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1 Naomi Wagner, Ph.D Lecture Outlines Based on Burger, 8th edition The Psychology of the Person Chapter 13 Behavioral-Social Learning ApproachNaomi Wagner, Ph.DLecture OutlinesBased on Burger, 8th edition
2 The Beginning of Behaviorism John B. Watson ( ) was a member of the faculty at John Hopkins University.He started his academic work in philosophy, but then switched to psychology, andIn 1913 published his milestone paper:” Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it”
3 Watson’s Main Idea in His 1913 paper Watson argued that if psychology were to become a science, psychologists must stop their engagement in such topics as mental processes and states of consciousness, which were the main topics of the earlier schools, such as structuralism and FunctionalismOnly observable behaviors can be the subject matter of science. Emotions, thoughts, etc, were of interest to behaviorists only if they could be defined in terms of observable behaviors
4 Watson’s main Ideas (cont-d) Thinking , according to Watson, was simply a variant of verbal behavior, a “sub-vocal speech”, as evident by small vocal-cords movements he claimed accompanied thoughts.Watson claimed that observed behavior can be predicted, and eventually controlled by scientists.
5 Watson was Influenced by Ivan Pavlov At that time Watson was influenced by Pavlov and his demonstration of classical conditioning, and proposed a model of learning based on Stimulus- Response relationship, that would imply that “given the response, the stimulus can be predicted; given the stimuli, the response can be predicted
6 Pavlov’s Work and the Principles of classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov: ( ) was a physiologist who studied the digestive system and experimented on dogsHe performed surgery in the cheek of the dog and inserted there a little glass vial that served to collect the saliva of the dog. He noticed one day that the dog started to salivate before the food was introduced, as a response to the footsteps of the experimenter. This observation brought Pavlov to try all types of stimuli (Conditioned stimuli) that were paired with the food (the unconditioned stimulus).
7 Examples of Classical Conditioning Pavlov presents the food (Unconditioned stimulus) to the dog ( UCS)The dog salivates (unconditioned response) to the sight of the food (UCR)The bell, a neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus) is paired with the food (CS)After a couple of presentations, the dog salivates to the bell (conditioned response) CR
8 Classical Conditioning Con-d The neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus, and the response it elicits is called conditioned response.
9 The Original Pavlov Experiment A class-vial is inserted on the dog’s cheek to collect saliva elicited by food
11 The Law of Effect (Thorndike) Thorndike at that time identified the principles of operant conditioning—behaviors that are rewarded tend to be repeated, and those behaviors that are punished or ignored decrease in frequency
12 Modification of Behavior via Learning Principles The list of topics using learning principles includes attitude change, language acquisition, overcoming phobias and moreBehavioral accounts of personality had gone through transitions over the yearsFrom observable behaviors to non-observable concepts, such as thoughtsThe line between behavioral and cognitive approaches is blurred
13 Watson’s ConclusionsThe work of Pavlov convinced Watson that these leaning principles would suffice to explain almost any human behavior.Personality, he said was “the end product of our habit system”. That is, over the course of our lives we are conditioned to respond to certain stimuli in more or less predictable ways, which explains the consistency observed in personality characteristics.
14 Control over the environment Watson is famous (or infamous) that given enough control over the environment, he can take any baby, and regardless of the child innate abilities and features, he can mold the child into becoming anything or anyone that he, Watson, wanted.(see next slide)
15 Watson’s Infamous Statement He made his infamous statement: “ Give me a dozen healthy infants, well formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in, and I will guarantee to take any one at random, and train him to become any type of specialist I might select– doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and yes, even a beggerman and a thief” (1924).
16 Little AlbertWatson was interested in the conditioning of emotional responses, and his “experiment” with Little Albert is well-known.He devised a procedure to classically-condition in Albert fear of the little rabbit (most of you remember this event).
17 Little Albert (cont-d) Watson’s perspective is deterministicpeople can be conditioned to react (emotionally or behaviorally) to stimuli without their awarenessIn this sense, referring to the old philosophical question whether we have control over out life, he seems to advocate the position that we do not have FREE WIILL.
