3Poem- Digging What lines or sections stood out to you? What is the author’s opinion of work?What are you thinking now after listening to the poem being read?
4Informational Reading Malcolm Gladwell, in Outliers, reminds us that one of our jobs is to teach students to work hard—that is the key to extraordinary success. So here, you’ll begin by showing students how to approach a text in a serious, intellectual manner.2minI would like to begin with a quote from Malcolm Gladwell’s book that emphasizes how hard and meaningful work and effort will produce success. So with this non-fiction unit we must invite and encourage students to work hard.
5ObjectivesBecome more familiar with the CCSS Reading Standards for Literature & Informational TextsUnderstand how the close reading of informational text supports deeper comprehensionUnderstand the skills a reader needs to process informational textsBecome familiar with scaffolds to further develop academic conversationsToday we have 4 objectives for the day.1 min.
6Norms Respect for all perspectives Active listening and participation Maintain a positive outlook and attitudeProactive problem solvingAssumption of positive intentIn order to reach our 4 objectives it is important that we follow team norms as we work together1 min
7Whittier City School District’s Instructional Focus Developing deep comprehension and interpretive skills using literature and informational text, with an implicit focus on informational text and expository writingInstructional ShiftsBuilding knowledge through content-rich nonfiction, informational texts and literatureRich and rigorous conversations, dependent on common textReading and writing grounded in evidenceInstructional StrategiesAgain, here is our overall focus for the year. Remember the goal is stated in the overarching statement.The strategies are ways to help us get there.2 min.Close ReadingConstructed Response/Text Dependent QuestionsText based discussions
8Examining StandardsSort the Reading Literature & Informational Text StandardsClosed Sort: Resort the standards into two categories: Reading Literature and Reading InformationalWithin each of the above categories, sort into clusters: Key Ideas and Details, Craft and Structure, Integration of Knowledge and Ideas, Range of Reading and Text ComplexityDiscussion: What stood out to you after examining the Reading Informational Standards?How do the Reading Literature Standards support the Reading Information Standards?25 mins. total10 mins per sort5 mins for discussion
9Essentials of Reading Instruction 1 mins.Our goal is always comprehension. The pillars represent all the skills that must be in place in order to support comprehension. In addition the foundation must be established where students are given time to read and write as well as talk.
101 min There are various types on Informational Text students must handle and learn how to approach BiographiesExpositoryHow-TosHistorical FictionNarrative Non-Fiction
11Boxes and Bullets (informational) Main IdeaDetail1 min Boxes and Bullets is how informational text is organized This visual will help students understand informational Text organization and it is important for students to learn the differenceIt’s important that we begin by teaching students the structural differences of informational text and literature. They must understand that info texts are structured with main ideas and details.
12Story Structure (Literature) Beginning, Middle and EndScenes and plots1 min In literature the arrows move like time from B M E or scene to scene
13Informational Text Tool 5 mins.Pass out the tool and discuss
16Informational Reading Unit of Study Previewing the TextWhat text features do I notice? (pictures, headings, charts, captions )What do they tell me?What do I think this text will be about?Activating Background Knowledge & Setting a purposeWhat do I already know about the topic?What might I read to find out?Activating Knowledge of Text Structure (Boxes and Bullets)What do I know about how informational texts are structured?How is this text organized?Making a plan for readingWhere will I start reading?Before Reading Strategies5 min. We want to teach students strategies that they can use as readers to help them build comprehension when they read independently. These skills must be taught and modeled explicitly and students must be given opportunities to practice.The following skills are skills students must engage in before reading: (share skills)If a student has knowledge related to the subject being read and structural knowledge related to the organization and features of the text comprehension is more likely. Sometimes you could use a primary source document to engage student interest in a topic and build background knowledgePurposes are central to any reading we do, students must use the previewing of the text to set a purpose for reading
17Informational Reading Unit of Study Self-Monitoring for Meaning:Coding the textSummarizingWhat did I just read?QuestioningWhat is confusing?What am I wondering?EnvisioningWhat am I envisioning? (see, hear, touch, smell, feel)Main Idea/topic & Supporting Details:What is the main idea/topic?What details support the main idea/topic?During Reading Strategies10 min.Self-monitoring is about knowing when we understand the content we are reading (at the word, sentence, and section or whole –text levels) and knowing what to do when our meaning breaks down. We have to teach students how to pay attention to their thinking while reading. They need to have a conversation with themselves and possess fix up strategies whenever they realize meaning is breaking down.
