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Poetry Part Three A Unit on Types of Poetry and Literary Terms.

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1 Poetry Part Three A Unit on Types of Poetry and Literary Terms

2 METER  A pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables.  Meter occurs when the stressed and unstressed syllables of the words in a poem are arranged in a repeating pattern.  When poets write in meter, they count out the number of stressed (strong) syllables and unstressed (weak) syllables for each line. They they repeat the pattern throughout the poem.

3 METER cont. FOOT - unit of meter. A foot can have two or three syllables. Usually consists of one stressed and one or more unstressed syllables. TYPES OF FEET The types of feet are determined by the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables. (cont.)

4 METER cont. TYPES OF FEET (cont.) Iambic - unstressed, stressed (ex: because) Trochaic - stressed, unstressed (ex: breakfast) Anapestic - unstressed, unstressed, stressed (ex: as a rule) Dactylic - stressed, unstressed, unstressed (ex: in-between)

5 Be the First to Identify the Meter Birdhouse Blood creeps Low light Venom Suggest Garbage Decay Happy Birthday I saw you everyday and all the while My head was hot

6 Eyebrow Tunnel A violet by a mossy stone On the faraway island of Sal-a-ma-Sond Yertle the Turtle was king of the pond. Whose woods these are, I think I know from “Stopping By Woods on a Snowy Evening” by Robert Frost When the voices of children are heard on the green.

7 Examples of Meter “You blocks! You stones! You worse than senseless things!” Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare ____________________________ The sun did not shine. It was too wet to play. So we sat in the house all that cold, cold wet day. _____________________________ from Dr. Seuss’ The Cat in the Hat Come live with me and be my love. from Marlowe’s “The Passionate Shepherd to His Love” He ordered nine turtles to swim to his stone. from Dr. Seuss’ Yertle the Turtle ____________________________________

8 METER cont. Kinds of Metrical Lines monometer=one foot on a line dimeter=two feet on a line trimeter =three feet on a line tetrameter=four feet on a line pentameter=five feet on a line hexameter=six feet on a line heptameter=seven feet on a line octometer=eight feet on a line

9 Be the First to Identify the Meter and Feet! Picture yourself in a boat on a river with tangerine tree-ees and marmalade skii-ii-es. From: “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” by The Beatles Getting better all the time To be or not to be. Seasong, seasong, in my ear Waves upon the shore so near The murmuring pines and the forest primeval Adapted from Longfellow’s Evangeline Tell me not in mournful numbers

10 Identify this poem: The morns are meeker than they were, The nuts are getting brown; The berry’s cheek is plumper, The rose is out of town. --Emily Dickinson

11 Iambic Trimeter (mainly) The morns are meeker than they were, The nuts are getting brown; The berry’s cheek is plumper, The rose is out of town. --Emily Dickinson

12 Identify this poem: Bats have webby wings that fold up; Bats from ceilings hang down rolled up; Bats when flying undismayed are; Bats are careful; bats use radar; --Frank Jacobs, “The Bat”

13 Identify this poem: Just a small town girl Livin’ in a lonely world She took the midnight train Going anywhere Just a city boy Born and raised in South Detroit He took the midnight train going anywhere… Don’t stop believin’

14 Rhyme Scheme and Meter: There was | a young la | -dy from York Who had | a great fond | -ness for pork. She ate | it all day And ne | -ver could play 'Cause her hand | would not put | down her fork.

15 Rhyme Scheme and Meter: ’Twas the night before Christmas, and all through the house Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse The stockings were hung by the chimney with care In hopes that St. Nicholas soon would be there.

16 “My Papa’s Waltz” by Theodore Roethke The whiskey on your breath Could make a small boy dizzy; But I hung on like death: Such waltzing was not easy. We romped until the pans Slid from the kitchen shelf; My mother's countenance Could not unfrown itself. The hand that held my wrist Was battered on one knuckle; At every step you missed My right ear scraped a buckle. You beat time on my head With a palm caked hard by dirt, Then waltzed me off to bed Still clinging to your shirt. What is the meter? How many feet does each line have? The final answer? Put it all together.

17 Challenge That's my last Duchess painted on the wall The first line of Donne’s “Last Duchess” has three kinds! THAT'S my / LAST DUCH / ess PAINT / ed on / the WALL Trochaicspondeeiambicpyrric iambic

18 “Metrical Feet” by Samuel Coleridge / u / u / u / Trochee trips from long to short u / u / u / u / From long to long in solemn sort / / / / / / / / / u Slow spondee stalks; strong foot yet ill able Ever to run with the dactyl trisyllable. Iambics march from short to long. With a leap and a bound the swift anapests throng.

19 Meter and feet worksheet Hey, that rhymes!

20 FREE VERSE POETRY Unlike metered poetry, free verse poetry does NOT have any repeating patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables. Does NOT have rhyme. Free verse poetry is very conversational - sounds like someone talking with you. A more modern type of poetry.

21 In free verse the writer makes his/her own rules. The writer decides how the poem should look, feel, and sound. Henry David Thoreau, a great philosopher, explained it this way, "... perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, however measured or far away." It may take you a while to "hear your own drummer," but free verse can be a great way to "get things off your chest" and express what you really feel. Here are some examples: Winter Poem Nikki Giovanni once a snowflake fell on my brow and i loved it so much and i kissed it and it was happy and called its cousins and brothers and a web of snow engulfed me then i reached to love them all and i squeezed them and they became a spring rain and i stood perfectly still and was a flower

22 BLANK VERSE POETRY Written in lines of iambic pentameter, but does NOT use end rhyme. from Julius Caesar Cowards die many times before their deaths; The valiant never taste of death but once. Of all the wonders that I yet have heard, It seems to me most strange that men should fear; Seeing that death, a necessary end, Will come when it will come.