19 Watson’s View of Human Nature Watson’s view of human behavior can be described as being reductionist- - in the sense that complex behavioral patterns could be reduced to simple Stimulus-response connections, that were formed on the basis of classical (Pavlovian) conditioning – which is learning by association
20 Watson’s LegacyWatson’s main legacy is seen in the shift from subjective introspection into a system of explanation that advocated the operational definition of variables- that is- any variable studied needs to be defined in terms of specific operations that can be used to measure it and to quantify it. In addition, his idea that learning is the core of psychology has become quite prevalent.
21 HistoryGerman scientists working at the Universities of Leipzig and of Heidelberg became interested in the connection between events or stimuli in the physical world, and their perception in the mind.They were the first to use laboratory experiments, and indeed the first lab in experimental psychology was established by Wundt in 1879 at the University of Leipzig (Germany).
22 History (cont-d)The field of psychophysics was engaged in understanding how the physical properties of stimuli in the external world (e.g. the intensity of light, or the pitch of a sound) are related to our sensory experienceThis field was seeking for laws that would describe the relationship between the objective physical world and the subjective inner experience of the human mind.
23 Wundt and the School of Voluntarism Wundt’s school of thought has come to be known as VoluntarismHe was interested in describing the immediate conscious experience of a person, using systematic introspection.Wundt described consciousness as composed of sensations, affect (feelings), and ideas (the thinking mind).
24 Skinner and Radical Behaviorism Burrhus Frederic Skinner ( ) published in 1938 his view of learning. He maintained that the Pavlovian classical conditioning paradigm could not explain all behaviorSkinner suggested that type R conditioning, operant conditioning, is better able to explain behavior
25 Skinner cont-d)Skinner in the 1930’s introduced radical behaviorism, stating that all behavior can be explained on the basis of operant conditioning principles.He did not deny the existence of inner causes of our behavior, but challenged the extent we can observe them.Very much like Freud, he said that people often are not aware of the causes of their behaviors. They are manipulated by operant conditioning of which they are not always cognizant.
26 Operant ConditioningThe basis for operant conditioning is a behavior emitted by the organism, sometimes at randomThe consequences of that behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future (under similar conditions)A consequence that increases the frequency of behavior is called a reinforcement, one that decreases the likelihood of the behavior is called a punishment.
28 Positive Reinforcement Rewarding behavior increases its frequency
29 PunishmentIntroducing unpleasant stimulus (punishment) decreases the behavior
30 Negative Reinforcement The elimination of unpleasant stimulus rewards the behavior She nags him (unpleasant) until he cleans the dishes and then she stops.
31 Operant Conditioning (cont-d) The other side of operant conditioning is the reduction of unwanted behaviorThe most efficient method is to cease reinforcement and thereby allow the behavior to extinguishThough it seems quite simple, we seldom can abide by this idea- especially when we give attention to undesirable behaviors.
32 Con-dNegative Reinforcement: When behavior is reinforced by the elimination of a negative stimulus. For example, you are in the mall and your child nags and screams, wanting a toyYou buy the toy, the child stops screamingYour behavior was “negatively reinforced”
33 Effects of PunishmentThough punishment worked quite well with animals in the lab, studies show that the effectiveness of punishment is limited for several reasons.First, punishment does not teach the desired behavior.Second, to be effective punishment must be delivered immediately and consistentlyIn addition, through a process of classical conditioning, negative feelings that accompany the punishment may be associated with the person (often the parent) delivering the punishment.What’s more, punishment teaches the child to behave aggressively. The negative emotions associated with punishment may interfere with learning appropriate responses. At the mist, punishment can temporarily suppress behavior.