18Informational Reading Unit of Study Determining Important Details (Throughout Reading)What is this whole text mostly about?What is important to remember after reading this text?SynthesizingWhat do I think now after reading this text?I used to think ______ but now I think__________Do I agree with the author?What is the Big/Central Idea?How does this fit with other information on the same topic?After Reading Strategies5 min.We need to teach and Model these skills for students.As adult readers we use them as well as others without thinking about anymore.Our students need us to Model these skills as they become thinking strategies once students are given opportunities to practice.THIS IS TAUGHT OUTSIDE of CLOSE READINGDetermining Important details: we have to dig into the reading and identify the key words and phrases that are most important in developing the author’s central ideas. We must be able to distinguish provocative details vs. important details.Synthesizing: When students are synthesizing, they are sifting through details, determining what is important and the central idea. They also come to recognize how their understand has further evolved or been affirmed as a result of this reading experience.Use your Explaining Voice vs. your story telling voice
19By Nancy Frey and Douglas Fisher What is Close Reading?3 min. Teachers can take notes on something he said and that you’d like to rememberPoints of EntryBy Nancy Frey and Douglas Fisher
20By Nancy Frey and Douglas Fisher Professional Reading25 minutes.15 minutes reading5-10 minute discussion minutesSTAND and SHAREIn order to successfully prepare students for college and the workforce, the Common Core Standards ask for students to be able to analyze, evaluate, and deeply understand a variety of texts. Close reading is an instructional strategy that can be used to help develop deep comprehension of texts. We will now have the opportunity to read about close reading and learn about its important in our classroom.Points of EntryBy Nancy Frey and Douglas Fisher
21Interactive Structures Interactive Structure OptionsWhip AroundHeads TogetherTalking Stick/ Talking ChipsThink, Pair, ShareThink, Write, Pair, SharePartner workQuick WriteWhat structures have you used?How have they increased student engagement and allowed you to check for understanding?3 mins.Remember within the close reading time we need to allow students time to discuss their ideas with a partner.It also supports our District focus for rich and rigorous discussions and addresses the speaking and listening standardsThe research demonstrates that EL spend 2% of the day discussing, so when we have these structures in place it ensures that students have opportunities to have academic discussions.We want to ensure we are allowing students more time to talk vs teacher talk
22Accountable Talk3 mins.Remember within the close reading time we need to allow students time to discuss their ideas with a partner.It also supports our District focus for rich and rigorous discussions and addresses the speaking and listening standardsThe research demonstrates that EL spend 2% of the day discussing, so when we have these structures in place it ensures that students have opportunities to have academic discussions.We want to ensure we are allowing students more time to talk vs teacher talk
23Examine A Text As a Team: Read the selection Summarize the selection What is the text mainly about?What are the main ideas?5 min.The first step of the planning process involves your team examining a text. During this time you will read the text and summarize it.
24First ReadThe GOAL of the first read is for students to have a general understanding of what the text is about1 min.
25Planning For The First Read Decide what information must be frontloadedIf informational text is not connected to prior learning, provide limited background informationDecide what vocabulary needs to be clarifiedInformational text will have academic vocabulary that students should be allowed to struggle throughDecide how the text will be readRead Aloud, Whisper Read, Choral Read, Partner Read, Independent Read*This will depend on the complexity of the text and time of year and grade level.1 min.If you think there is key information that students need to know before they read the text (something necessary for making sense of the text that isn't stated in the text), by all means tell it. But only do frontload if it’s necessary. ). We do not want to reveal a lot of information about the text that the students can find out by reading the text.When clarifying vocabulary words you can determine if definitions need to be frontloaded or if they can quickly be defined in while reading the text.
26Before First Read of Informational Text Preview the textWhat text features do I notice? (pictures, headings, charts, captions )What do they tell me?What do I think this text will be about?Activating Background Knowledge & Setting a purposeWhat do I already know about the topic?What might I read to find out?Students shareThis text will be about……I think I will learn about….5minHave teachers preview the text as STUDENTS
27Practicing the First Read Read the entire selectionFrontload information if necessaryStop only to define key vocabulary words that cannot be defined in context and may interfere with meaningStudents Annotate: What was confusing? What do you wonder about?Students shareI’m confused about _______ because…..I wonder about …….Students Summarize the textThis text is mainly about….10 min.Partner ReadHere is what you would do when engaging students in a first read.Note the addition to having kids annotate as they read.Suggestion: Students can jot on post-its their confusions or questions*Teacher’s role is not to clarify confusion at this point but guide the students toward establishing a purpose for rereading.NOW YOU WILL RE-READ IT AND ANNOTATE THE TEXT ? ! *SUMMARIZE THE TEXTSHARE Q OR CONFUSIONS STUDENTS MIGHT HAVE ABOUT THE TEXT
28Planning For The First Read Determine the Central Ideas after reading the TextYoung people can make a difference in the worldEducation is not a right in other parts of the worldOne voice can make a differenceStanding up for what you believe can be dangerous, even deadly10 min. Each table works to come up with possible central ideas from the text.Tables share out.
