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◄ home Space Invaders Read aloud Audiovisual supplement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities.

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Presentation on theme: "◄ home Space Invaders Read aloud Audiovisual supplement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities."— Presentation transcript:

1 ◄ home Space Invaders Read aloud Audiovisual supplement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement I. Read aloud Read the following passage aloud, making a pause between sense groups. Soybeans are a valuable part of the world’s food supply. / They are grown in many countries. / The major producers are the United States, Brazil, China and Argentina. / Many food products are made from soybeans. / For example, / oil from soybeans is the largest source of vegetable oil in the world. / Twenty percent of the soybean is oil. / Fatty acids in the oil / are thought to protect against heart attacks. / The solid substance that remains / after the oil has been removed from soybeans / is called soy cake or meal. / It has a large amount of protein, / about forty percent by weight. / Often the soy 1-1.1 Section Three: Detailed Reading

2 ◄ home Space Invaders Read aloud Audiovisual supplement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement 1-1.2 Section Three: Detailed Reading cake or meal is used to feed animals. / The very large increase in soybean production / is due to the increasing popularity of soy / as food oil for people and as cake for animal feed.

3 ◄ home 1. Because Ross celebrated birthday for Rachel in her office, which offended Rachel’s personal space. 2. If I were Rachel, I’d feel a bit embarrassed because Ross interfered in my personal life and my private life was exposed to the public. Read aloud Audiovisual supplement Section One: Pre-reading Activities II. Audiovisual supplement Questions: 1. Why did Rachel feel angry about Ross? 2. What would you feel if you were Rachel? Film Episode: Friends Answers for reference: 1-2.1 Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Two: Global Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders

4 ◄ home Do you have the Ralph Lauren file? Oh, yeah, sure! It’s right … What’s that? It’s from Ross. It’s a love bug. Wow! Somebody wants people to know you have a boyfriend. Oh, no, no, no … That’s not what he’s doing. He’s just really romantic. Excuse me. Are you Rachel Greene? Yes. Read aloud Audiovisual supplement Section One: Pre-reading Activities 1-2.1_pop1 Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Two: Global Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Marking: Rachel: Marking: Rachel: Marking: Rachel: Old man: Rachel: (song: One, Two, Three … Congratulations on your first week at your brand-new job. It won’t be long before you’re the boss. And you know who will be there to support you. Your one and only

5 ◄ home Read aloud Audiovisual supplement Section One: Pre-reading Activities 1-2.1_pop2 Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Two: Global Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Ross: Rachel: Ross: Rachel: Ross: I’m hurt! I’m actually hurt … that you’d think I’d send you any of those things out of anything other than love. Hurt! Hurt! All right, Ross, I get it. You’re hurt! I mean my God! Can’t a guy send a barbershop quartet to his girlfriend’s office anymore? Oh, please Ross! It was so obvious like you were marking your territory. You might as well have just come in and peeped around my desk! I would never do that. boyfriend. It’s nice to have a boyfriend! Your loyal, loving boyfriend Ross! Ross!) (back from office)

6 ◄ home Read aloud Audiovisual supplement Section One: Pre-reading Activities 1-2.1_video Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Two: Global Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders ■

7 ◄ home Text analysis Structural analysis Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading 2-1 In the text, the writer points out that nowadays people are more and more concerned about themselves and want to have a larger personal space than decades ago, and then he analyses the causes of space invasion. I. Text analysis Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Cultural background

8 ◄ home Text analysis Structural analysis Section Two: Global Reading 2-2.1 II. Structural analysis — — Section Three: Detailed Reading Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Paragraphs 3 - 7 the more and more serious phenomenon of invading personal space Paragraphs 1 - 2 the author’s experience of space invasion Space Invaders Cultural background — Paragraphs 8 - 9 people’s psychological withdrawal resulted from the shrinking of personal space

9 ◄ home Text analysis Structural analysis Section Two: Global Reading 2-3_1 III. Cultural background Section Three: Detailed Reading Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Cultural background Personal Distance People surround themselves with a “bubble” of personal space that they claim as their own, and they tend to become stressed when other people invade their “bubble.” Our personal space protects us from too much arousal and helps us feel comfortable

10 ◄ home Text analysis Structural analysis Section Two: Global Reading 2-3_2 Section Three: Detailed Reading Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Cultural background when we communicate with other people. When two people are talking to each other, they tend to stand a specific distance apart. Each person has an invisible boundary around his body into which other people may not come. If someone pierces this boundary, he will feel uncomfortable and move away to increase the distance between them. (The major exception is family members and other loved ones.) This personal distance is not due to body odor or bad breath, but because closeness lends a sense of intimacy that is at odds with their relationship to the other individual. Interestingly, the average personal distance varies from culture to culture. Take American culture as an example. Americans tend to require more personal space than in other cultures. So if you try to get too close to an American during your conversation, he or she

11 ◄ home Text analysis Structural analysis Section Two: Global Reading 2-3_3 Section Three: Detailed Reading Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Cultural background will feel that you are “in their face” and will try to back away. Try to be aware of this, so if the person to whom you are speaking backs away a little, don’t try to close the gap. Also, try to avoid physical contact while you are speaking, since this may also lead to discomfort. Touching is a bit too intimate for casual acquaintances. So don’t put your arm around their shoulders, touch their face, or hold their hand. Shaking hands when you initially meet or part is acceptable, but this is only momentary.

