Presentation on theme: "V OCABULARY I NSTRUCTION W ORD C ONSCIOUSNESS & WORD - LEARNING S TRATEGIES Why? What? How? Jen MadisonLenny Vermaas"— Presentation transcript:
V OCABULARY I NSTRUCTION W ORD C ONSCIOUSNESS & WORD - LEARNING S TRATEGIES Why? What? How? Jen MadisonLenny Vermaas June 11, 2010
F ACETS OF P URPOSEFUL V OCABULARY I NSTRUCTION Provide rich and varied language experiences discussion, focused attention on words, being read to, wide and frequent reading Foster word consciousness Awareness, interest in words and their meanings, understanding of communicative power of language Teach word-learning strategies Using context, using morphology (word parts), using a dictionary Teach individual words (Graves, 2006)
I MPORTANT AND R ELEVANT ! What is one of the most important and relevant ideas from yesterday? Name it. Describe it. Explain its benefits.
E SSENTIAL Q UESTIONS Why should I attend to word consciousness, rich language experiences, and word-learning strategies? What are effective word-learning strategies? How might I effectively teach students to use word-learning strategies? How might I foster word consciousness and provide rich language experiences?
T EXT P ROTOCOLS Methods of exploring texts through purposeful reading and discussion structures National School Reform Faculty: xts.html
W HY SHOULD I ATTEND TO WORD CONSCIOUSNESS, L ANGUAGE E XPERIENCES, AND WORD - LEARNING STRATEGIES ? Explain why teaching word-learning strategies, providing rich language experiences, and fostering word consciousness is important.
W HY SHOULD I ATTEND TO WORD CONSCIOUSNESS, RICH LANGUAGE EXPERIENCES, AND WORD - LEARNING STRATEGIES ? Text Study Read your assigned text to answer the essential question. Consider especially: Description of the Facet Rationale Significant Information Words to Study
A F EW T EXTS … Providing Rich and Varied Language Experiences (together) Graves Promoting Word Consciousness Graves 32-33; Graves Honig, et.al Scott & Nagy in Baumann & Kame’enui Teaching Word-Learning Strategies Graves 23-32; Baumann et.al. in Hiebert & Kamil Diamond & Gutlohn (CORE)
W HY SHOULD I ATTEND TO WORD CONSCIOUSNESS, RICH LANGUAGE EXPERIENCES, AND WORD - LEARNING STRATEGIES ? Which reasons are most compelling to you? What concerns or questions must be addressed?
H OW MIGHT I EFFECTIVELY TEACH STUDENTS TO USE WORD - LEARNING STRATEGIES ? Know (and ultimately teach) word-learning strategies. Dictionary Use Morphemic Analysis Contextual Analysis
T EACHING A NY S TRATEGY Motivate, Prime anticipatory set, provide purpose, encourages focus Describe, Explain what, why, when, how Model accurate, accessible demonstration Guided Practice collaborative use, gradual release of responsibility, error correction, extensive discussion & feedback Independent Practice over time, diverse tasks, planning for transfer, feedback, learner reflection Closure Learner generalization, summary of important information
W ORD -L EARNING S TRATEGIES Dictionary Use Contextual Analysis Morphemic Analysis (word structure) Strategies for Understanding New Words
D ICTIONARY U SE Definition + Context = Most Effective Beneficial to teach how – even older students (Graves, 2006, p. 32) Select appropriate dictionary Online, electronic? Definition style? Corpus (“collection or body of knowledge…”)?
I T ’ S THE 1960’ S : W HAT IS BEING DESCRIBED ? “…a disappointment, a shock, a calamity, a scandal and a disaster” (Atlantic Monthly) “The work would accelerate the deterioration of the language…” (New York Times) “…deplorable…a flagrant example of irresponsibility” (American Bar Association) “a non-word deluge... monstrous...abominable...a cause for dismay” (Life) Cost = $3.5 million It took 300 scholars 27 years to complete.
