Presentation on theme: "Designing Assessments for Learning (rather than of learning) Part 2 EDC448 Dr. Julie Coiro."— Presentation transcript:
Designing Assessments for Learning (rather than of learning) Part 2 EDC448 Dr. Julie Coiro
Today’s Objectives Pass back Text Set Assignments (end of class so you can “self-monitor” your ability) Review APA formatting for references and in- text citations (Model an example of formative assessment & remediation) Discuss ways of using formative assessments to inform your instruction and address the needs of all students Review directions for Theory Into Practice Conference Proposal
Clarifying APA Format The OWL (Online Writing Lab) at Purdue 60/01/ Refer to your syllabus for citation examples Can you find the errors and rewrite correctly? See your handout.
Reference #1: Printed Books Bilsing, Mike. (1994). Model Activity Set. CO: Hubbard Scientific Inc. –Author’s first name should be just first initial –For title, only capitalize first word –Book title should be in italics –City of publication should be before state CORRECTION: Bilsing, M. (1994). Model activity set. Boulder, CO: Hubbard Scientific Inc.
Reference #2: Webpages CELLS Alive: Plant, animal, and bacteria cell models. Retrieved from –Missing author’s name. –Missing website creation date. (if no date, put [n.d.] – but check carefully first! –Website title goes at the end –Website address not specific enough CORRECTION Sullivan, J. (2006). Plant, animal, and bacteria cell models. Retrieved from Cells Alive Website at
Reference #3: YouTube Videos Youtube. (2007). “DNA Structure” [Video file]. Retrieved from Put title in italics (not quotes) Need author’s name (if no name, use screen name). Include Month, day, & year in date CORRECTION: Ppornelubio. (2006, September 13). DNA structure [Video file]. Retrieved from
In-text citations (APA format) According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. 2 authors: Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports... –Research supports this idea (Wegener & Petty, 1994). More than 2 authors: (Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993) –In subsequent citations, (Kernis et al., 1993)
How might you use assessments to inform your teaching (and modifications you make to differentiate instruction)?
Relationship between assessment and instruction Assessment of Learning (happens after the fact primarily for teachers) Assessment for Learning (involve the students in the process too) Assess to discover learner’s strengths and needs Plan instruction Teach and monitor progress Reflect on learning and response to instruction
Formative Assessment: The Rest of the Story (Guskey, 2008) Formative assessments designed to I________ ; (what learned well and what problems still exist?) It’s not the act of formative testing itself, but what happens after the assessment that’s key!! Some will know it > they need ________________ Others will not know it > they need _____________ What can you do for both groups tomorrow???
Give feedback and offer corrective activities (Guskey, 2008) Regular feedback and corrective activities (specific remediation) - first guided, then eventually self-regulated (e.g., monitoring!) Three principles of effective corrective activities –Present concepts differently! –Engage students differently! –Provide students with successful learning experiences!
Types of Corrective Activities - Think different, not louder! Three groups: with teacher, with a friend, by self (think “different”) Reteaching with different approach or different example (good for review>transfer) Individual tutoring with different models and check to see where understanding falters (try other tutors for variety!) Peer tutoring can be effective for both the learner and the tutor for new perspectives if the match is a good one and a specific purpose is clear. Textbooks- focus on specific examples/passages or alternative textbooks / diverse [different] texts
Is peer tutoring enough? Peer tutoring and reteaching are fine, but what will you do differently? What will happen in the tutoring/reteaching session? Be prepared: Anticipate the biggest challenge and develop a “remediation plan” for Plan B. Keep on hand.
Alternative Materials for Corrective Activities Workbooks, Study Guides, Graphic Organizers, & Explanatory Visuals (extra practice) Academic Games (application) Learning Kits (manipulatives) Learning Centers and laboratories (hands-on) Pictures, Visuals, and Real-World Language (e.g., how might a math teacher change numbers to words; make more concrete) Picture books (introduce difficult concepts to develop knowledge) --- DIVERSE TEXTS Computer activities (interactive tutorials, a different medium/format) -- DIVERSE TEXTS Enrichment activities (valuable, challenging, rewarding, and student choice) – DIVERSE TEXTS AND PRODUCTS
Managing Corrective and Enrichment Activities Cooperative teams grouped by proficiency (or sometimes partnered to tutor peers) Corrective activities can/should still be engaging, if not enriching Move review time to after formative assessments to help students monitor their own need for correction or enrichment Taking time sooner to correct typically results in less time down the road
Apply and Reflect How might I use formative assessment data to inform/design my next day’s instruction? –You’ve taught; Your students have turned in their homework; ½ of your students are ready to move on and ½ your students need explicit remediation. What can you do to keep BOTH groups engaged? –Find a partner and work together to develop and critique each other’s ideas. –Identify 1 SPECIFIC challenge students are likely to have in completing your assignment. –Identify an enrichment activity for ½ your class. –Identify a specific corrective activity for the other ½.
HOMEWORK: Teaching Content Area Literacy Conference: Theory Into Practice Locate and read a research-based article related to content area literacy in your discipline Submit a conference proposal form with copy of article (Due April 15) Make a presentation (poster or technology) and prepare a handout Share at our conference on April 30
Objective 2 Discuss the benefits and the impact of a well-designed/well-defined assignment and companion rubric
Friedman (2000) Initial Assignment: Science The sun is one of the most important stars in the solar system. How does the sun affect our lives and how would the lives of people in the future change if the sun suddenly disappeared? Students helped develop initial rubric, teachers modeled and reflected as wrote draft with students > revised 4 times to improve! Students were involved in rating as well.
Designing a Rubric for Writing in Science Rubric elements: –Note score on each part (Excellent, good, just passing, and not acceptable) –Analytic components Content –Background information -- Thesis Statement –Supporting Paragraph(s) -- Conclusion Organization Mechanics
Revising the Assignment: History Prompt: Colonial America: How were people dependent on one another for survival? The teachers had specific expectations, but even the most sophisticated writers had difficulty creating the desired response So…they restructured the content-focused prompt to provide clear expectations and encourage them to tell what they learned
The Revised Prompt
Comparing the Ratings from Prompt 1 to Prompt 2 So…how does your own assessment prompt and the companion rubric compare? Could either be more precise in eliciting the knowledge/behaviors you want?