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College/Career Readiness ELA Instructional Shifts: Guidance for Evidence-Based Writing Instruction? Peggy McGuire NCTN Annual Conference November 14, 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "College/Career Readiness ELA Instructional Shifts: Guidance for Evidence-Based Writing Instruction? Peggy McGuire NCTN Annual Conference November 14, 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 College/Career Readiness ELA Instructional Shifts: Guidance for Evidence-Based Writing Instruction? Peggy McGuire NCTN Annual Conference November 14, 2014

2 OPENING ACTIVITY: THE ELA INSTRUCTIONAL SHIFTS 1 Thing I Know 1 Thing I Wonder About or Want to Know

3 INTRODUCE YOURSELF AND SHARE YOUR RESPONSE WITH A PARTNER; THEN “SYNTHESIZE” YOUR RESPONSES What new insights and/or questions did the two of you come up with?

4 IN THE PREVIOUS ACTIVITY, WHICH IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF WRITING DID YOU PRACTICE? YOU Reflected on your prior knowledge/experience Generated questions to be answered Analyzed each others’ responses Drew inferences based on your analysis

5 SESSION OBJECTIVES Surface and build on your current understanding about the College and Career Readiness (CCR) Writing Standards for Adults, with special attention to the key Instructional Shifts that they and all of the CCR English Language Arts (ELA) standards require. Consider what guidance the ELA Instructional Shifts offer to instructors about the kinds of writing goals, processes and tasks that we need to prepare adult learners to be able to accomplish. Examine the implications of this information for teachers as they decide how to best plan effective evidence-based writing instruction that promotes college and career readiness for the adults they serve. Try out some tools and strategies for planning and conducting such standards- and evidence-based instruction.

6 WRITING to support an idea by using details from a text: PROMPT In one or two complete sentences, identify three key outcomes that the author says will result from participation in this writing session.

7 A “SIMPLER” WRITING TASK: list three key outcomes that the author says will result from participation in this writing session. A “MORE COMPLEX” WRITING TASK: Summarize the key outcomes that the author says will result from participation in this writing session.

8 OVAE’S COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS STANDARDS FOR ADULT EDUCATION: GENERAL ORGANIZATION OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS (ELA) :

9 ELA STANDARDS Identify the elements of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects that are most significant for students participating in adult basic/literacy education programs Describe expectations of students – what they should know and be able to do 9

10 OVAE’S COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS STANDARDS FOR ADULT EDUCATION: THE ANCHOR STANDARDS FOR WRITING :

11 CCR Anchor Standards for Writing (same as L5 – i.e., describing postsecondary readiness) 1.Crafting Arguments To support claims In analysis of substantive topics/texts Using valid reasoning And relevant/sufficient evidence

12 CCR Anchor Standards for Writing (same as L5 – i.e., describing postsecondary readiness) 2. Crafting Informative/Explanatory Texts to examine and convey complex ideas/information clearly and accurately through effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. includes the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes.

13 CCR Anchor Standards for Writing 3. Crafting narratives to develop real/imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured event sequences. NOTE: Narrative is not explicitly described at L5 but assumed to be incorporated into persuasive/informative writing at that level.

14 CCR Anchor Standards for Writing (same as L5 – i.e., describing postsecondary readiness) 4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

15 CCR Anchor Standards for Writing (same as L5 – i.e., describing postsecondary readiness) 5: Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 at this level (i.e., grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, style, tone and precision of meaning).

16 CCR Anchor Standards for Writing (same as L5 – i.e., describing postsecondary readiness) 6: Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others. Add “update” writing as well taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.

17 CCR Anchor Standards for Writing (same as L5 – i.e., describing postsecondary readiness) 7: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. including self-generated question or problem to be solved narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate synthesize multiple sources on the subject

18 CCR Anchor Standards for Writing (same as L5 – i.e., describing postsecondary readiness) 8: Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. authoritative sources advanced searches assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question integrate information selectively to maintain the flow of ideas following a standard format for citation.

19 CCR Anchor Standards for Writing (same as L5 – i.e., describing postsecondary readiness) 9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. Apply this standard to texts of appropriate complexity as outlined by Reading Standard 10 (i.e., “complex literary and informational texts”). For literature, includes determining meaning of words/phrases including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; and analyzing cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone For literary nonfiction, includes integrating quantitative or technical analysis with qualitative analysis in print or digital text

20 CCR Anchor Standards – focus and patterns 1 through 3 are about knowing writing genres and their rules/conventions 4 and 5 are about using the full writing process 6 is about technology 7 through 9 are about analyzing sources (i.e., finding and using information from text) and conducting research

21 Writing and the CCR Language Standards CCR Language Anchors 1-3: editing “conventions” CCR Language Anchor 6: Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

22 OVAE’S COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS STANDARDS FOR ADULT EDUCATION: THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS INSTRUCTIONAL SHIFTS :