29Examining the Standards What standards seem to be most suited for this text?5 min.Have tables put their heads together to look at the standards and decide which standards could best be addressed with this story.Allow a few tables to share-out. Confirm the fact that there are several standards that can be addressed with this text
30Planning For Close Reading Chunk the text into Pivotal PassagesWhat sections merit a second read?Important and interesting sections or partsSections that include different ideas or informationComplex information; various structures within a paragraphLengthy and substantial information2 min.After the first read, we move into the second read which is when we will work on reading closely for deeper meaning and developing new understandings.The purpose of this process is take a 2nd look at sections/ passages that really support the theme/s we want students to discover.To identify passages that merit a second read, consider: (read slide)Inform participants of where we divided the text into pivotal passages. Briefly our reasoning. Have them draw a line and number each pivotal passage.
31Planning For Close Reading Determine Understanding to be DevelopedWhat do we want students to understand after reading this section of the text?What idea is essential for them to understand?Test your Understanding to be developedDoes it capture the main idea?Can it be supported with details from the Pivotal Passage?Does is support the Central Idea/s?Understanding To Be DevelopedTaliban’s presence changed people’s lives in Pakistan3 min.Share criteria for understanding to be DevelopedShare our understanding to be developed and model how we can test it against our criteria
32Planning For Close Reading Develop Text Based QuestionsDraft questions that will help students get to the understanding that needs to be developedEnsure questions lead students back to the text and support discussion1 min.
33Pivotal Passage #1Understanding To Be Developed:Taliban’s presence changed people’s lives in PakistanText Based QuestionsWhat is this section of the article mainly about? (TPS)What are we learning about the Taliban? (TPS)What does the author want readers to know about Islam? (HT)Based on the article what does the word Democracy mean? (QW)What is the tone of the article? (TPS)Why does the author start with 2012 and later refer to 2007? What does this tell us about how the reporter tells the story? (HT)What does the author want us to know about Mingora a city in Swatt Valley? (TPS)10 min.Facilitator re-reads Pivotal Passage 1 then shares the Understanding to be DevelopedModel for teachers how we determined the understanding to be developed for pivotal passage #1.Ask teachers the questions
34Planning For Close Reading Develop an Enduring QuestionAre questions students could think about and discuss while reading the text that help them uncover the Central IdeaThis is the last question asked after each pivotal passage to build up to the culminating question1 min.The enduring question is the same for each pivotal passage. The purpose is to support students in uncovering the theme.Walk participants through answering questions with partners
35Practicing Close Reading Enduring QuestionWhat is the author’s point of view of Power?5 min. Have participants answer
36Let’s Practice With your table partner: Read the second pivotal passageScript the understanding that you want students to develop after reading this sectionShare with your table and share out to the group5 mins.After participants share their responses then facilitator shares the understanding from the lesson plan
37Planning for Close Reading Determine Understanding to be DevelopedWhat do we want students to understand after reading this section of the text?What idea is essential for them to understand?Test your Understanding to be developedDoes it capture an idea that can be supported in the whole section?Does is support the Central Idea/sDetermine Understanding to be Developed for Pivotal Passage #2Fear can cause people to give up their freedom1 mins.Remember this is the work a Teachers does while planning, but does not give the theme to students. You want students to discover the theme on their own.
38Let’s Practice Close Reading Understanding to be Developed for Pivotal Passage #2Fear can cause people to give up their freedomText Based Questions for Pivotal Passage #2What does the author want us to know about schools in Pakistan? (TPS)How does Malala and her family respond to the Taliban’s orders?(TPS)How did other citizens respond to the Taliban? Why is this important to report? (HT)How do other citizens respond to Malala’s actions? (HT)How does the photo and caption support what we just read about Malala? (TPS)What are we learning about the Pakistani government? (TPS)What role did the government play during this time? (TPS)10 mins.Walk participants through answering questions using the interactive structures provided.Have teachers notice the structures we have in place for engagement with text, partners, and entire group.
39Planning For Close Reading Develop a culminating question for discussion and constructed responseThis question will be asked to engage the class in an extended discussion about the Main/Central ideaStudents will also answer this question in writing (constructed response)1 min.