A MERICAN H ERITAGE D ICTIONARY 4 TH E D., 2006 Over 500 new words Amber Alert, blogosphere, gravitino, halo effect, hawala, lycopene, malware, micropolis, proteome, Qi Gong, SARS, shout-out, speed dating, sudoku, Texas hold'em, text message, wiki
D ICTIONARY U SE General Guidelines for Use Look for multiple entries for the word; choose the one closest in context. Remember that many words have more than one meaning; read all definitions. Know how the dictionary works (e.g., order of definitions, variant forms, usage notes) For more information: The Vocabulary Book, p. 111 Teaching Reading Sourcebook, p. 506 For more information: The Vocabulary Book, p. 111 Teaching Reading Sourcebook, p. 506
T YPES OF D ICTIONARIES Prescriptive prescribes formal use what should be Webster’s Second International (1934) The Random House Dictionary (1966) Descriptive describes popular/conventional usage what is Webster’s Third (1961) American Heritage, 3rd (1969) & 4 th (2001)
T HE E NTRY word syllabication variant spellings pronunciations inflected forms parts of speech labels definitions idioms etymologies usage notes synonyms and more…
H OMOGRAPHS Words spelled alike, but with different origins and different meanings Distinguished by superscript numbers How many homographs are there for fast or up? homo = same Graph = written
S PELLING V ARIANTS Most frequently used spelling listed first Primary Variant separated from main entry by “or” equally accepted Secondary Variant separated from main entry by “also” not as commonly accepted Plough or plow? Which is the most commonly accepted spelling?
I NFLECTED F ORMS Forms of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs changed to express different meanings and relationships within sentences number (plural/singular) What is the plural of analysis? How is it pronounced? tense (past, perfect) What is the past tense of dream? degrees (comparison of modifiers) What is the superlative form of the adverb little?
L ABELS Number (plural or singular) Field Labels (biol., theo., sports, etc.) Usage Labels nonstandard informal slang vulgar/offensive, obsolete, archaic, rare, poetic, regional, British, foreign-language What labels are used for the word family?
D EFINITIONS : A H, WHAT IS LOVE ? AHD lists central meaning first subsequent definitions follow semantic order relative closeness to central meaning The Old Oxford lists the earliest definition first M-W 3rd also lists oldest “modern” definition first What is love?
I DIOMS social expressions meaning is more than sum of parts listed bold-faced following major word (depending on dictionary) kick the bucket chew the fat hit the hay keep at it by heart kick the bucket chew the fat hit the hay keep at it by heart
P HRASAL V ERBS Idiomatic expression consisting of a verb and a preposition Listed with the verb get after figure out put off foul up Grammar Review verb action preposition shows relationship The squirrel ran ____ the tube. Grammar Review verb action preposition shows relationship The squirrel ran ____ the tube.
E TYMOLOGY Shown in brackets [ ] preceding the definition Word origins What are the origins of the homographs of ball (a spherical object; a dance)?
S YNONYMS Words that share a basic meaning May be significant differences in shades of meaning consider hate consider imaginary
“Instruction related to dictionary definitions should be simple and direct and involve children in analyzing dictionary definitions in the course of vocabulary instruction.” (Stahl, 2005 qtd. in Honig et.al., p. 489)
D ICTIONARY U SE – H OW ? Set (motivation, focus) Explanation of topic, skill, guidelines Modeling Practice (gradual release of responsibility)
G UIDELINES FOR U SING THE D ICTIONARY Read all the Entries Read all the Different Meanings in an Entry Choose the Meaning that Makes Sense For more information: Teaching Reading Sourcebook, p. 506 For more information: Teaching Reading Sourcebook, p. 506
W ORD -L EARNING S TRATEGIES Dictionary Use Contextual Analysis Morphemic Analysis (word structure) Strategy for Understanding New Words
“More than 60% of the new words that readers encounter have relatively transparent morphological structure—that is, they can be broken down into parts.” (Nagy et.al., 1989, p. 279 qtd in Graves, 2006, p. 103)
M ORPHEMIC A NALYSIS “Morphology is the system by which morphemes combine to construct and represent the meaning of words” (Bowers, 2010). Bowers, P. (30 May 2010). Meta-analysis of morphological intervention studies. Vocabulogic. Retrieved from morphological.html)
M ORPHEMIC A NLAYSIS Morpheme – smallest unit of meaning roots prefixes suffixes (http://www.wordworkskingston.com/) "Morphological knowledge is a wonderful dimension of the child's uncovering of "what's in a word," and one of the least exploited aids to fluent comprehension" (Wolf, 2007, p. 130).
