Presentation on theme: "So, what about you? What do I do? What does this mean? How did I come to be this way? How might I do this differently, better? Dean Fink (2005) Where do."— Presentation transcript:
So, what about you? What do I do? What does this mean? How did I come to be this way? How might I do this differently, better? Dean Fink (2005) Where do I find my moral compass? So, what about you? What do I do? What does this mean? How did I come to be this way? How might I do this differently, better? Dean Fink (2005) Where do I find my moral compass?
Thursday 31 January 2013 Sancta Maria Catholic Primary School Teacher Workshop
What is it about inquiry? In highly effective schools, teaching and learning inquiry were happening at the same time. Overall though much more teaching and learning inquiry was happening than professional learning focused inquiry. ERO Teaching as Inquiry,Responding to Learners. July 2012 Why is this so? Are we Confused?
Continual Professional improvement The purpose of teaching and learning described in the NZC “ to bring about improved outcomes for students through a cyclical process… guided by inquiry 1. What should students achieve…What do students need to learn next? ( Focusing Inquiry) 2. Which strategies, interventions, will support the student achieving these outcomes ?( Teaching inquiry) 3. What learning resulted? What will I as teacher do next to continue progress? (Learning inquiry) ERO Teaching as Inquiry,Responding to Learners. July 2012
What does inquiry mean for me? Effective inquiry happens in a systematic and continuous manner...it leads to changed and improved thinking and teaching. It is not a discrete act a one off action research project. It is a learning disposition, both a teacher and student approach, a tool embedded in practice continually used that changes classroom practice….in a way that it responds to students’ learning needs. Effective practice is seen in schools where teachers build a robust understanding about teaching as inquiry, indicating that teachers had… They had progressively established systems to support inquiry They understood Learning to inquire (Student learning) and teacher inquiry. They effectively monitored reflected and reviewed how effectively inquiry was imapacting student outcomes. ERO Teaching as Inquiry,Responding to Learners. July 2012
Why Inquire… Teachers who make most difference practice with an “Inquiry habit of mind” This means… “ the habit of of using inquiry and reflection to think about where you are going, how you will get there and then turn around and rethink the whole process to see how well is working and make adjustments ” Earl, Timperely and Stewart (2008)
Effective Inquiry is the enculturation… and practice of students learning to inquire, and teacher inquiry working together. This process works to create an environment that makes the greatest difference to student achievement. One inquiry pathway working alongside the other strengthens all learning.
The Inquiring StudentTeacherEnvironment
Uses self talk (internal dialogue) Identifies the problem of practice (this student doesn’t understand) Thinks about how they might improve it. (I could explain again, maybe they just need more time to practice Prioritising approaches that might work Evaluating the effectiveness if the approach (He understood the ideas when I explained again, so that was useful) Readjusting the approach (I will need to explain new ideas to her) Morin, A. (1995) The Inquiring Teacher
Habituated Teacher Inquiry Model learning through actively engaging in the habit of Inquiry. Demonstrate the dispositions of a learner. Be explicit about your learning with students Create a learning habitat in your classroom.
Teachers creating a culture of Inquiry Clarify meanings Identify puzzles/dilemmas Develop significant inquiry questions Collect data using a range of processes Locate and draw on relevant research Critically interrogate their own and others practice and data. Analyse / interpret and theorise qualitative and quantitative data Develop and implement strategies to enhance learning outcomes Assess the extent to which strategies or actions have improved learning. ERO Teaching as Inquiry, Responding to Learners. July 2012
Constructing robust questions, are what underpins and enriches student inquiry.
“ Questions are carriers of whatever new cognitive system is emerging “Taba et al (1964)
Students’ Learn to inquire When they experience a provocative, robust questioning environment. When student/ teacher learning expectation is explicit and rigorous. When skill teaching is scaffolded, so as to demand of individual learners. This requires a ‘give – take’ teacher led learning environment.
What’s your thinking ? Good questioning is fostered by an ability to think in an environment of inquiry The one really competitive skill is the skill of being able to learn. It is the skill of not being able to get the right answers to questions about what you were taught in school, but to make the right response to situations that are outside the scope of what you were taught in school. We need to produce people who know how to act…faced with situations for which they are unprepared. Seymour Papert )1998)
I think therefore I am René Descartes 1644 For many Thinking is difficult and students resist it like the plague…evading the struggle of learning with, “I don’t know” “why did you call on me?... I wasn’t doing anything” “ “who cares, what difference does it make” “ Ask someone else ” In the end if thinking were easy there would be more of it” Dantonio and Beisenherz (2001)
What’s involved in asking a robust question? StudentTeacherEnvironment
So what determines a good question? Scope and intentionality determine a good question Scope =depth breadth A question’s scope is determined by both the quantity of answers elicited ( Broad) and the mental activity needed to answer it.
Highly Effective Questions (HEQ) The way a question is asked matters, it determines the amount of cognitive work available for our students to do. The more cognitive opportunity created, the better the quality of the question. Question Path A Path B (optimal) Answer HEQ
Intentionality Deepens Questions Questions need to be Filtered Defined Redefined Then answered with Specificity Completeness Justification
Strategies for Developing Effective Questioning Highly Effective Question (H.E.Q) Blooms Three Story Intellect Seven Steps of Questioning KWHLAO Questioning Understanding: Empowering Student Thinking. (Qu:Est) Question Maps Filter, Refine. Redefine (F.R.R) Investigate, Consequential, Enriching. (I.C.E)
Thinking before you Question Because learning to organise our thinking helps us to ask specific, targeted questions and this makes all the difference to the answers we are given. There is a place for creative questions, but it lives within the critical question.