23 THE 3 ELA “INSTRUCTIONAL SHIFTS”: WHAT ARE THEY, AND WHY SHOULD WE CARE? Taken together, they describe an overall, integrated approach to teaching reading, writing, speaking and listening skills They represent the overarching message that the College and Career Readiness ELA Standards for Adults send about what ought to be the focus of Adult Education instruction They describe expectations of teachers (vs. standards which describe expectations of students) 23

24 3 “SHIFTS” IN LEARNING FOCUS The selection of ELA standards for adults promotes “shifts” in instruction to focus on the careful examination of the text itself on the texts that students read and the kinds of questions students should address as they write and speak about them on the close connection between comprehension of text and acquisition of knowledge. 24

25 3 “SHIFTS” IN LEARNING FOCUS 1 – Complexity: Regular practice with complex TEXT and its academic LANGUAGE exposing students to appropriately complex texts in both instruction and assessment. frequently encountered academic vocabulary— language common to complex texts across the disciplines of literature, science, history, and the arts. 25

26 3 “SHIFTS” IN LEARNING FOCUS 2 – Evidence: Reading, writing, and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational For writing, the focus is on analyzing sources and conducting research… The standards require students to answer questions based on their understanding of having read a text, or multiple texts, not entirely relying on prior knowledge or experience. 26

27 3 “SHIFTS” IN LEARNING FOCUS 3 – Knowledge: Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction an extended focus on literacy – comprehension of informational text -- in the domains of science, history, and technical subject areas 27

28 A CLOSER LOOK AT COMPLEXITY Complexity: Regular practice with complex TEXT and its academic LANGUAGE exposing students to appropriately complex texts frequently encountered academic vocabulary—language common to complex texts across the disciplines of literature, science, history, and the arts.

29 What makes a text more (or less) complex? Consider its CONTENT (number, quality, depth of ideas, concepts, propositions, etc.) Consider its FORM (formal elements of its structure; inclusion of charts, graphs, tables, and other ways of displaying information as well as “straight text”; etc.)

30 How can teachers decide what is “appropriately complex text”? Use formative assessment strategies with students (like The Informal Reading Inventory), and your own professional wisdom, to decide the text complexity level your students can handle. Use a Quantitative Measurement Tool to assess the reading level of the text you are considering. Use a Qualitative Measurement Tool to assess the reading level of the text you are considering.

31 BUT WAIT A MINUTE! The authors of the College and Career Readiness Standards for Adults also say that teachers need to take into consideration the complexity of the task and context as well as the text.

32 Task and context?? So COMPLEXITY is also about the level of “cognitive complexity” or “demand on your brain” of different reading and writing activities and situations.

33 What makes a task more (or less) complex? Is it familiar? Have I ever done anything like it before? Seen someone else do it? How many different skills do I have to use at the same time? How “high stakes” is it? What are the consequences if I don’t succeed? Is anyone helping me with it? Where am I doing this task? How comfortable am I there? Is there an “audience” for what I’m doing? Can I see them? Are they familiar to me? What do they expect from me? Are there actual or potential distractions in the environment? What other obstacles might I have to deal with?

34 ANOTHER WAY TO DEFINE “TASK COMPLEXITY”: WEBB’S DEPTH OF KNOWLEDGE Which seeks to describe levels of “cognitive complexity” or “demand on your brain” of different reading and writing TASKS 34

35 LEVELS OF “COMPLEXITY” ACCORDING TO WEBB’S DEPTH OF KNOWLEDGE: Level 1: Recall Level 2: Basic Application of Skills/Concepts Level 3: Strategic Thinking Level 4: Extended Thinking 35

36 The Shift Toward Complexity: Examples from the CCR standards W2: Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately… W4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

37 A CLOSER LOOK AT EVIDENCE Evidence: Reading, writing, and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational For writing, the focus is on analyzing sources and conducting research… The standards require students to answer questions based on their understanding of having read a text, or multiple texts, not entirely relying on prior knowledge or experience.

38 A CLOSER LOOK AT EVIDENCE For reading, the focus is on students’ ability to cite evidence from texts to present careful analyses, well-defended claims, and clear information. For speaking and listening, the focus is on purposeful academic talk, in which students contribute accurate, relevant information about a multitude of ideas they have studied or researched in various domains.

39 The Shift Toward Evidence: Examples from the CCR standards W1: Write arguments… using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. W9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

40 A CLOSER LOOK AT KNOWLEDGE Knowledge: Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction an extended focus on literacy – i.e., independent reading and comprehension of informational text -- in the domains of science, history, technical subject areas – and any other kinds of information our students want to understand

41 How can teachers decide what is “content-rich nonfiction”? Look at what the CCRS/A authors say: works of exceptional craft and thought whose range extends across genres, cultures, and centuries. Look at key documents of US History, Civics and Government, social and environmental sciences, economics, world cultures, etc. Check out publishers’ textbooks designed for new HSE Test preparation to find level-appropriate reading materials in relevant content areas Look at Authentic Texts that students need or want to read

42 The Shift Toward Knowledge: Examples from the CCR standards W7: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. W8: Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources…and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.

