Presentation on theme: "Illinois EMSC1 Infectious Disease Objectives Upon completion of this lecture, you will be better able to: n List the infectious diseases commonly encountered."— Presentation transcript:
Illinois EMSC1 Infectious Disease Objectives Upon completion of this lecture, you will be better able to: n List the infectious diseases commonly encountered in the school setting n Describe the etiology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, complications, treatment and prevention of the diseases discussed in the manual n Identify the incubation and isolation periods for these diseases
Illinois EMSC2 INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Illinois EMSC3 FIFTH DISEASE CAUSE: –A virus known as human parvovirus or B19 SYMPTOMS: –“Slapped cheek” rash (starts on face and spreads –Fever, general pruritis, flu symptoms, and pharyngitis
Illinois EMSC4 FIFTH DISEASE n Incubation period is 6-14 days n Symptoms usually begin one to two weeks after exposure to the virus n NOTE: WHEN THE RASH APPEARS, THE STUDENT IS NO LONGER CONTAGIOUS!
Illinois EMSC5 “Slapped Cheek” rash
Illinois EMSC6 FIFTH DISEASE n COMPLICATIONS –Can be dangerous to women who are less than 20 weeks pregnant –Dangerous to cancer or immunosuppressed students n DIAGNOSIS –Usually made by clinical symptoms n TREATMENT –No definitive treatment at this time
Illinois EMSC7 FIFTH DISEASE n PREVENTION –Good handwashing is the best defense against the virus –Universal substance precautions n NOTE: THERE IS CURRENTLY NO VACCINE AVAILABLE
Illinois EMSC8 PERTUSSIS n CAUSE: –Caused by a bacteria known as Bordetella pertussis –Highly contagious n TRANSMISSION: –By airborne droplets –Incubation period is 5-10 days
Illinois EMSC9 PERTUSSIS 3 STAGES OF THE DISEASE: 1. CATARRHAL STAGE (1-2 weeks) Child is MOST CONTAGIOUS in this stage 2. PAROXYSMAL STAGE (2-4 weeks) 3. CONVALESCENT STAGE (3-4 weeks)
Illinois EMSC11 PERTUSSIS COMPLICATIONS n Pneumonia n Apnea n Dehydration, weight loss n Atelectasis n Seizures
Illinois EMSC12 PERTUSSIS DIAGNOSIS n A nasopharyngeal swab is used to test for the B. pertussis bacteria TREATMENT n Erythromycin PREVENTION n Vaccination
Illinois EMSC13 INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS CAUSE n The Epstein-Barr virus is the most common cause of mononucleosis (mono) n In the United States, the incidence of mono peaks in adolescence
Illinois EMSC14 INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS TRANSMISSION n Transmitted through affected saliva. Also known as the ”kissing disease” SYMPTOMS n High fever n Splenomegaly n Lymphadenopathy n Fatigue n Hepatosplenomegaly
Illinois EMSC15 INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS DIAGNOSIS n A blood test is required to confirm the diagnosis (Monospot) n CBC usually shows atypical lymphocytes COMPLICATIONS n Splenic rupture n Guillain-Barre
Illinois EMSC16 INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS TREATMENT n Currently no medication to treat the disease n Treatment typically palliative - treat the symptoms PREVENTION n There is no vaccine currently available n Best defense is to avoid direct exposure to anyone with symptoms. Always maintain good handwashing
Illinois EMSC17 SCARLET FEVER CAUSE n Usually caused by group A streptococcus SYMPTOMS n Fever, pharyngitis, “sandpaper” rash
Illinois EMSC19 SCARLET FEVER TRANSMISSION n Respiratory droplets spread the disease. Spread by close contact and shared utensils n Incubation period is 3-5 days n NOTE: Student is contagious until antibiotic is taken for 24 hours
Illinois EMSC21 SCARLET FEVER DIAGNOSIS n A throat culture determines if Strep A is present n If culture is positive and there is a rash, the diagnosis is made TREATMENT n The drug of choice is penicillin
Illinois EMSC23 SCARLET FEVER COMPLICATIONS n Rheumatic Fever n Glomerulonephritis PREVENTION n Avoid close contact or sharing of utensils with anyone who is symptomatic. Always maintain good handwashing
Illinois EMSC24 RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS n Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent cause of respiratory tract infections in children less than 4 years old n Most children experience at least one infection by age 3. Confers only partial protection from subsequent infection, so reinfection can occur.
Illinois EMSC25 RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS SYMPTOMS n Wheezing n Tachypnea n Retractions n Nasal flaring n Atelectasis
Illinois EMSC26 RESPIRATORY SYNCTIAL VIRUS COMPLICATIONS n Hypoxia n Dehydration n Respiratory failure
Illinois EMSC27 RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS TREATMENT n Oxygen n Fluid balance n Tylenol n Albuterol nebulizer or oral medication
Illinois EMSC28 Pediculosis THREE FORMS OF HEAD LICE n NIT - Eggs of head lice. Hatch in approximately 1 week. Usually found attached to hair shaft. n NYMPH - Becomes an adult in approximately 7 days after hatching. Will die without blood supply. n ADULT - Has 6 legs and can live up to 30 days on a head. Needs blood supply to live.
Illinois EMSC29 Pediculosis DIAGNOSIS A diagnosis is made when one or more live lice are found on the student.
Illinois EMSC30 Pediculosis TREATMENT n Only treat a student when live lice are found. n A standard chemical insecticidal lotion is used. n Inform parent/guardian on how to treat household items.
Illinois EMSC31 IMPETIGO TWO TYPES OF IMPETIGO n Nonbullous impetigo- This type is typically seen to a greater degree in children versus adults. Usually affects the facial area. n Bullous impetigo-This type is highly contagious and can spread to large areas of skin.
Illinois EMSC34 IMPETIGO TREATMENT n Impetigo is usually treated with oral antibiotics such as dicloxacillin. n Occasionally, only a topical antibiotic such as mupirocin is prescribed.
Illinois EMSC35 RINGWORM CAUSE Ringworm (tinea capitis) is caused by the fungus Trichophyton tonsurans. When ringworm affects the scalp, typically hair loss occurs.
Illinois EMSC37 RINGWORM TREATMENT The treatment for ringworm is oral griseofulvin for 8 weeks. Antifungal shampoo should also be used 2 times a week for 8 weeks.
Illinois EMSC38 RINGWORM PREVENTION n Good handwashing n No sharing of personal hair products n Checking pets for signs and symptoms of ringworm
Illinois EMSC39 MENINGITIS n Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges. Can be bacterial or viral. n Leading cause of bacterial meningitis used to be Haemophilus influenzae type B n Current leading cause is Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitis.
Illinois EMSC40 MENINGITIS SYMPTOMS n High fever n Headache n Stiff neck n Nausea, vomiting n Photophobia n Lethargy
Illinois EMSC43 MENINGITIS TREATMENT n Hospitalization n IV antibiotics are the treatment of choice for bacterial meningitis
Illinois EMSC44 Summary Children are subject to a wide variety of infectious illness, ranging in severity from minor annoyances to potentially lethal diseases. It is important to be aware of the findings and progression associated with these diseases in order to expediate evaluation, treatment, prevention and followup. Remember – contagious illness poses a particular threat to students who have compromised immune systems. Implement special precautions to protect these students from infectious diseases at school.