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I NTRODUCING WORDS : A FEW INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Why? What? How? York Professional Development Day 1.17.11.

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Presentation on theme: "I NTRODUCING WORDS : A FEW INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Why? What? How? York Professional Development Day 1.17.11."— Presentation transcript:

1 I NTRODUCING WORDS : A FEW INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Why? What? How? York Professional Development Day

2 F ACETS OF P URPOSEFUL V OCABULARY I NSTRUCTION Provide rich and varied language experiences discussion, focused attention on words, being read to, wide and frequent reading Teach word-learning strategies Using context, using morphology (word parts), using a dictionary Foster word consciousness Awareness, interest in words and their meanings, understanding of communicative power of language Teach individual words (Graves, 2006)

3 W HY SHOULD I TEACH SOME WORDS EXPLICITLY, AND WHAT WORDS SHOULD I TEACH EXPLICITLY ?

4 E FFECTIVE V OCABULARY I NSTRUCTION Vocabulary instruction should focus on critical words Effective vocabulary instruction does not rely on definitions. Teaching word parts enhances understanding. Different types of words require different types of instruction. Active engagement improves learning. Repeated exposure is essential.

5 C RITERIA TO C ONSIDER Word Knowledge prior knowledge necessary understanding Relationship to other important words morphological (word parts) semantic (categories of meaning) Frequency & Distribution rate of occurrence in English text Utility instructional potential outside of particular school context generativity Importance reading comprehension (particular selection, general comprehension) content-specific achievement Conceptual difficulty

6 Q UESTIONS W ORTH A SKING Is this word unknown? Is this word critical to understanding (the particular text, the particular subject matter)? Is this a word students are likely to encounter again (in sophisticated language use, in this particular subject, in other domains)? Is this word conceptually difficult (abstract, new concept, multiple meanings)? Does this word have high instructional potential (morphology, connections to other words, word learning)?

7 H OW MIGHT I INTRODUCE DIFFERENT KINDS OF TERMS MOST EFFECTIVELY ?

8 “Often, it will be necessary to teach words in ways that do not consume large amounts of time and do not produce the strongest possible results…

9 …In these cases, think of your initial instruction on a word as just that—initial instruction, an initial experience that starts students on the long road to learning a full and rich meaning for the word.” (Graves, 2006, p. 70)

10 Q UICK I NTRODUCTION Learning new words for known concepts in text During read-aloud Before students read text Read-aloud Provide known synonym/descriptive phrase after the word (without disrupting the narration) Prior to student reading Display or quick note with target word and known synonym/descriptive phrase Preview descriptions provided in textbooks (supplement as necessary)

11 Reception Check Full Bars…Decent Reception…Dropped Call?

12 I NTRODUCING S PECIFIC W ORDS 1. Student Friendly Explanations Characterize word and typical use Explain meaning in everyday language 2. Teacher-Created Contexts Develop instructional contexts that provide strong clues to meaning 3. Active Engagement with Words Short, playful, lively opportunities for students to interact with words and meanings right away (Beck et al in Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006)

13 S TUDENT F RIENDLY E XPLANATIONS Consider resist Dictionary: “to withstand the force or the effect of” Student-friendly: “when a person struggles or fights not to give in to something” Write a student-friendly explanation for one word you teach.

14 T EACHER -C REATED C ONTEXTS Consider convey Literary Context: “Of the Right Whale, the best outline pictures are in Scoresby; but they are drawn on too small a scale to convey a desirable impression” (Melville, Moby Dick). Teacher Created: The speaker was successful in conveying his main ideas to the audience. They all understood what he said, and most agreed with him… Write a few sentences using your word in context to clarify meaning.

