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Article summary Neonatal Smiling: A Developmental Puzzle.

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1 Article summary Neonatal Smiling: A Developmental Puzzle

2 Structure of your paper n Use these headings after your title – Introduction – Methods – Results – Discussion n Incorporate the main ideas of each section in this presentation n You do not need sub-headings

3 What’s the big question/picture? n What is your research question? n How do the results of this study address your research question – What the study is specifically about n sentences – E.g., Fox and Davidson (1988) examined the relationship between brain activity and facial expressions of emotion.

4 Example n Big question: Are neonatal smiles expressions of joy?

5 How Sleeping Neonates Smile n Daniel Messinger 1, Marco Dondi 2, G. Christina Nelson-Goens 3, Alessia Beghi 2, Alan Fogel 3, and Francesca Simion 2 n Infants over one month of age, tend to produce two types of smiling during positive social interactions, open mouth smiles and Duchenne smiles involving high cheek raising. Little is known, however, about the prevalence, frequency, and duration of these smiles during the neonatal period. 25 full-term, healthy neonates (12 female) were videotaped during six minutes of sleep. Smiles were identified and analyzed using an anatomically based coding system (FACS/Baby FACS). One half of the neonates showed bilateral Duchenne smiles. One quarter of the neonates showed bilateral Duchenne smiles at a mature level of intensity whose median duration was 1 1/3 s. By contrast, open mouth bilateral smiles occurred in less than one tenth of the sample. The contrast between the more frequent bilateral Duchenne smiles and the less frequent open mouth smile is discussed in terms of clues to the potential emotional significance of early smiling and the synergistic functioning of facial muscles.

6 What was known n Endogenous smiles while asleep (REM) n Not more frequent after feeding – Not gas n More smiling in premature infants n Smiling in microcephalic infant

7 More what was known n Different kinds of smiles – Non-Duchenne smiles = n Lip corner raise only = – Zygomatic Major contraction n See Picture – Duchenne smiles = n Lip corner raise + Cheek Raise = – Zygomatic Major + Orbicularis Oculi contraction

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9 In older folks n Adult Duchennes associated with – Viewing pleasant films – Self-reports of happiness during films – No association for non- Duchenne smiles – Ekman et al., 1990 n 10-Month-Old Duchennes associated with – Mother’s smiling approach – Left frontal cerebral activation (EEG) – Fox & Davidson, 1988

10 Intro: The question (“The goal...”) n The gap – Duchenne smiles in neonates? n Leads to the research question – The overall goal of this study was to document different forms of smiling in sleeping neonates. Specifically, we investigated the organization, prevalence, frequency, and duration of neonatal Duchenne and open mouth smiles for clues to their functional significance.

11 Methods n Who n What n When n How n Where (title page)

12 Methods: n Who? (Participants) – 25 (12 female) healthy neonates – Mean Age = 55 hours, Mdn. = 50; range 5 – 106) n What? – Videotaped for six minutes while asleep – Full-screen image of the neonate's full face

13 How specifically? n What was measured? – Does it makes sense in terms of the research question? n E.g., are variables valid?

14 Coding n Anatomically based FACS coding n Two actions – 1) Lip corners 2) Cheeks n Two strengths – a) Its there b/x) Its clear n Reliability – Prevalence: 80-90% per infant – Frequency: High % of variance accounted for

15 Results n What are the answers to the research questions? – “An Analysis of variance showed...” – This is where reality meets theory. – Results often have multiple layers or sections. – Very important: Know this section of your article cold..

16 Results: Bilateral Duchenne smiles (see Table) n Prevalence (how many, % of kids ) – 1/2 weak or strong, 1/4 strong – Same as non-Duchenne n Frequency (how much) – 1 every 5 minutes n Same as non-Duchenne n Duration (how long) – 1 sec. + – Same as non-Duchenne

17 Table 1. Neonatal Smiles

18 Results: Duchenne vs. open- mouth n Lots of Duchenne smiles n Few open mouth (jaw drop) smiles – 8% (2/25) versus 84% (21/25) of neonates –.02 versus.41 times per minute

19 Discussion n Recap n Other results n Why? Explanation n What’s the big picture? – What does it mean? n Limitations – Next steps n Your next steps?

20 Discussion: Recap and other results n Duchenne smiles – 1/2 of neonates, overall once per 5 minutes … – Last one second, stronger ones 1.5 n All smiles – Once per 2-3 minutes – Greater than Emde – Anatomical coding

21 Why? Do neonatal (Duchenne) smiles express joy? – Are they emotional – Are they the product of a motor synergy? – Duchenne and open mouth both may index positive emotion in older infants – Only Duchenne smiles involve a motor synergy – Duchenne smiles much more frequent in neonates

22 What’s the big picture? n Can even mature smiles in sleeping neonates indicate joy? n Do the smiles of sleeping neonates influence later smiles while waking and social interaction?

23 Discussion - Limitations n What are the limitations of the study? – Use other scientific sources, including the textbook, to put the study in perspective. – What do the authors think should be done next? n Suggestions for further research

24 What will you read next? n Something similar – Something different n A specific article – An article about a specific topic n What did you learn about your ideas for a final paper?

25 – Get manual: On reserve and at reference desk in library, bookstore, web... APA Manual


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