23 RHYME Words sound alike because they share the same ending vowel and consonant sounds. LAMP STAMP áShare the short “a” vowel sound áShare the combined “mp” consonant sound

24 END RHYME A word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line “Hector the Collector” by Shel Silverstein Hector the Collector collected bits of string. Collected dolls with broken heads And rusty bells that would not ring.

25 INTERNAL RHYME A word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line. Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary. “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe

26 NEAR RHYME a.k.a imperfect rhyme, close rhyme The words share EITHER the same vowel or consonant sound BUT NOT BOTH ROSE LOSE áDifferent vowel sounds (long “o” and “oo” sound) áShare the same consonant sound

27 RHYME SCHEME A rhyme scheme is a pattern of rhyme (usually end rhyme, but not always). Use the letters of the alphabet to represent sounds to be able to visually “see” the pattern. Roses are reda Violets are blueb Sugar is sweetc And so are you. b

28 SAMPLE RHYME SCHEME The Germ by Ogden Nash A mighty creature is the germ, Though smaller than the pachyderm. His customary dwelling place Is deep within the human race. His childish pride he often pleases By giving people strange diseases. Do you, my poppet, feel infirm? You probably contain a germ. aabbccaaaabbccaa

29 Rhyme scheme? Meter? Whose woods these are I think I know His house is in the village though He will not see me stopping here To watch his woods fill up with snow. Robert Frost

30 “Hector the Collector” by Shel Silverstein Hector the Collector Collected bits of string, Collected dolls with broken heads And rusty bells that would not ring. Pieces out of picture puzzles, Bent-up nails and ice-cream sticks, Twists of wires, worn-out tires, Paper bags and broken bricks. Old chipped vases, half shoelaces, Gatlin' guns that wouldn't shoot, Leaky boats that wouldn't float And stopped-up horns that wouldn't toot. Butter knives that had no handles, Copper keys that fit no locks, Rings that were too small for fingers, Dried-up leaves and patched-up socks. Worn-out belts that had no buckles, 'Lectric trains that had no tracks, Airplane models, broken bottles, Three-legged chairs and cups with cracks. Hector the Collector Loved these things with all his soul‹ Loved them more than shining diamonds, Loved them more than glistenin' gold. Hector called to all the people, "Come and share my treasure trunk!" And all the silly sightless people Came and looked...and called it junk. Check out the rhyme scheme of this poem!

31 “Casey At the Bat” p. 299 “The Pasture” p. 196 “A Time to Talk” p 196 See these examples in book for rhyme scheme and repetition.

32 Sonnet A 14-line poem that begins with eight lines and is followed by six lines. “How Do I Love Thee?” by Elizabeth Barrett Browning How Do I love thee? Let me count the ways. I love thee to the depth and breadth and height My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight For the ends of being and ideal grace. I love thee to the level of every day's Most quiet need, by sun and candle-light. I love thee freely, as men strive for right. I love thee purely, as they turn from praise. I love thee with the passion put to use In my old griefs, and with my childhood's faith. I love thee with a love I seemed to lose With my lost saints. I love thee with the breath, Smiles, tears, of all my life; and, if God choose, I shall but love thee better after death.

33 SHAKESPEAREAN SONNET A fourteen line poem with a specific rhyme scheme. The poem is written in three quatrains and ends with a couplet. The rhyme scheme is abab cdcd efef gg Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate. Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer’s lease hath all too short a date. Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimmed; And every fair from fair sometimes declines, By chance or nature’s changing course untrimmed. But thy eternal summer shall not fade Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st; Nor shall Death brag thou wanderest in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.

34 “My Mistress Eyes” Sonnet 130 by Shakespeare My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun; Coral is far more red than her lips' red; If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun; If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head. I have seen roses damasked, red and white, But no such roses see I in her cheeks; And in some perfumes is there more delight Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks. I love to hear her speak, yet well I know That music hath a far more pleasing sound; I grant I never saw a goddess go; My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground. And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare As any she belied with false compare.

35 “The Man in the Glass” by Major League Pitcher Herb Score When you get what you want in your struggle for self, And the world makes you long for a day, Just go to the mirror and look at yourself, And see what THAT man has to say. For if it is not your father or mother or wife Whose judgment upon you must pass. The fellow whose verdict counts most in your life Is the one staring back in the glass. Some people might think you are a straight shootin' chum and call you a wonderful guy, But the man in the glass says you're only a bum, If you can't look him straight in the eye. He's the fellow to please, never mind all the rest, For he's with you dear up to the end. And you have passed your most dangerous, difficult test If the guy in the glass is your friend You may fool the whole world down the pathway of years, and get pats on the back as you pass. But your final reward will be heartaches and tears If you have cheated the man in the glass. Check out the rhyme scheme here! What is the theme of the poem?

36 Assignment: Take time to do both. Write a poem with a rhyme scheme. Write a Concrete Poem. See examples of past students in folder See examples on te_poems.htm

37 Concrete Poetry

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40 I am a very special shape I have three points and three lines straight. Look through my words and you will see, the shape that I am meant to be. I'm just not words caught in a tangle. Look close to see a small triangle. My angles add to one hundred and eighty degrees, you learn this at school with your abc's. Practice your maths and you will see, some other fine examples of me.

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