S EQUENCE OF I NSTRUCTION : M ORPHEMIC A NALYSIS inflectional suffixes compound words prefixes and derivational suffixes w/ Anglo-Saxon root words Greek forms Latin roots Greek and Latin roots plus affixes
T YPES OF M ORPHEMES Free Morphemes can stand alone as words Anglo-Saxon Root Words : help, play, run Bound Morphemes cannot stand alone as words Prefixes: dis-, in-, re-, un- Derivational Suffixes: -ful, -less, -ly Inflectional Suffixes: -ed, -es, -ing, -s Greek Forms: bio, chron, tele Latin Roots: dict, ject, struct (Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006, p. 76)
Occur before bases Have clear meaning Can alter meaning of root Consistently spelled
Derivational Suffixes follow base words may carry abstract, difficult to explain meaning change part of speech Inflectional Suffixes grammatical function tense (-ed, -ing) number (-s, -es) degree (-er, -est)
G REEK & L ATIN R OOTS Greek Forms Tend to be more consistent in meaning e.g. therm = heat (thermos, thermometer, thermostat, exothermic reaction, thermonuclear) Use combining forms similar to formation of compound words (any order) e.g. Bio: biosphere (beginning) or astrobiology (after another form) Often specialized words used mostly in science and technology
T EXT S TUDY Ebbers, S. (2008). A root awakening: Vocabulary instruction for older students…” Four A’s Protocol
G RADUAL P ROGRESSION Simple to complex MorphemeDescription Root or PrefixMeaningClearly inSomewhat inBut not in portto carrytransportcomportsport pathpain, illnesspathogensympathypathway pan-allpantheismpanicpanda bear uni-oneunicycleuniqueimmunity tri-threetriangletrigonometrytricky (Ebbers, 2008, p. 97)
M ORPHEMIC A NALYSIS : B ASIC I NSTRUCTIONAL R OUTINE Rationale & Objective Explicit Instruction Model and student rehearsal of pronunciation Definition, Origin Examples and nonexamples Guided Practice to Independent Practice Clarification, confirmation Read morpheme in a few words, phrases, sentences, academic text) Infer meanings by examining words with common roots (Ebbers, 2008, 97)
REWARDS C OVERT S TRATEGY FOR READING POLYSYLLABIC WORDS 1. Look for prefixes, suffixes, and vowels. 2. Say the parts of the word. 3. Say the whole word. 4. Make it a real word. reconstruction
W ORD -L EARNING S TRATEGIES Dictionary Use Contextual Analysis Morphemic Analysis (word structure) Strategy for Understanding New Words Cognate Awareness
S EQUENCE OF I NSTRUCTION : C ONTEXTUAL A NALYSIS in read-alouds in independently read text types of context clues (definition, synonym, antonym, example, general)
C ONTEXTUAL A NALYSIS Student DO learn word meanings from context Low chance with single encounter Increased chances with additional encounters Share limitations
L IMITATIONS OF C ONTEXT C LUES Misdirective The clues seem to direct the reader to an incorrect meaning. “She looks so happy in her party dress,” said Tina maliciously. Nondirective The clues seem be of no assistance; a number of meanings could be inferred. When I answered the phone, I heard my sister’s agitated voice.
T EACHING C ONTEXTUAL A NALYSIS Facets to Consider: General understanding of context clues (including limitations) Specific types of context clues types, signal words Repeated use with planned and authentic texts In combination with other strategies (especially morphemic analysis)
U SING C ONTEXT C LUES 1. Look for clues or hints (words, phrases) to figure out the unfamiliar word. 2. Look in the sentence first. Then look in the sentences before and after. 3. Using the clues, guess a meaning. 4. Try out the meaning. Does it make sense?
C ONTEXTUAL A NALYSIS - T YPES Definition A congo is a barrel-shaped drum. Appositive Definition At night you can see constellations, or groups of stars in the sky.
C ONTEXTUAL A NALYSIS - T YPES Synonym My dog Buck travels everywhere with me. My friend’s canine buddy travels everywhere with him, too. Antonym I thought the movie would be weird, but it turned out to be totally mundane.
