Presentation on theme: "Making Meaning Pre, During, and Post Reading. Strategy Mental Strategy What readers use to understand what they are reading vs. Instructional Strategy."— Presentation transcript:
Making Meaning Pre, During, and Post Reading
Strategy Mental Strategy What readers use to understand what they are reading vs. Instructional Strategy What teachers use to help students learn the strategies and the topic.
Pre-Reading Teach the Text Structure Teach a Previewing Technique Establish Context Teach Vocabulary Activate Prior Knowledge Create Anticipation Guides
Schema According to schema theorists, all knowledge is packaged into units called schemata, and embedded into these units of knowledge is information on how this knowledge is to be used. Each separate schema is a device for representing knowledge of a concept, along with specifications for relating it to an appropriate network of connections that seem to hold all components of that particular concept. Individuals acquire schemata through their experiences - both real and vicarious. As individuals have more experiences, they refine, reshape, correct, and restructure their schemata.
Context Accretion: Accretion involves putting new information into schemata already possessed. Each time something new is taught or even referred to it in class, traces of it are left in students' memory. Hopefully, over time and through enough classroom discussion and experience, the students' schema will become more fully formed and this will help them to better understand the text. Increase Background Information: Increase the amount of background information by providing more in-depth ideas regarding the topic. This will help the students understand the selection at a higher level. Real-Life Experiences: Actual experience is the best way to develop and refine the schemata that make up readers' prior knowledge. To impact a students memory, they must see, touch, use, and experience real objects or situations. If possible, provide any real-life experiences that have to do with the assignment. Even something done on a small level will help with students' understanding. Vicarious Experiences Through Wide Reading: Wide reading is important in providing students with information about people, places, events and situations. Even though direct experience is preferred, many times it is not possible. However, experiences lived vicariously through reading can produce tremendous results.
A Pre-viewing Technique T.H.I.E.V.V.E.S.1 is an acronym for text features that can help you complete a useful preview of the text. So “get the goods” from this text by looking at and thinking about each of the following as you come upon them in the text: Title Headings Introduction Every first sentence of sections or paragraphs Visuals Vocabulary, often bolded End questions or Every author-generated question Summary Snatches helps build anticipation. While you are previewing, “snatch” here and there a look at a picture, a graphics, and always a sentence randomly or purposefully selected from the text. Then ask, “What interesting and important things might I learn from this text?”
Text Structures G eneralization/Principle: a general statement followed by supporting ideas or arguments. Chronological Sequence: a chronological list of events or actions. Some examples include historical accounts or the steps to balance a chemical equation. Comparison/Contrast: a comparison of two or more things, such as the process of multiplication and division, or the role of women in World War I versus World War II. Concept/Definition: the introduction of concepts such as anarchy, imaginary numbers, or conservation of energy, and then definition through greater detail and examples. Description: the description of an event, process, or person, with elaboration on key characteristics. Episode: the “who,” “what,” “when,” “where,” “how,” and “why” of an event.
Anticipation Guide de/index.htm 1. Agree or disagree 2. Discuss responses 3. Read 4. Discuss after reading
Task Create an anticipation guide for the article.
Create a Mind Map for Pre-Reading Prezi Simple Surface Coogle Connected Mind
What do you think? 2009 National Geographic Photo Winner
During Reading Strategies Good Readers: 1. Know why they are reading 2. Ask Questions as they read 3. Visualize and use sensory data 4. Make inferences and connections as they read 5. Use strategies to “fix it” when they don’t understand 6. Focus and realize when they have zoned out (the levels of communication)
Note Taking ●It helps make sense of information ●It cannot be assumed students know how to take notes ●Find what works best Double Entry Diary https://www.ocps.net/cs/services/cs/currareas/read/IR/bestpractices/AF/Double%20Entry%20Diary_.pdf/ Quad-Entry Method Cornell Notes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1iolZMTGUpw https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1iolZMTGUpw
Strategic Reading Model then Practice ●Click or Clunk ●Getting the “Gist” 10 words or less! ●Wrap it Up Have students do this in groups
A During Reading Strategy Take the articles from before and preview how you would teach a during reading strategy to the class. Remember, it need not be PERFECT! No One Ever IS!!!!!!
Post Reading Strategies There is extensive research that shows that summarization is among the top nine most effective teaching strategies in the history of education (Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock, 2001). Teachers who start a lesson by summarizing the big points in the day's lesson and end by having students summarize their learning see gains in the retention of the material. There are lots of ways to summarize!
Some Strategies Glogster Somebody -Wanted -But- So Infographics