34 ShapingIn many situation we want to use reinforcement to increase desirable behavior, but the behavior is not emitted by the subjectWe use shaping, or the method of successive approximationsWe reward small increments toward the final (desirable) behavior
35 Skinner and UtopiaSkinner’s position was deterministic- he maintained that the perception of personal freedom in an illusion, and that our behavior is controlled by environmental factors, through processes of operant conditioning often unbeknownst to us. His position in regard to the ancient question was that there was no free will.
36 Current Status of Skinner’s Radical Behaviorism Skinner’s form of behaviorism is considered today as radical and as inappropriate to explain the complexity of our behaviorIt rejects the usefulness of examining our feelings and inner thoughts, and it ignores completely the role of heredity in human behavioral mechanismsIt has also been claimed that human beings are more complex that the laboratory animals used in behavioral research. We humans are capable to consider alternative courses of action, looking at long-term goals.
37 The Over-Justification Effect An interesting finding that emerged in social psychology regarding reinforcement is, that when you pay (reinforce) people to do something that they anyhow enjoy doing, the reward decreases the frequency of the behavior. This is called the over-justification effectExplanation: We perceive our behavior as motivated by the reward, not by our inherent interest!
38 Social-Learning Theory Around the 1960’s psychology transitioned toward social-learning theoryThe main concept was that not only does the environment affect our behavior, but that our behavior determines the type of environment we find ourselves in.Social-Learning theorists also claimed that people provide their own inner reinforcers, in the absence of external ones
39 Rotter’ s social learning theory Rotter argued that the causes of human behavior are much more complicated than conditioning principles.Rotter introduced several “unobservable” concepts to account for human behavior and personalityIn any situation we have different options for behavior.The key to predicting what we will do in a given situation depends on the behavioral potential for each option—it is the likelihood of a given behavior occurring in a given situation.
40 Rotter’s Social-Learning (cont-d) The strength of the behavior potential depends on expectancy—which is the probability that the behavioral option will result in a given reinforcer, and reinforcement value—the degree to which we prefer one reinforcer over another. If you do not like candy, offering you candy after you have done something that is desirable will NOT affect you.
41 Rotter (cont-d) Expectancies- What are they? Rotter introduced the term “expectancy” to suggest that we decide to behave in a given manner if we expect our behavior to bring the desired result and if we value the result- if it is important to us.For example: Whether we decide to study all night long before a test depends on our expectancy (belief) that such behavior will give us good results
42 Behavioral Potential depends on… The extent to which we expect our behavior to bring a rewardThe extent to which we care about this reward
43 How do we form expectancies about the potential result of our behavior? The idea is that we are going to emit (display) a given behavior when we EXPECT is to bring us rewardsWe form expectancies usually on the basis of past experience of being rewardedWhat about situations that we encounter for the first time?We rely of generalized expectationsRotter refers to those as Locus of Control
44 “Generalized expectations” and Locus of Control (LOC) These are beliefs we hold about how often our actions typically lead to rewards or punishments“Locus of Control” is a concept introduced by Rotter, referring to the extent to which we believe that what happens to us is the result of our own actions or attributes (Internal LOC), or the results of forces outside of our control (External LOC)LOC is found to be related to emotional well-being vs. depression
45 LOC beyond RotterWas found as important for emotional well-being and achievement motivation
46 Cognitive elements: Social-Cognitive theory: Bandura (1970’s) rejected the traditional behaviorist views of personality that presented humans as passive recipients of environmental stimuli.Bandura argued that there were both internal and external determinants of behavior, and introduced the concept of reciprocal determinism.
47 Bandura (cont-d)Albert Bandura (1925-) illustrates the transition from traditional behavioral views to incorporate internal variablesFor him, we are not passive recipients of rewards and punishment from the environmentBandura argues that there are both external and internal determinants of behavior- and these two sets interact in a mode that he labeled as reciprocal determinism.
48 Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism That is, external factors and internal factors, such as beliefs, thoughts and expectations, are parts of a system of interacting influences.Not only can the environment affect behavior, but our behavior affects the environment.Bandura draws a distinction between potential environment, which is the same to everyone in a situation, and the actual environment, the one we create with our behavior.
