduction in the self-perception of speech Role of bone conduction in the self-perception of speech Testing Babies Hearing Loss Bone Conduction Aids NIOSH Commercial View Rockers! Rhodes Audiophone A bone conduction fan made by R. S. Rhodes is shown in this illustration. Assuming a good set of teeth, this fan provided a benefit of up to 30 dB, a gain comparable to listening to someone speaking from a distance of 2 feet rather than 64 feet.

34 Smell and Taste Smell (Olfaction) Olfactory epithelium Olfactory bulbs Taste Taste Buds Taste Sensitivities Non-tasters Medium-tasters Super-tasters

35 Skin Sense Pain The Gate-Control Theory Psychological and Cultural Influences Endorphins

36 Gestalt Principals of Perceptual Organization Figure-Ground Grouping Similarity Proximity Continuity Closure Demonstrations Main Page Squirming

37 nhttp://www.rdc.ab.ca/scottpsych/webite/frames/perception.htmhttp://www.rdc.ab.ca/scottpsych/webite/frames/perception.htm Interesting Perceptual Links Figure Ground: The Law Figure Ground: In Art

38 Gestalt Principals of Perceptual Organization, Cont. Perceptual Constancy Shape Constancy Brightness Constancy Color Constancy

39 Depth Perception Binocular Depth Cues Convergence Binocular Disparity Monocular Depth Cues Interposition Linear perspective Relative size Texture gradient Atmospheric perspective Shadow or shading Motion parallax

40 Extraordinary Perceptions Ambiguous Figures Impossible Figures Illusions Muller-Lyer Illusion Ponzo Illusion Cultural Differences

41 Additional Influences on Perception Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processing Bottom-up processing approaches emphasize incoming sensory stimuli and the operations performed on them to build up to a meaningful perceptual representation. Bottom-up processing Top-down processing models emphasize the varying degrees to which incoming sensory information is shaped, selected, and influenced by context, expectations, and prior learning. Top-down processing Psychological Factors

42 End of Lecture


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