2Thinking Globally “Geo”-earth “graphy”-to write Geographers ask “where” things are and “why” they are thereGeography-The study of the distribution and interaction of physical and human features on the earth.
3Geography Physical Geography-focus on natural environment. The earth’s natural phenomena, like soil, plants, climate and topography.This is what most think of when they think Geography.Human Geography-focus on people.Processes, and locations of the earth’s human creations and their interactions.Both are concerned with the central “why of where” question
4Looking at the earth Continents County State/province/territory IslandsOceans
6The Science of Mapmaking Cartographer-A person who makes mapsHow do you know where things are without a map?
7Maps and Map SymbolsScaleCompass RoseSymbolsTitleKey/LegendColor
8Maps Maps-a two dimensional or flat scale model of the earth’s surface Globe-scale model of the earthGreat Circle Route-shortest distance between 2 points on the earth
9Types of MapsDuring the course of the year we will look at all types of maps, here are a few:ThematicFlow-lineChloroplethDot DensityProportionalSymbol thematicReferenceIsoline ThematicCognative or mental maps
10Map ProjectionsProjections are the scientific method of transferring locations on the Earth’s surface to a flat map.Think of a projection of making the skin of an orange lay flat.Four types of distortions can occur:1. shape of an area is distorted.2. distance between two points may increase or decrease.3. relative size of different areas may be altered.4. Direction from one place to another can be distorted.
12Classes of MapsCylindrical (compromise)-shows true direction but loses distance.Planar-shows true direction and examines the earth from one point.Conic-cone over the earth, loses direction but keeps distance intact.Oval-combination of cylindrical and conicAzimuthal map is planar, Mollenwide is oval
13Contemporary Tools for Mapping Geographic Information Systems (GIS)Remote SensingGlobal Positioning Systems (GPS)Information on a location is stored in layers.Layers can be viewed individually or combined.Remote sensing satellites scan the earth.Google mapsAccurately determines the precise position of something on earth.Originally designed for aircraft and ships, now available for autos.
14Get out your notebookPut yourself in groups of 3. HURRY! DO THIS BEFORE THE TARDY BELL RINGS!
15Analyze your picture: What do you see in the picture? What do you think is "different" in the picture?Does this look like everywhere else in the world?What affects the “look” of this place?Is the location of this place important?If I were trying to get to this place, how I might I travel there?
16Warm-UPDescribe Manvel High School using the 5 Themes of Geography- there should be a characteristic for each Theme
17Human/Environment Interactions Regions Place Movement Five Themes of GeographyLocationHuman/Environment InteractionsRegionsPlaceMovement
18Location How do Geographers know where things are? Absolute Location: refers to a position on the global grid.Relative Location: a location as described in relation to places around it.
19Absolute or Mathematical Location Mathematical location-location described by meridians and parallels, otherwise known as latitude and longitude.Absolute location is unique for each place on earth.The absolute location of the ACC radio tower.Latitude: 29-24'02'' N Longitude: '14'' W
20Latitude and Longitude Meridians or longitudeParallels or LatitudePrime MeridianGMT-Greenwich Mean TimeInternational Date lineEquatorHemispheres
24Place-Unique location of a feature Why is each point on Earth Unique? Four ways to identify a place on earth by it’s location. 1. Place name Toponym or name to distinguish them from others. Some names reflect history—New York Some reflect the founder-Alvin-Alvin Morgan Some are reflective-Three Rivers
25Site 2. Site- physical character of a place Climate Topography soil water resourcesVegetationelevation.
26Situation 3. Situation-location of a place relative to another place. This characteristic refers to relative location.
27Human Environment Interaction People and their environment.
28Environmental Modification Changes to environment to suit people.
29Movement Interconnections between areas What connects people and placesHow do people move from one placeTo another?
30RegionsThe organization of the earth’s surface into distinct areas that are viewed as different from other areas.
31Types of regions There are three types of regions: Formal region Functional RegionVernacular or perceptual region
32Formal Region Other wise known as uniform or homogeneous region. Everyone within the region shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics.Creation of a state or province is a formal region
33Formal regions The North America Wheat Belt is a formal region. Persons in the USA who vote Republican or Democratic .
34Functional RegionFunctional or Nodal Regions are organized around a core, node or focal point.Geographers use functional regions to display information about economic areas.Newspaper circulationTV Station reception areaPeople in our are who follow the Texans.
35Functional regionThe core area has distinct characteristics that lessen in intensity as one travels to the periphery, or the region’s margins.Traveling West from Denverpersons will venture to theperiphery of Salt Lake City.
36Perceptual or Vernacular Regions They are places that people believe to exist as part of their cultural identity.The reflect feelings and images more than any objective reality.
38GlobalizationA force or process that involves the entire world and results in making something worldwide in scope.Human activities are rarely confined to one location.Multinational Corporation-located inmore than one country. Can affect theculture of other nations.
39Distribution Distribution-the arrangement of a feature in space Density-frequency in which something occurs.
40Distribution, cont.Concentration-the extent of a features spread over space.Are they clustered (close together)?Are they dispersed (far apart) ?Concentration is not the same as density. You can have the same density but different concentrations. Think housing in communities.
41Distribution, cont.Pattern-the geometric arrangement of objects in space.Some are geometric-houses on a street are linear.Some are random and irregular
43Spatial interactionHistorically-settlers, explorers created interaction between locationsToday- Airplanes, computers, Television, internetDistance Decay-the farther away one group is from another group, the less likely they are to interact with each other. Electronic communication Has lessened this concept.
44Diffusion of culture and economy North America, Western Europe and Japan are the centers of global culture and economy.