Critical Thinking is not Creative Thinking,
However ‘Creative Thinking’ may also be ‘Critical Thinking’. l,
Good Questions have four components that activate Critical thinking… 1.A Mental Act Of thinking in response to a trigger 2.Mentally Intensive Questions that reach a threshold of intensity appropriate to the student. 3.Ameniable to Instruction skill s and acuity of content and is increased 4.Generalised across the Curriculum Able to be applied and transfered
Question to develop understanding Learning theory says that we have to learn something to understand it; … this is totally contrary to evidence as we have to understand something in order to learn it; We have to make sense of it; we need to ask questions Smith (1998)
Scaffolding Questions We need lots of practice asking questions so we can learn about dispositions and skills…this takes, teaching, opportunity and understanding.
We need tools to work smart Teach specific strategies for quality questioning: - Rich questions, - Fertile questions - Essential questions - Open questions - Closed questions - Fat & skinny questions Model Key Step Questions (Michael Pohl) Model the Question Cycle ( Michael Pohl)
Where to Now K. What do we know? W. What do we want to know? H. How will we find out? L. What are we learning? A. How will we apply what we know? Q. What new questions do we have? Where to now?
Provoking my Questioning Levels of Questioning Knowledge/Remembering: Retelling, recalling or describing Comprehension/Understanding : Interpreting info Application:Applying knowledge in new situations Synthesis/Analysing: Drawing together info and data in different formats. Developing new understanding Evaluation: Reflecting on process and outcome. Judging or verifying Creating: Invent, Design,Create, Devise
1. Label, identify, find 2. Compare, connect, infer 3. Sequence, order, list, classify, pre- summarise (generalise) 4. Decode questions/instructions/directions 5. Encode, answer the question, solve the problem 6. Apply, predict, project 7. Conclude, Re-summarise Seven Steps of Questioning
Seven Steps Question Examples G Hannel Highly Effective Questioning Step 1Step 2Step 3Step 4Step 5Step 6Step 7 Label Identify, Find, Notice Compare, Contrast, Infer List, Sequence, Order, Classify, Integrate, Synthesize Decode, Interpret 1. Read/Listen 2. Interpret 3. Justify Encode, Answer Validate & Justify Apply, Predict Project, Hypothesize Relevancy Resummarise Conclude What do you see as important on the page? What is the relationship between these two things? What are the steps to the problem? What will need in order to complete this task? What is your answer and why? What if …….had never happened? What did we learn? Is there any key information we should know? How are these the same or different? How can we make these into sets or groups? What other ways are there of interpreting this? Why did you make that particular choice? What would you have done? How would you summarise what you have learned? What are the main facts? How do these connect and why? What is the order of events that led to this situation? What else can you tell me about the…… Why is that the right answer? How can we use what we have learned? What conclusion have you reached now?
Students Learning to Inquire by using relevant deep questioning skills.
Questioning to enhance students’ Learning Inquiry Questioning to learn: A framework for Inquiry and problem based learning
What do we want to know? Student Generated Inquiry Michael Pohl Investigative - - Generating info about now and then Consequential - Exploring Possible IMPACTS and OUTCOMES Enriching - Require a Critical,Creative, Caring Thinking response
We promote student inquiry through effective questioning by… Modelling and displaying explicit forms of questioning Ensuring that questions clearly include the required skills and focus Planning questions according to the cognitive level that the student requires Keeping an on going record of thinking and learning in the classroom, provides rich reference points for facilitating the questions for inquiry? Using appropriate tools to facilitate deeper level inquiry?
Question Maps Identify focus of problem to solve or inquiry Identify key facts Apply a selection of WHO? WHAT? WHEN? WHERE? HOW? WHY? to identify related questions for inquiry Check for relevance Make decisions about inquiry path and select appropriate questions
Support student inquiry through Providing, question stems. key words or patterns for questioning at each stage or type of questioning e.g. using blooms Having prompts on cards, charts, class books Modelling and display these in a range of situations to facilitate the process Identifying the level of thinking and or the stage of inquiry this will relate to.
Provide quality question prompts to provoke students. From ‘Problem Based Learning’ by John Burell !. What do you wonder about now? 2. Does this suggest any new approaches, ideas that you think are worth investigating 3. What kinds of connections and relationships are becoming evident to you now? 4. Where should we go from here? “It’s just all wonderment and awe”
Question Frames John Barell Developing More Curious Minds What is the evidence, data? What are our feelings? What are the important facts? How are they related? Consequences? Future Actions? Outcomes/implications? Predictions/effects? New Questions/Conclusions? Related, typical, model, ideal cases? Situations/experiences? How are these cases/situations similar or different? What conclusions can we draw from the comparisons? Patterns evident from the past? History/causes? Assumptions/precedents Why? How do we know? ASK A QUESTION FIND THE GAP
Question Stems for Inquiry What do I wonder about?… How could this impact other (people, environments, systems) What does this mean to me ….? How will the consequences influence other (people, environments, systems)? How does reminds me of other (ideas, concepts, experiences)? How is this related or connected to…? What suprises or fascinates me is…? Why is this important ?… How do I feel…? What are my tentative conclusions about this…? What am I learning through this inquiry? … What am I finding out about my thinking processes…? How does this connect to my own experiences…?
Involving Students in Meaningful Authentic Relevant Inquiry Generating Inquiry that will: Reinforce prior knowledge Add to existing knowledge Investigate impact Discover or suggest possible outcomes Provide critical, creative or caring responses
Are our classrooms… 1. What questioning is working well in our classrooms? 2. What challenges are we facing in developing students’ questioning skills and dispositions? 3. How will we further develop our develop our professional practice to further develop our students’ questioning skills and dispositions?
So what about me? What am I going to do to change in my professional practice to improve student achievement.
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