43 Some Places To Find Informational Text in These Knowledge Domains: The Annenberg Foundation. Annenberg Learner Khan Academy Open Educational Resources (OER) Commons WGBH Educational Foundation/National Science Foundation. Teachers’ Domain d/ WorkKeys

44 Some Places To Find Authentic Text This I Believe National Public Radio NY Times Science pages National Geographic National Geographic’s Center for Geo- Education

45 How can adult education teachers implement these interrelated “instructional shifts” in the decisions they make about what - and how - to teach? By focusing on their students’ purposes for learning

46 And focusing on students’ purposes for learning means 1. Teaching our students how to clarify their own reading/writing/speaking purposes, and the specific tasks that they want to accomplish by using these skills, across a variety of interests and disciplines

47 And focusing on students’ purposes for learning means 2. Focusing on our students’ self- identified learning purposes and planning teaching/learning activities around what our students will do, and what we will teach them, so that they can effectively use targeted skill(s) to meet those purposes.

48 And focusing on students’ purposes for learning means 3. Teaching our students strategies for reading, writing/speaking about, and learning from content-rich nonfiction related to their self- identified goals/purposes and tasks

49 Guided by our Students’ Learning Purposes… We can make instructional decisions and plan learning activities that integrate the shifts:

50 Guided by our Students’ Learning Purposes… What content knowledge will students need in order to meet their learning purposes? What tasks can I plan that will allow them to apply that content knowledge in a meaningful context? What kinds of text will I choose for students to “carefully examine” in order to acquire that content knowledge? What knowledge, skills and strategies will I teach them to read that text with comprehension? What language in the text will I target for direct instruction? What writing skills will I teach so students can show evidence that they have acquired and can use new content knowledge?

51 A Process for Integrating the Shifts in Instruction: STEP 1: Start with the most advanced or “anchor” description of the focus skill – that is, the level of the focus skill that students are ultimately working toward 51

52 A Process for Integrating the Shifts in Instruction: STEP 2: Then work “backwards” to the specific level that describes what will be challenging but not too difficult for students where they are now 52

53 A Process for Integrating the Shifts in Instruction: STEP 3: Choose text and plan instruction that will help students meet that expected performance while moving them closer to the most advanced performance (for the CCR standards, that means college and career readiness) 53

54 Choosing an “Appropriately Complex” Text: A Quantitative Example Face Time with My Mom For me, technology can make our lives easier by bringing us closer to each other. And it also can become a weapon that hurts our family life. For example, Skype helps connect people. Let me tell you, I love Skype because it allows me to talk with my relatives in Guatemala. I can even get “face time” with them. Every Sunday night I use this program to see my family. It is amazing! It makes me feel closer to them. The first time my mom and I saw each other on Skype, we couldn’t stop crying. It was the first time we had seen each other in 10 years! I am so happy I can see other family members too. I have two nieces in Guatemala, ages 11 and 8. I get to see them grow up.

55 Choosing an “Appropriately Complex” Text: A Quantitative Example Face Time with My Mom For me, technology can make our lives easier by bringing us closer to each other. And it also can become a weapon that hurts our family life. For example, Skype helps connect people. Let me tell you, I love Skype because it allows me to talk with my relatives in Guatemala. I can even get “face time” with them. Every Sunday night I use this program to see my family. It is amazing! It makes me feel closer to them. The first time my mom and I saw each other on Skype, we couldn’t stop crying. It was the first time we had seen each other in 10 years! I am so happy I can see other family members too. I have two nieces in Guatemala, ages 11 and 8. I get to see them grow up. Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level: 4.3 So – When I consult the chart of quantitative text complexity measures, I see that, according to Flesch-Kincaid, this text is of appropriate complexity for students reading at Common Core Level B

56 A Couple More Reminders about Our Definition of “Appropriate Complexity” 1.With TEXT COMPLEXITY we also need to consider Qualitative criteria such as its CONTENT (number and depth of ideas, etc.) and its FORM (elements of its structure -- inclusion of charts, graphs, tables, etc.) 2.COMPLEXITY is also relevant to the TASK and CONTEXT in which skills are used (level of familiarity, level of risk/consequences, possible distractions or obstacles, etc.)

57 An Example of The Shifts: What about the task changes, and how does it change, across levels? ELA Writing Anchor 7: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. LevelLevel A (Grade Level K-1)Level C (Grade Level 4-5) Indicator Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of “how-to” books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions). Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

58 An Example of The Shifts: What about the task changes, and how does it change, across levels? ELA Writing Anchor 7: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. LevelLevel A (Grade Level K-1)Level C (Grade Level 4-5) Indicator Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of “how-to” books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions). Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. What about the TASK changes as complexity increases across levels?  Working with others – no expectation of independent performance, vs.  Write some simple but purposeful text based on reading, vs.  Focus on 1 topic, vs,  Independent performance  Short duration Write enough text to summarize information from several different sources on the same topic Focus on multiple aspects of the topic

59 Contact info Peggy McGuire

60 Please don’t forget to complete a Workshop Evaluation and Many thanks for attending College/Career Readiness ELA Instructional Shifts: Guidance for Evidence-Based Writing Instruction?


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