Student Growth is defined as the change in student achievement for an individual student between two or more points in time. 3 Types of Student Growth Measures Value Added – from state testing Vendor Assessments – must be on ODE approved list Student Learning Objectives (SLO’s) 3 Classifications of Teacher Category A1 – those with Value Added and teach solely VA classes Category A2 – those with Value Added data but do not solely teach VA classes Category B – those with Vendor Assessment Category C – those requiring SLO’s (none of the other growth measurements are available) What is a Student Growth Measure? 1
An SLO is: A goal that demonstrates a teacher’s impact on student learning within a given interval of instruction. A measurable, long-term academic target written by an individual teacher or a teacher team. Student Learning Objectives (SLOs) 1 SLO Development Process SLO Approval Midcourse Check- In Final Review of SLO Attainment and Scoring Discussion of the Summative Rating and Impact on Practice
SLO development process 1 Step 1: Gather and review available data Step 2: Determine the interval of instruction & identify content Step 3: Choose assessments and set the growth target Step 4: Submit your SLO and prepare for approval and review Step 5: Monitor and prepare for SLO rating and discussion
Elements in SLO Template 1 The SLO Template categorizes seven required elements : ①Baseline and Trend Data ②Student Population ③Interval of Instruction ④Standards and Content ⑤Assessment(s) **** ⑥Growth Target(s) ⑦Rationale for Growth Target(s)
Assessment Design 1 Consequently, if the assessment can be created prior to the teacher’s instructional planning, the resultant clarity provided to the teacher will help the teacher make more appropriate instructional choices. James Popham, 2006 Assessment-influenced instruction rests on the assumption that, in many instances what is to be assessed not only will but often should influence the teacher’s instructional decisions.
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Types of Assessments 2 Formative assessment is used to improve instruction and learning Interim assessments are used to –Predict summative results –Warn of learning deficits –identify achievement gaps Summative assessments are used to render final judgments
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT What is Summative Assessment? 4 Many assessments can be used for both summative and formative purposes. But some are more suited for summative purposes than formative purposes. It all depends on how the results are used. Our focus will be on understanding key ideas to use in the development of the summative assessment that will be administered at the completion of the interval of instruction.
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Key Ideas in Understanding/Designing Assessments 5 An assessment should: Be valid – it measures what it says it will measure Be reliable – it produces consistent results What is reliability? How do teachers increase reliability? Activity: ReliabilityReliability
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Summative Assessments Can Inform Instructional Practices 6 Summative assessment can also inform instructional practices in a different yet equally important way as formative assessment.
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Summative Assessment: Continuous Progress Monitoring 7 Summative assessments can also be used with continuous progress-monitoring systems because they allow teachers to track students throughout a school year and, ideally, over an entire academic career, from kindergarten through high school.
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Summative Assessments Must be of the Highest Quality Possible 8 Every educator should be concerned that the summative assessments which are part of the assessment system used in their classroom, school, district, and state are of the highest quality possible.
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Validity defines the quality of education assessment 9 The simple definition of validity is that a test measures what it is supposed to measure. But validity also means that an assessment provides sound information supporting the purpose of the assessment. So an assessment whose scores have a high degree of validity for one purpose may have little validity for another.
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Valid Summative Assessments 10 For a summative assessment to be valid it must: Be aligned with district and school learning Provide reliable information Be fair, unbiased, and accessible Be instructionally sensitive Have high utility Provide useful information
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Summative Assessment Must be Aligned 11 A summative assessment aligned with school learning goals and intended purposes precisely measures the intended learning targets for the curriculum being taught at that grade level. An aligned summative assessment measures the learning goals so that the results accurately determine what school officials wanted to know about student mastery.
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Summative Assessment Must be Reliable to Have Validity 12 If the test’s results have no reliability the test has no validity. An unreliable summative test will diminish the usefulness of the results. It is important to understand that reliability is critical to an effective summative assessment of student learning.
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Summative Assessment has to be Fair, Unbiased and Accessible 13 Generally a summative assessment can be biased if a group of students is offended or unfairly penalized on the basis of personal characteristics such as gender, religion, race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status.
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Summative Assessment Must be Instructionally Sensitive 14 In a presentation at the 2007 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Dr. W. James Popham explained: “A test’s instructional sensitivity represents the degree to which students’ performances on that test accurately reflect the quality of instruction specifically provided to promote students’ mastery of whatever is being assessed.”
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Summative Assessment Must be Useful 15 A summative assessment of student knowledge and skill is useful when it accurately measures students’ mastery of the curricular aim being assessed Good summative assessment indicates instructional quality, mastery of content standards, and supplies accurate accountability evidence
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Activity One 1 Answer the essential question: How do we ensure the quality of Summative Assessments? 16
17 Summative Assessment Are Used at Different Levels Summative assessments are used and impact the: Classroom School District State
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Summative Assessments are Part of an Integrated Classroom Assessment System 18 Formative and summative assessments serve different purposes Should be used ultimately within an integrated classroom system of assessment, curriculum, and instruction
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Summative Assessments Support Instruction 19 Summative assessments support instruction, because they are usually an important part of a grade. Students and parents do care about grades
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Classroom Summative Assessments Provide Valuable Information 20 Compared with state and district tests, teacher- designed classroom summative assessments are more immediately available and their learning targets have been more recently taught.
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Use Test Banks from Published Material with Great Caution 21 Carefully designed common or textbook provided unit tests can provide high quality summative assessments However, test banks from published material should be used with great caution because they may use different grammar or syntax than the teacher used to teach Standards and examples may not agree with the teacher’s methods of explaining them
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Students use Classroom Summative Test Results to Make Decisions About Learning 22 If the summative test items are matched to the intended learning targets, teachers can guide students in examining their right and wrong answers in order to answer questions such as: What are my strengths relative to the standards? What have I seen myself improve? Where are my areas of weakness? Where didn't I perform as desired, and how might I make those answers better? What do these results mean for the next steps in my learning, and how should I prepare for improvement?
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Grades Determined by Summative Assessment 23 Grades can be produced by ten or fewer quality summative assessments. The student should be well prepared for summative assessment as a result of participation in the formative assessment process.
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Ensure Summative Assessments are High Quality 24 Keep wording simple Be sure there is only one correct or best answer Avoid using “which of the following” in the stem whenever possible Don’t repeat the same words in the response items Ask a complete question
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Ensure Summative Assessments are High Quality 25 Consider carefully: Learning goals or benchmarks Relative importance of each Type of assessment item most appropriate Cognitive level at which to assess
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Four Recommendations to Determine More Reliable Grades 27 Recommendation 1: Get rid of the omnibus or single letter grade. Recommendation 2: If you can't get rid of the omnibus grade, provide scores on measurement topics in addition to the grade. Recommendation 3: Expand the assessment options available to students. Recommendation 4: Allow students to continually update their scores on previous measurement topics.
ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Activity Two 2 Participate in This Activity on How Summative Assessments are Used in the Classroom 28 Let’s conclude by considering how summative assessments are used in the classroom by participating in Activity Two.