15 A CTIVE E NGAGEMENT WITH W ORDS C HECK FOR U NDERSTANDING, R EVIEW Consider interior Questions Jake thought it would be fun to explore the interior of Alaska. Why might you want to spend time in the interior of Nebraska? Example or Non-example? Which tells about the interior of Oregon? On their vacation, the family visited a lake in central Oregon. On their vacation, the family visited the beaches and coast of Oregon? Finish the idea After a trip to the coast, we headed to the interior of the country because _____. Have you ever…? Can you describe a place you know about that is located in the interior of Nebraska? Choices If what I say could be in the interior of a big island, say “ interior ”… A mountain An ocean beach

16 A CTIVE E NGAGEMENT WITH W ORDS C HECK FOR U NDERSTANDING, R EVIEW Consider interior Questions Jake thought it would be fun to explore the interior of Alaska. Why might you want to spend time in the interior of Nebraska? Finish the idea After a trip to the coast, we headed to the interior of the country because _____. Have you ever…? Can you describe a place you know about that is located in the interior of Nebraska?

17 E XAMPLE OR N ON -E XAMPLE ? Which tells about the interior of Oregon? (“interior” or “NOT!”) On their vacation, the family visited a lake in central Oregon. On their vacation, the family visited the beaches and coast of Oregon?

18 M AKING C HOICES If what I say could be in the interior of a big island, say “ interior ”… A mountain An ocean beach

19 M AKING C HOICES leisurely or in a hurry ? Taking a walk in the park Firefighters getting to a fire Runners in a race Sitting and talking to friends A dog lying in the sun T-P-S: Think of more situations that sound leisurely. (Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002, p. 57)

20 M AKING C HOICES glimpsescrutinize Which can you do more quickly? inspectorspectator What would you probably call every person watching a football game? largoritardando Which tells me to slow down gradually? (Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002, p )

21 M AKING D ISTINCTIONS Would you pay homage to something tolerable ? Would you suppress a profound thought? Would blurting out your thought be an example of indecorum ? (Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002, p. 89)

22 V OCABULARY I NSTRUCTIONAL R OUTINE Learning new words representing known concepts 1. Introduce the word 2. Present a student-friendly explanation 3. Illustrate the word with examples 4. Check understanding 5. Review a group of words (see video examples by Anita Archer,

23 Reception Check Full Bars…Decent Reception…Dropped Call?

24 C ONTEXT -R ELATIONSHIP Learning new words representing known concepts 1. Create a brief paragraph that gives the meaning of the word. 2. Follow the paragraph with a multiple-choice item that checks students’ understanding of the word. 3. Show the paragraph, read it aloud, and read the multiple-choice options. 4. Pause to give students a moment to answer the item, provide the correct answer, and discuss the word and any questions they have.

25 I NDOLENCE Fortunately, none of my English 9 students could be described as indolent. Whereas an indolent student would try to sleep during class, slouch in her seat, procrastinate, and generally avoid exerting any effort, my students are diligent, hard- working, eager, and achievement-driven. I would be worried if someone described an English 9 R student as indolent, because it is worse than just occasional tiredness or laziness. Indolence implies a tendency to be lazy much of the time.

26 I NDOLENT MEANS A. often lazy B. sometimes lazy C. often hardworking D. sometimes hardworking

27 Reception Check Full Bars…Decent Reception…Dropped Call?

28 B UILDING A CADEMIC V OCABULARY A S IX -S TEP P ROCESS Learning new words representing known or unknown concepts 4.Engage students in word activities 5.Discuss words 6.Engage student “play” with words 1.Introduce word 2.Students generalize meaning 3.Students create nonlinguistic representation (Marzano, 2004) Massed Practice initial word learning Distributive Practice all previous words

29 E XPERIENCE & O BSERVE Strategy observer What steps/processes did you observe? Participant observer What words, behaviors, evidence of student learning did you notice? Participants What did you learn? What worked for you? How did you feel as a learner using this strategy?

30 P LEASE ANSWER : True or False: In linguistic study, polysemous words have different roots or etymology. Rate your understanding of the word polysemous. 1 I’ve never heard this word before. 2 I’ve heard this word, but I don’t really know what it means. 3 I know the general meaning of this word, though I cannot specifically define it. 4 Whether spoken or written, I know this word well and understand its meaning.

