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I NTRODUCING WORDS : A FEW INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Why? What? How? Jen Madison 12.15.09.

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Presentation on theme: "I NTRODUCING WORDS : A FEW INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Why? What? How? Jen Madison 12.15.09."— Presentation transcript:

1 I NTRODUCING WORDS : A FEW INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Why? What? How? Jen Madison

2 C HARACTERISTICS OF E FFECTIVE V OCABULARY I NSTRUCTION Use a “tournament bracket” to study the characteristics and decide which characteristics you find especially important and relevant: Line up (or deal) the characteristics in random pairs. For each pair, decide which should advance between the two cards based on the degree of importance and relevance toward your professional practice. Once the winner and runner up are decided, choose one consolation card from any of the others.

3 F ACETS OF P URPOSEFUL V OCABULARY I NSTRUCTION Provide rich and varied language experiences discussion, focused attention on words, being read to, wide and frequent reading Teach word-learning strategies Using context, using morphology (word parts), using a dictionary Foster word consciousness Awareness, interest in words and their meanings, understanding of communicative power of language Teach individual words (Graves, 2006)

4 E SSENTIAL Q UESTIONS Why should I teach some words explicitly? What criteria should I consider when choosing words? How might I introduce different kinds of terms most effectively? How might I encourage lasting and deep understanding of important vocabulary?

5 W HY SHOULD I TEACH SOME WORDS EXPLICITLY ? Explain why teaching individual words explicitly is important.

6 D ID Y OU K NOW …? Read several of the “Did You Know…” cards on the table. Keep up to three that seem most important and relevant to your teaching. Interaction Sequence Think – Pair – Share Purposeful Selection, Random Selection, Volunteer Selection

7 R ESEARCH S NAPSHOTS Musical Cards Trade cards while the music plays. When the music stops, partner with the person currently trading with you. Read each card and together distribute 7 points between the two cards to represent the degree of importance and relevance toward the question: Why should I teach some words explicitly?

8 W HY SHOULD I TEACH SOME WORDS EXPLICITLY ? Which reasons are most compelling to you? What concerns or questions must be addressed?

9 Explicit vocabulary instruction “can deepen students’ knowledge of word meanings” to help them “understand what they are hearing or reading” and well as “help them use words accurately in speaking and writing.” (National Institute for Literacy, 2003, p. 36)

10 W HAT CRITERIA SHOULD I CONSIDER WHEN CHOOSING WORDS ? Understand conceptual difficulty as one criteria for selecting words to teach explicitly.

11 Vocabulary instruction should focus on critical words. National Reading Panel (2000)

12 C RITERIA FOR W ORD S ELECTION Word Knowledge prior knowledge necessary understanding Frequency & Distribution rate of occurrence in English text Importance reading comprehension (particular selection, general comprehension) content-specific achievement Utility outside of particular school context instructional potential generativity morphology (word parts) semantic-relatedness (categories of meaning) Conceptual difficulty

13 C ONCEPTUAL D IFFICULTY Known concept that can be expressed with a one-word synonym or familiar phrase Often found in narrative text Often can be learned from context or understand essential meaning of text without deep word knowledge altercation (fight) apologize (to say you’re sorry) Unknown concept that can be learned from available experiences & information (background knowledge) naive independence embarrassment nostalgia elation (Nagy, Anderson, & Herman, 1987 adapted from Hiebert, 2008, presentation)

14 C ONCEPTUAL D IFFICULTY Unknown concept requiring learning of new factual information or related system of concepts Less likely to be learned from context Understanding meaning often necessary for comprehension of academic text Often more abstract Often polysemus (having multiple meanings) divide (as boundary between drainage basins) democracy periodic sentence (Nagy, Anderson, & Herman, 1987 in Hiebert, 2008, presentation)

15 Q UESTIONS W ORTH A SKING Is this word unknown? Is this word critical to understanding (the particular text, the particular subject matter)? Is this a word students are likely to encounter again (in sophisticated language use, in this particular subject, in other domains)? Is this word conceptually difficult (abstract, new concept, multiple meanings)? Does this word have high instructional potential (morphology, connections to other words, word learning)?

