Concept of vocation From Latin vocare = to call Aspects State in life Professional vocation A vocation is a calling from God to a particular type of service.
Stein, Edith. “Feminine vocations.” ----. Quotidiana. Ed. Patrick Madden. 2 Mar 2007. Edith Stein / St. Teresa Benedicta of the Cross (1891 –1942) Philosopher, convert, Carmelite, martyr Essay “Feminine Vocations” Care of humanity and human life entrusted to women Sees medical profession as a “rich area of genuine feminine activity” and a calling for some women, therefore remove barriers
St. Gianna Beretta Molla (1922 – 1962) Wife, mother, physician
Blessed Pope John Paul II (1920-2005) Pope, philosopher 1988: On the Dignity and Vocation of Women God entrusts the human being to woman in a particular way Asks women to be “a prophetic voice” to call the world back to “the primacy of love” 1995: Letter to Women and audiences
Three waves: First wave (Mid-1800s): Suffrage, property rights, admittance to higher education Second wave (1920s and 1930s): Education and employment Third wave (1960s and 1970s): Much of the same as before w/ radical movement focuses on “sexual liberation” Fourth wave?
Rejects biological determinism (“biology is destiny”) and pure social construction of nature Sees the person as relational and men and women as equal and complementary Promotes the “the feminine genius” Sees fulfillment of the person in love Sees all called to “parenthood” Spiritual or spiritual/physical Some practical implications
Cooperation in the ethically significant sense is defined as the participation of one moral agent (the cooperator) in the activity of another moral agent (the principal agent) to produce a particular effect or joint activity. Cooperation becomes ethically problematic when the action of the primary agent is judged to be immoral. Russell Smith, “Principles of Cooperation,” p. 220, and Russell Smith, “Ethical Quandary,” p. 112.
Context Historical reality Individual Organizational Part of Catholic ethics for over 400 years; guides whether and how someone may be present to the wrongdoing of another Modes of presence Ownership Governance Management Providing services (e.g. staffing, supplies, billing, prescriptions) Financial benefit
Formal Cooperation: intending, desiring or approving the wrongdoing (intention) Can be explicit or implicit Always morally wrong Material Cooperation: participating in the wrongdoing or providing conditions for the wrongdoing to occur (action) Can be immediate ( always wrong) or mediate ( sometimes ok) Mediate material cooperation can be proximate or remote ( greater the wrongdoing, the stronger must be reason to cooperate)
Mediate material cooperation must derive from some “serious reason” or “moral necessity.” There must be a proportionately serious reason for cooperation (for the sake of protecting an important good or to avoid a worse harm.) Cf. Russell E. Smith, “The Principles of Cooperation and their Application to the Present State of Health Care Evolution,” in The Splendor of Truth and Health Care: Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop for Bishops Dallas, Texas, Russell E. Smith, ed. (Braintree, Massachusetts: The Pope John XXIII Medical-Moral Research and Education Center, 1995), p. 225 and Russell E. Smith, “Ethical Quandary: Forming Hospital Partnerships,” in The Gospel of Life and the Vision of Health Care: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Workshop for Bishops Dallas, Texas, Russell E. Smith, ed. (Braintree, Massachusetts: The Pope John XXIII Medical-Moral Research and Education Center, 1996), p. 113.
Meeting principles of cooperation ≠ a wise choice Scandal = “an attitude or behavior which leads another to do evil” (CCC 2284) A sin against charity Matthew 18:6 Scandal ≠ Public relations problem Offending someone’s overly scrupulous conscience Sometimes, it is more prudent to forgo an arrangement due to scandal, but other times, education can mitigate sufficiently mitigate it.
Mission should be the starting and ending points of analysis. What is my (our) mission? What are my (our) values? What good might I (we) be called to do?
Principles of cooperation advise when and how one can be present to wrongdoing of another Other considerations: Proportionate reason Scandal Mission Variation by vocation