49 Reciprocal Determinism Constant movement back and forth
50 Self-EfficacyOne of Bandura’s most important concepts is self-efficacyThe term refers to the extent to which one believes that he/she can bring about a certain therapeutic outcomeWhether people make an effort to cope with problems and how long they persist in their efforts to change are determined by whether they believe that that are capable to achieve the change, that is, their perception of self-efficacy
52 Self-RegulationBandura also argues that most behavior is performed in the absence of external reinforcement and punishment.Most of our daily actions are controlled by self-regulation.We often work toward self-imposed goals with inner rewards. The rewards come from feelings of accomplishment and self-wroth, that Bandura labeled- self-efficacy.
53 Observational Learning Bandura argued that learning is not limited to classical or operant conditioning.We can also learn by observing other people, or by reading about other people’s actions.Many behaviors are too complex to be learned through the slow process of reinforcement and punishment.
54 Learning vs. Performance Bandura draws an important distinction between learning and performance.Behavior learned through observational methods needs not be performed.The performance is dependent on the expectations of rewards or punishment.
55 Application: Behavior Modification Operant Conditioning Despite all the criticism, Skinner’s ideas have been successfully translated into therapeutic procedures labeled behavior modificationThe focus is on changing few, well-defined and maladaptive behaviors and habitsThe procedures were used quite effectively in the case of autistic children.Lovaas in UCLA used techniques based on operant conditioning, especially shaping through successive approximations (rewarding small increments toward the final goal) to teach language and social skills to Autistic Children
56 Application Classical Conditioning Systematic desensitization is a technique used in treating phobias, where images or real-life encounters of the feared object or situations are gradually introduced, while the person is in a state of relaxationIn Aversion Training therapists try to rid clients of problem behaviors while by pairing aversive stimuli with the behavior
57 Assessment: behavioral observations Direct observation: In order to change behavior (for example- to reduce a child’s temper tantrum), we need first to assess the problematic behavior- how often it occurs, what are the conditions that precede it, what are the consequences of the behavior)- this stage is called baselineNext- offer the treatment/interventionLast- observe the behavior again, to assess any changes that can be seen as the result of the treatment/intervention.
58 Assessment: Self-Monitoring This technique asks the client in a behavior-modification program (for example, wants to quit smoking), to engage in self-monitoring, in order to obtain a base-line for the target behavior (quit smoking)For example- how often one smokes, under what circumstances
59 Self-Monitoring (cont-d) Weakness of this method: In most cases clients have distorted ideas as to how often the behavior (e.g. smoking) occursTherefore, therapists ask clients to keep records as to how often the behavior occurs, under what situations, etcWatching your own behavior can be therapeutic in itself!However, sometimes people cheat!
60 Observations by Others Some clients are unwilling or unable to provide accurate information about themselves (e.g. children)Parents and teachers can often record the frequency of a child’s problem behaviorChildren sometimes act differently in the presence of the therapist than at homeThat is why it is good to use several observes in different settings
61 Current StatusThough the behavioral perspective is regarded as to simplified to explain the complexity of human behavior, strategies derived from this approach are quite effective in psychotherapyBehavior modification interventions are based on behavioral principles, both classical and operant conditioningObservational learning is also used in psychotherapy.
62 StrengthsFoundations in research- need to define the variables and to measure them, rather than use general terms such as “self-actualization” or “unconscious”Behavioral principles are translated into therapeutic procedures (Behavior Modification) that use objective criteria when wanting to change behaviorBehavior modification procedures are suitable for children or severely delayed persons
63 LimitationsSkinner’s form of behaviorism is considered today as radical and as inappropriate to explain the complexity of our behaviorIt rejects the usefulness of examining our feelings and inner thoughts, and it ignores completely the role of heredity in human behavioral mechanismsIt has also been claimed that human beings are more complex that the laboratory animals used in behavioral research. We humans are capable to consider alternative courses of action, looking at long-term goals.