16 H OW MIGHT I INTRODUCE DIFFERENT KINDS OF TERMS MOST EFFECTIVELY ? Know (and ultimately use) different types of instruction to explicitly teach different types of words.

17 F OR THE STRONGEST POSSIBLE RESULTS … Include both definitional and contextual information. Involve students in active and deep processing of the words. Provide students with multiple exposures to the word. Review, rehearse, and remind students about the word in various contexts over time. Involve students in discussions of the word’s meaning. Spend a significant amount of time on the word. (Graves, 2006)

18 “Often, it will be necessary to teach words in ways that do not consume large amounts of time and do not produce the strongest possible results…

19 …In these cases, think of your initial instruction on a word as just that—initial instruction, an initial experience that starts students on the long road to learning a full and rich meaning for the word.” (Graves, 2006, p. 70)

20 Q UICK I NTRODUCTION Learning new words for known concepts in text During read-aloud Before students read text Read-aloud Provide known synonym/descriptive phrase or picture with the word (without disrupting the narration) Prior to student reading Display or quick note with target word and known synonym/descriptive phrase Preview descriptions provided in textbooks (supplement as necessary)

21 Reception Check Full Bars…Decent Reception…Dropped Call?

22 I NTRODUCING S PECIFIC W ORDS 1. Student Friendly Explanations Characterize word and typical use Explain meaning in everyday language 2. Teacher-Created Contexts Develop instructional contexts that provide strong clues to meaning 3. Active Engagement with Words Short, playful, lively opportunities for students to interact with words and meanings right away (Beck et al in Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006)

23 S TUDENT F RIENDLY E XPLANATIONS Consider resist Dictionary: “to withstand the force or the effect of” Student-friendly: “when a person struggles or fights not to give in to something” Write a student-friendly explanation for one word you teach.

24 T EACHER -C REATED C ONTEXTS Consider convey Literary Context: “Of the Right Whale, the best outline pictures are in Scoresby; but they are drawn on too small a scale to convey a desirable impression” (Melville, Moby Dick). Teacher Created: The speaker was successful in conveying his main ideas to the audience. They all understood what he said, and most agreed with him… Write a few sentences using your word in context to clarify meaning.

25 A CTIVE E NGAGEMENT WITH W ORDS C HECK FOR U NDERSTANDING, R EVIEW Consider interior Questions Jake thought it would be fun to explore the interior of Alaska. Why might you want to spend time in the interior of Nebraska? Example or Non-example? Which tells about the interior of Oregon? On their vacation, the family visited a lake in central Oregon. On their vacation, the family visited the beaches and coast of Oregon? Finish the idea After a trip to the coast, we headed to the interior of the country because _____. Have you ever…? Can you describe a place you know about that is located in the interior of Nebraska? Choices If what I say could be in the interior of a big island, say “ interior ”… A mountain An ocean beach

26 Reception Check Full Bars…Decent Reception…Dropped Call?

27 I NTRODUCING S PECIFIC W ORDS 1. Student Friendly Explanations Characterize word and typical use Explain meaning in everyday language 2. Teacher-Created Contexts Develop instructional contexts that provide strong clues to meaning 3. Active Engagement with Words Short, playful, lively opportunities for students to interact with words and meanings right away (Beck et al in Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006)

28 V OCABULARY I NSTRUCTIONAL R OUTINE Learning new words representing known concepts 1. Introduce the word 2. Present a student-friendly explanation 3. Illustrate the word with examples 4. Check understanding 5. Review a group of words (Anita Archer,

29 C ONTEXT -R ELATIONSHIP Learning new words representing known concepts 1. Create a brief paragraph that gives the meaning of the word. 2. Follow the paragraph with a multiple-choice item that checks students’ understanding of the word. 3. Show the paragraph, read it aloud, and read the multiple-choice options. 4. Pause to give students a moment to answer the item, provide the correct answer, and discuss the word and any questions they have.