31 POLYSEMOUS etymology (analysis of word origins & parts) poly ( Latin, many) sema (sign) -ous (adj.)

32 POLYSEMOUS Continental Divide math function

33 POLYSEMOUS Ball (ME bal ) A round or roundish body or mass Testis—often considered vulgar A game in which a ball is thrown, kicked, or struck A pitched baseball…that fails to pass through the strike zone Ball (OF ballare) A large formal gathering for social dancing A very pleasant experience: a good time

34 P LEASE ANSWER : True or False In linguistic study, polysemous words have different roots or etymology. Words at the highest level of complexity are often polysemous.

35 P LEASE ANSWER : Should teachers focus their direct instruction of vocabulary on sesquipedalian terms? Rate your understanding of the word sesquipedalian. 1 I’ve never heard this word before. 2 I’ve heard this word, but I don’t really know what it means. 3 I know the general meaning of this word, though I cannot specifically define it. 4 Whether spoken or written, I know this word well and understand its meaning.

36 SESQUIPEDALIAN etymology (analysis of word origins & parts) sesqui (Latin, half as much again) ped (foot) -ian (one that is, one who) Examples: antidisestablishmentarianism pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis floccinaucinihilipilification Examples: antidisestablishmentarianism pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis floccinaucinihilipilification

37 SESQUIPEDALIAN Everything that coruscates with effulgence is not ipso facto aurous. --All that glitters is not gold. “Nancy and Sluggo”

38 P LEASE : Rate your understanding of the word sesquipedalian. Should teachers focus their direct instruction of vocabulary on sesquipedalian terms? 1 I’ve never heard this word before. 2 I’ve heard this word, but I don’t really know what it means. 3 I know the general meaning of this word, though I cannot specifically define it. 4 Whether spoken or written, I know this word well and understand its meaning.

39 E XPERIENCE & O BSERVE Strategy observer What steps/processes did you observe? Participant observer What words, behaviors, evidence of student learning did you notice? Participants What did you learn? What worked for you? How did you feel as a learner using this strategy?

40 B UILDING A CADEMIC V OCABULARY S TEPS Massed Practice 1.Introduce word  Student friendly descriptions, examples, explanations, images, etc.  Must connect to students’ prior knowledge 2.Students generalize meaning 3.Students create nonlinguistic representation Caution!  Monitor understanding carefully  May require more than one session Caution!  Monitor understanding carefully  May require more than one session

41 6 37 percentile pts. higher than… …students who kept repeating definitions percentile pts. higher than… …students who were using the terms in a sentence. Students who used imagery to learn vocabulary, on average, performed… # of studies (Pickering, 2007, ASCD presentation) R ESEARCH ON I MAGERY AS E LABORATION

42 Reception Check Full Bars…Decent Reception…Dropped Call?

43 C ONCEPT OF D EFINITION M AP Learning new words representing known concepts or those that can be accessed through student experience / prior knowledge Potentate What is this? a powerful ruler Non- examples president, prime minister What is it like? Has great power; may be in office for life; not elected by the people Examples king, dictator, emperor

44 C ONCEPT OF D EFINITION M AP 1. Teacher prepares map to clarify meaning of word in text. 2. Teacher models how to write a definition using the information on the word map. e.g. “A potentate is a ruler who has a lot of power. The people do not elect potentates, and some stay in office for life. Some types of potentates are kings, dictators, and emperors.” 3. Students write their own definitions, verify with a dictionary, and revise or add to them as necessary.

45 S EMANTIC MAP Clarifying, enriching the meanings of known words 1. Teacher presents important concept before reading. 2. Students brainstorm related words. 3. Teacher records and adds. 4. Class classifies to show relationships. 5. Teacher highlights target words. 6. Students add during/after reading. Discussion is essential!

46 S EMANTIC M AP Precipitation Rain Snow Sleet hail Storms Thunderstorm Hurricane tsunami Instruments Barometer Thermometer Rain gauge Patterns Fronts High pressure Low pressure METEOROLOGY Other?


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