40Let’s PracticeCulminating Question for discussion and constructed responseWhy does the author title the article “Malala the Powerful”? Do you think this is an appropriate title? Explain your answer.5 mins. share w/ partnerWalk participants through answering questions with partners
41How to Answer a Constructed Response Question Read the question at least 2xStart your sentence by answering the questionWhat does the Author want reader’s to know about the Amazon Frog?The author wants readers to know that Amazon Frogs are dangerous predators.Next add a few examples from the text to support your sentence.Start by writing…..For example, an Amazon frog will try to eat just about anything, it will even try eating animals that are bigger than itself. The author also wrote that the tadpoles attack each other and other tadpoles. Another idea the author wants readers to know is that Amazon Frogs have horns that help them hide in the forest as they wait for their prey.Conclude with a final statementOverall, Amazon Frogs are fearless predators that you don’t want to stand next to in the rainforest.5 minutes
42How to Answer a Constructed Response Question The author wants readers to know that Amazon Frogs are dangerous predators. For example, an Amazon frog will try to eat just about anything, it will even try eating animals that are bigger than itself. The author also wrote that the tadpoles attack each other and other tadpoles. Another fact the auhor wants readers to know is that Amazon Frogs have horns that help them hide in the forest as they wait for their prey…… Overall, Amazon Frogs are fearless predators that you don’t want to stand next to in the rainforest.5 minutes
43Examining The Common Core Standards Which Writing standards are we addressing?Standard 1-2 (short constructed response)Standard 10 (short constructed response)5 mins (Maybe we share the standards)Break up into 3 groups. Each group looks at a set of standards.
46Using Collaborative Learning to Foster Discussion and Writing Review standardsCelebrate successesShow text talk video
47Examining The Common Core Standards Listening and Speaking StandardsLook at Standard 1 Comprehension and CollaborationWhat work have we done already to address this standard?What are our next steps?8 mins (Maybe we share the standards)Break up into 3 groups. Each group looks at a set of standards.
48Phasing In Text-Based Discussions Discuss social topics that promote discussionfavorite school lunchbest thing to play at recessIntroduce Conversation StemsI think _____because……I agree….because…. I disagree…..because…I would like to add onto what _____said…one reasonAnother thing to consider is……1 min.
49Phasing in Text Based Discussions Establish partnerships in your classroomSet up your classroom to support partner work at their seats and on the carpetDiscuss why partnerships are important for learningDecide which students will be partner A/BHave students practice turning to their partners3 mins.Powerful discussions will only happen if we have routines in place. When we tried the lessons out we noticed that students would benefit from more time on learning how to have effective partnerships. We must explicitly teach these behaviors. Here are some things we feel need to be established.
50Teach the behaviors partners demonstrate Teach strategies partners use Look at each otherListen to each other carefullyLean in closelyTake turns(A&B)(B&A)Lean in closely to hearAsk a partner to speak up when they cannot hearThey say things like, “Now it’s your turn.” “What do you think?”3 minutes review
51Ways to Listen & Grow Ideas ClarifyingWhat do you mean by…?What I’m trying to say is….ElaborateCan you say more about that?Why is that important?In the article it says….I think it’s important because……Supporting with EvidenceCan you show me evidence in the text?Can you show me where it says that?The author wrote…..In the text it says ….AgreeI agree with what _____ said because….You are right about that because……..I thought about that also since……..DisagreeI disagree with the idea that…. because…..I see it another way because……My idea is different from yours because……..Adding onI would like to add onto _____’s idea………Another reason is…..In addition to what ____ said……..10 minutes Chart these stemsSet up into partnership one person be partner A and the other Partner BPartner A answers to partner BPartner B ask partner to Elaborate or Support IdeasPartner A responds by Adding on Agreeing or DisagreeingPartner A asks Partner B the questionPartner B Answers Partner AIf your partner does not say enough….. They can ask their partner to elaborateIf your partner does not use evidence…. They can ask their partner to find evidence in their textIf you agree with your partner….They can use the ADD ON stem with a new ideaIf you disagree with your partner….They can use the I Disagree stem and share their ideaThis should be taught, modeled and practiced. Introduce a type of stem weekly
52Rich and Rigorous Conversations Watch video clip from 5:34 to 8:30
53What Is Our Ongoing Role In Developing Student Partnerships? Teach: Model or Fish-BowlObserve: Are students….Coach: Try this…Say this..(whisper in )Give Feedback: Today I saw…I noticed…3-5 mins.
54Next StepsSchedule a time to teach the lessons and debrief the processTeach Discussion StemsReview the grade level planning tool for close reading with your team & try it outBring artifacts (charts, student work samples, videos, pictures, notes)2 mins.