30 I NDOLENCE Fortunately, none of my English 9 students could be described as indolent. Whereas an indolent student would try to sleep during class, slouch in her seat, procrastinate, and generally avoid exerting any effort, my students are diligent, hard- working, eager, and achievement-driven. I would be worried if someone described an English 9 R student as indolent, because it is worse than just occasional tiredness or laziness. Indolence implies a tendency to be lazy much of the time.

31 I NDOLENT MEANS A. often lazy B. sometimes lazy C. often hardworking D. sometimes hardworking

32 Reception Check Full Bars…Decent Reception…Dropped Call?

33 B UILDING A CADEMIC V OCABULARY : T HE S IX -S TEP M ETHOD Marzano, R. (2004). Building background knowledge for academic achievement. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Marzano, R. (2005). Building academic vocabulary: Teacher’s manual. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

34 B UILDING A CADEMIC V OCABULARY A S IX -S TEP P ROCESS Learning new words representing known or unknown concepts 4.Engage students in word activities 5.Discuss words 6.Engage student “play” with words 1.Introduce word 2.Students generalize meaning 3.Students create nonlinguistic representation (Marzano, 2004) Massed Practice initial word learning Distributive Practice all previous words

35 P LEASE ANSWER : Should teachers focus their direct instruction of vocabulary on sesquipedalian terms? Rate your understanding of the word sesquipedalian. 1 I’ve never heard this word before. 2 I’ve heard this word, but I don’t really know what it means. 3 I know the general meaning of this word, though I cannot specifically define it. 4 Whether spoken or written, I know this word well and understand its meaning.

36 SESQUIPEDALIAN etymology (analysis of word origins & parts) sesqui (Latin, half as much again) ped (foot) -ian (one that is, one who) Examples: antidisestablishmentarianism pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis floccinaucinihilipilification Examples: antidisestablishmentarianism pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis floccinaucinihilipilification

37 SESQUIPEDALIAN Everything that coruscates with effulgence is not ipso facto aurous. --All that glitters is not gold. “Nancy and Sluggo”

38 P LEASE : Rate your understanding of the word sesquipedalian. Should teachers focus their direct instruction of vocabulary on sesquipedalian terms? 1 I’ve never heard this word before. 2 I’ve heard this word, but I don’t really know what it means. 3 I know the general meaning of this word, though I cannot specifically define it. 4 Whether spoken or written, I know this word well and understand its meaning.

39 E XPERIENCE & O BSERVE Strategy observer What steps/processes did you observe? Participant observer What words, behaviors, evidence of student learning did you notice? Participants What did you learn? What worked for you? How did you feel as a learner using this strategy?

40 B UILDING A CADEMIC V OCABULARY S TEPS Massed Practice 1.Introduce word  Student friendly descriptions, examples, explanations, images, etc.  Must connect to students’ prior knowledge 2.Students generalize meaning 3.Students create nonlinguistic representation Caution!  Monitor understanding carefully  May require more than one session Caution!  Monitor understanding carefully  May require more than one session

41 6 37 percentile pts. higher than… …students who kept repeating definitions percentile pts. higher than… …students who were using the terms in a sentence. Students who used imagery to learn vocabulary, on average, performed… # of studies (Pickering, 2007, ASCD presentation) R ESEARCH ON I MAGERY AS E LABORATION

42 Reception Check Full Bars…Decent Reception…Dropped Call?

43 C ONCEPT OF D EFINITION M AP Learning new words representing known concepts or those that can be accessed through student experience / prior knowledge Potentate What is this? a powerful ruler Non- examples president, prime minister What is it like? Has great power; may be in office for life; not elected by the people Examples king, dictator, emperor

44 C ONCEPT OF D EFINITION M AP 1. Teacher prepares map to clarify meaning of word in text. 2. Teacher models how to write a definition using the information on the word map. e.g. “A potentate is a ruler who has a lot of power. The people do not elect potentates, and some stay in office for life. Some types of potentates are kings, dictators, and emperors.” 3. Students write their own definitions, verify with a dictionary, and revise or add to them as necessary.