C ONTEXTUAL A NALYSIS - T YPES Example Om science we are studying marine mammals such as whales, dolphins, and porpoises. General Einstein rode his bike everywhere. He thought driving a car was way too complicated.
C ONTEXTUAL A NALYSIS - A PPLYING T YPES “Percussion Instruments” percussion instrument, prevalent, differ amplify, faint, hide, vibrates, resonant, rhythms
F OUR -S TEP S TRATEGY (I NFERRING WORD MEANINGS FROM CONTEXT ) 1. Play and Question Read carefully. Frequently ask yourself, “Does this make sense?” 2. Slow Advance Notice when you don’t know the meaning of a word and slow down. Read that sentence at least once more, looking for clues. 3. Stop and Rewind If necessary, go back and reread the preceding sentence, looking for clues that help you figure out what the word might mean. 4. Play and Question When you figure out what the word might mean, substitute your guess in for the difficult word and see if it makes sense. (Graves, 2006, p.99)
W ORD -L EARNING S TRATEGIES Dictionary Use Contextual Analysis Morphemic Analysis (word structure) Strategy for Understanding New Words
S TRATEGY FOR U NKNOWN W ORDS 1. Recognize unknown/unfamiliar word. 2. Decide if necessary to understand passage. Attempt to infer from surrounding context. 3. Attempt to infer from word parts. 4. Attempt to sound out. 5. Turn to a dictionary, glossary, or another person for the meaning. (Graves, 2006, p. 114)
O UTSIDE -I N S TRATEGY 1. First, look outside the word, at context clues in the neighboring words and sentences. 2. Then, look inside the word, at the word parts (prefix, root, suffix). 3. Next, reread the section, keeping the meaningful word parts in mind. Make an inference: What do you think the word might mean? (Ebbers, 2008, p. 98)
T HE V OCABULARY S TRATEGY 1. Look for context clues in the words, phrases, and sentences surrounding the unfamiliar word. 2. Look for word-part clues within the unfamiliar word. A. Try to break the word into parts. (If you can’t, skip to Step 3.) B. Look at the root word. What does it mean? C. Look at the prefix. What does it mean? D. Look at the suffix. What does it mean? E. Put the meanings of the word parts together. What is the meaning of the whole word? 3. Guess the word’s meaning. 4. Try out your meaning in the original sentence to check whether or not it makes sense in context. 5. Use the dictionary, if necessary, to confirm your meaning. (Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006, p. 144)
H OW MIGHT I FOSTER WORD CONSCIOUSNESS AND PROVIDE RICH LANGUAGE EXPERIENCES ? Identify (and ultimately apply) ways to foster word consciousness and provide rich language experiences.
M ETHOD E XPLORATION Question How might I foster word consciousness and provide rich language experiences? Research (15 minutes) Name Description / Example Benefits Reflect & Share (5 minutes) What are the implications of this new information on my current practice?
R EFLECTIONS & F ORWARD T HINKING What specific methods would be effective? Name it. Describe it. Explain why it’s good. What specific methods would be effective? Name it. Describe it. Explain why it’s good.
J UST A F EW ( OF M ANY ) W AYS … Use sophisticated, precise terms Text Project: Exceptional Expressions for Everyday Events Text Project: Exceptional Expressions for Everyday Events Word of the Day / Word Walls Teacher and student selected Don’t forget to engage in meaningful analysis (see Graves, 2006, p. 121) Literature e.g., Fancy Nancy, Annie Dillard’s “So This was Adolescence”
J UST A F EW ( OF M ANY ) W AYS … Word Hunters Assign students task of finding particularly interesting uses of language in literature/others’ writing. Discuss. Share interesting word etymologies and histories Collaboratively represent figurative language for literal and figurative meanings e.g., Teach them how to Google (“in a pickle” origin); act out; draw; Venn Diagram
J UST A F EW ( OF M ANY ) W AYS … Play proverbs, slang, eponyms, toponymes, acronyms, portmanteaus, hink pinks, puns, riddles, Tom Swifties, tongue twisters, anagrams, palindromes Poetry e.g., diamonte, cinquain
T WO S TARS & A W ISH Please record one of the most important or relevant ideas you heard. Please record one strategy you plan to use next fall. Please record something you wish about this session.