Presentation on theme: "Sexuality Understanding Sexuality Sexual Attitudes in the USA"— Presentation transcript:
1 Sexuality Understanding Sexuality Sexual Attitudes in the USA Sexual Controversies
2 Sex A Biological Issuethe biological distinction between females and males.In the U.S about 105 boys are born for every 100 girls, but higher death rate among males reverses this trend and makes a female a slight minority by the time people reach their mid thirties.
3 Sex and the Body Differences in the body the males and females apart. Primary sex characteristics: the genitals, organs used for reproduction.Secondary sex characteristics-body development apart from the genitals, that distinguishes biologically mature females from males.Hermaphrodites: a human being with some combination of female and male genitalia.Transsexuals- people who feel they are one sex even though biologically they are the other.
4 Sex: A Cultural Issue Sexuality is very much a cultural issue. Cultural VariationThe simple practice of showing affection has extensive cultural variation. Most people in the U.S. kiss in public, the Chinese kiss only in private. The French kiss publicly often two times (once on each cheek) Belgians kiss three times starting with one cheek. The Maoris of New Zealand, rub noses, and most people in Nigeria don’t kiss at all.
5 Incest TabooOne cultural universal—an element found in every society the world over—is the incest taboo, a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriages between certain relatives. In the U.S. law and cultural mores prohibit close relatives (including brothers and sisters, parents and children) from having sex or marrying. But exactly which family members are prohibited are different in every culture.
6 Sexual Attitudes in the United States Our cultural orientation toward sexuality has always been inconsistent. Europeans immigrants arrived with rigid notions about “correct” sexuality, which meant that sex was only for the purpose of reproduction within marriage.As late as the 1960’s some states legally banned the sale of condoms. Even today some states have laws on books banning homosexuality as “unnatural” acts.
7 But our culture is also very individualistic, and many believe in giving people freedom to do pretty much as they please, as long as they cause no direct harm to others. This thinking makes sex a matter of individual freedom and personal choice.
8 The Sexual RevolutionProfound changes occurred during the twentieth century. In the 1920’s millions of people migrated from farms and small towns to the large cities.“Roaring Twenties.”Alfred Kinsey set the stage for the “Sexual Revolution”He published the first report on sexuality in the U.S. It was not so much what he said about sex but that it was the simple fact that scientists were studying sex.
9 Sexual RevolutionTechnology also played a part in the sexual revolution. “The Pill,” was introduced in 1960 not only making preventing pregnancy but making sex more convenient.Double Standard-society allows men to be sexually active while expecting women to remain chaste before marriage and faithful to their husbands afterward.**The sexual revolution increased sexual activity overall, but it changed behavior among women more than men.
10 The sexual counter revolution— was a political call from the conservatives to return to “family values.”Cohabitation brings children into the world where their parents are not married. This simply did not change the minds of the general public, what happened was the increased number of sexually transmitted diseases (STD).Herpes is incurable and AIDS is a deadly disease.Sexual Orientation— a person’s romantic and emotional attraction to another person.Heterosexuality— sexual attraction to someone of the opposite sex. The norm in all human societies is heterosexuality.
11 Homosexuality— sexual attraction to someone of the same sex Homosexuality— sexual attraction to someone of the same sex. A significant number of people share this attraction to the same sex.bisexuality— refers to sexual attraction to of both sexes. Bisexuals are equally attracted to men and women.asexuality— means no sexual attraction to people of either sex.
12 A Product of Society— People in a society construct a set of meanings that lets them make sense of sexuality.A Product of Biology— a growing body of evidence suggests that sexual orientation is innate, that it is rooted in human biology, much the same way people are born right-handed or left-handed.
13 Sexual ControversiesTeen Pregnancy— Being sexually active— especially having intercourse— demands a high level of responsibility because pregnancy can result.Pornography— is sexually explicit material that causes sexual arousal. But what exactly is or is not pornographic has long been a matter of debate.Prostitution— is the selling of sexual services. Often called the “world’s oldest profession.”
14 Call girls— are elite prostitutes, typically women who are young, attractive and well educated and arrange their own appointments with clients by telephone. These women offer companionship and sex for a fee.Sex workers in the middle category are employed in “massage parlors” or brothels under the control of managers. These people have less choice about their clients and receive less money for their services, getting to keep more than half of what they make.Street walkers— are women and men who work the streets of large cities. Females workers are often under the control of pimps who take most of their earnings.
15 Sexual Violence and Abuse Rape— an expression of power, a violent act that uses sex to hurt, humiliate, or control another person.The official definition of rape is “the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly against her will.”Date Rape— involves people who know one another, and the incident usually occurs in familiar surroundings especially in the home.
16 Theoretical Analysis of Sexuality Structural-Functional Analysis—The structural-functional approach highlights the contributions of any social pattern to the overall operation of society. Because sexuality is an important dimension of social life, society regulates sexual behavior.
17 Symbolic-Interaction Analysis Symbolic interaction paradigm highlights how, as people interact, they construct everyday reality. The process for constructing reality is highly variable. One groups view of sexuality is very different from another group. In the same way how people understand sexuality can and does change over time.The social construction of SexualityA century ago, our society’s norm—for women—was virginity before marriage. This norm was strong because, without effective birth control, virginity was the only assurance a man had that his bride to be was not carrying another man’s child.
18 Social-Conflict Analysis The social Conflict Paradigm highlights dimensions of inequality. This paradigm shows how sexuality both reflects patterns of social inequality and helps create them.