45 S EMANTIC MAP Clarifying, enriching the meanings of known words 1. Teacher presents important concept before reading. 2. Students brainstorm related words. 3. Teacher records and adds. 4. Class classifies to show relationships. 5. Teacher highlights target words. 6. Students add during/after reading. Discussion is essential!

46 S EMANTIC M AP Precipitation Rain Snow Sleet hail Storms Thunderstorm Hurricane tsunami Instruments Barometer Thermometer Rain gauge Patterns Fronts High pressure Low pressure METEOROLOGY Other?

47 C RAFT K NOWLEDGE R ECORD Add to your list!

48 H OW MIGHT I ENCOURAGE LASTING AND DEEP UNDERSTANDING OF IMPORTANT VOCABULARY ? Understand the importance of distributed practice Identify relevant strategies for classroom implementation

49 B UILDING A CADEMIC V OCABULARY A S IX -S TEP P ROCESS Learning new words representing known or unknown concepts 4.Engage students in word activities 5.Discuss words 6.Engage student “play” with words 1.Introduce word 2.Students generalize meaning 3.Students create nonlinguistic representation (Marzano, 2004) Massed Practice initial word learning Distributive Practice all previous words

50 F REQUENT S TUDENT S ELF -A SSESSMENT Students self-rate level of word knowledge. Encourages student reflection, discussion 1 I’ve never heard this word before. 2 I’ve heard this word, but I don’t really know what it means. 3 I know the general meaning of this word, though I cannot specifically define it. 4 Whether spoken or written, I know this word well and understand its meaning.

51 C LASSIFYING Provide students with vocabulary cards Have students place cards into categories label the categories see how other groups classified their cards or regroup cards using a different criteria

52 V OCABULARY – A LIVE W RITING Provide a list of terms for students to use in a single related piece of writing. For Example: Use 15 of the 20 terms listed above in a meaningful paragraph, story, poem or letter to convince me of your understanding. Put a check mark next to the terms you choose and underline them in the writing.

53 V OCABULARY C ONTINUUM Encourage student discussion and elaborative processing of meaning among synonyms or related words. least intensemost intenseunderstand leastunderstand best

54 V OCABULARY C ONTINUUM mistake error blunder least intensemost intense hate dislike loathe abhor adore cherish blunder Encourage student discussion!

55 S TUDENT D ISCUSSION Which of the words is more intense? Which word works best in a specific context? Which word do you understand best? Or least? Which synonym best represent this word?

56 Y ES – N O - W HY Encourage discussion and elaborative rehearsal 1. Provide interesting prompt using target word that requires students to take a position. 2. Students answer yes or no and explain briefly in writing or discussion (2 sentences maximum, but must be complete). Should teachers focus their explicit instruction of vocabulary on sesquipedalian terms? Yes, I agree with this assertion because ____. No, I do not agree with this assertion because ____.

57 C HORAL R ESPONSE S TRATEGIES Students respond in unison to teacher prompts Reinforce accurate pronunciation Increase student responses Increase engagement of all students Provide elaborative practice

58 Q UESTIONS & C HORAL R ESPONSE Making Choices Provide contexts for students to decide whether the target word is appropriate or which word of those given is best. To differentiate: visual cues literal/recall stems abstract or higher order stems (and ask students to justify) (Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002, p. 57)

59 M AKING C HOICES loquacious or reserved ? many students after an exciting event an introvert most new students someone who “likes the sound of her own voice” T-P-S: Think of a time when you (or someone you know) might have been described as loquacious. (Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002)

60 M AKING C HOICES glimpsescrutinize Which can you do more quickly? inspectorspectator What would you probably call every person watching a football game? largoritardando Which tells me to slow down gradually? (Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002, p )


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