12 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text1_S At my bank the other day, I was standing in a line snaking around some tired velvet ropes when a man in a sweat-suit started inching toward me in his eagerness to deposit his Social Security check. As he did so, I minutely advanced toward the woman reading the Wall Street Journal in front of me, who, in mild annoyance, began to sidle up to the man scribbling a check in front of her, who absent-mindedly shuffled toward the white-haired lady ahead of him, until we were all hugger-mugger against each other, the original lazy line having collapsed in on itself like a Slinky. Section One: Pre-reading Activities Space Invaders Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Richard Stengel

13 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text2-3.1_S Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders I estimate that my personal space extends eighteen inches in front of my face, one foot to each side, and about ten inches in back — though it is nearly impossible to measure exactly how far behind you someone is standing. The phrase “personal space” has a quaint, seventies ring to it (“You’re invading my space, man”), but it is one of those gratifying expressions that are intuitively understood by all human beings. Like the twelve-mile limit around our national shores, personal space is our individual border beyond which no stranger can penetrate without making us uneasy. Lately, I’ve found that my personal space is being invaded more than ever before. In elevators, people are wedging themselves in just before the doors close; on the street, pedestrians are zigzagging through the human traffic, jostling others, refusing to give way;

14 ◄ home on the subway, riders are no longer taking pains to carve out little zones of space between themselves and fellow-passengers; in lines at airports, people are pressing forward like fidgety taxis at red lights. At first, I attributed this tendency to the “population explosion” and the relentless Malthusian logic that if twice as many people inhabit the planet now as did twenty years ago, each of us has half as much space. Recently, Or perhaps the proliferation of coffee bars in Manhattan — the number seems to double every three months — is infusing so much caffeine into the already jangling locals that people can no longer keep to themselves. Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text3-4_S Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders I’ve wondered if it’s the season: T-shirt weather can make proximity more alluring (or much, much less).

15 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text5_S Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Personal space is mostly a public matter; we allow all kinds of invasions of personal space in private. (Humanity wouldn’t exist without them.) The logistics of it vary according to geography. People who live in Calcutta have less personal space than folks in Colorado. “Don’t tread on me” could have been coined only by someone with a spread. I would wager that people in the Northern Hemisphere have roomier conceptions of personal space than those in the Southern. To an Englishman, a handshake can seem like trespassing, whereas to a Brazilian, anything less than a hug may come across as chilliness.

16 ◄ home Like drivers who plow into your parked and empty car and don’t leave a note, people no longer mutter “Excuse me” when they bump into you. The decline of manners has been widely lamented. Manners, it seems to me, are about giving people space, not stepping on toes, granting people their private domain. I’ve also noticed an increase in the ranks of what I think of as space invaders, mini-territorial expansionists who seize public space with a sense of manifest destiny. In movie theatres these days, people are staking a claim to both armrests, annexing all the elbow room, while at coffee shops and on the Long Island Railroad, individuals routinely commandeer booths and sets of facing seats meant for foursomes. Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text6-7_S Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders

17 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text8_S Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Ultimately, personal space is psychological, not physical: it has less to do with the space outside us than with our inner space. I suspect that the shrinking of personal space is directly proportional to the expansion of self-absorption: people whose attention is inward do not bother to look outward. Even the focus of science these days is micro, not macro. The Human Genome Project is mapping the universe of the genetic code, while neuroscientists are using souped-up M.R.I. machines to chart the flight of neurons in our brains.

18 ◄ home In the same way that the breeze from a butterfly’s wings in Japan may eventually produce a tidal wave in California, I have decided to expand the contracting boundaries of personal space. In the line at my bank, I now refuse to move closer than three feet to the person in front of me, even if it means that the fellow behind me starts breathing down my neck. Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text9_S Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders

19 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text1_W Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders At my bank the other day, I was standing in a line snaking around some tired velvet ropes when a man in a sweat-suit started inching toward me in his eagerness to deposit his Social Security check. As he did so, I minutely advanced toward the woman reading the Wall Street Journal in front of me, who, in mild annoyance, began to sidle up to the man scribbling a check in front of her, who absent-mindedly shuffled toward the white-haired lady ahead of him, until we were all hugger-mugger against each other, the original lazy line having collapsed in on itself like a Slinky. Space Invaders Richard Stengel

20 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text2-3.1_W Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders I estimate that my personal space extends eighteen inches in front of my face, one foot to each side, and about ten inches in back — though it is nearly impossible to measure exactly how far behind you someone is standing. The phrase “personal space” has a quaint, seventies ring to it (“You’re invading my space, man”), but it is one of those gratifying expressions that are intuitively understood by all human beings. Like the twelve-mile limit around our national shores, personal space is our individual border beyond which no stranger can penetrate without making us uneasy. Lately, I’ve found that my personal space is being invaded more than ever before. In elevators, people are wedging themselves in just before the doors close; on the street, pedestrians are zigzagging through the human traffic, jostling others, refusing to give way;

21 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text3-4_W Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders on the subway, riders are no longer taking pains to carve out little zones of space between themselves and fellow-passengers; in lines at airports, people are pressing forward like fidgety taxis at red lights. At first, I attributed this tendency to the “population explosion” and the relentless Malthusian logic that if twice as many people inhabit the planet now as did twenty years ago, each of us has half as much space. Recently, I’ve wondered if it’s the season: T-shirt weather can make proximity more alluring (or much, much less). Or perhaps the proliferation of coffee bars in Manhattan — the number seems to double every three months — is infusing so much caffeine into the already jangling locals that people can no longer keep to themselves.

22 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text5_W Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Personal space is mostly a public matter; we allow all kinds of invasions of personal space in private. (Humanity wouldn’t exist without them.) The logistics of it vary according to geography. People who live in Calcutta have less personal space than folks in Colorado. “Don’t tread on me” could have been coined only by someone with a spread. I would wager that people in the Northern Hemisphere have roomier conceptions of personal space than those in the Southern. To an Englishman, a handshake can seem like trespassing, whereas to a Brazilian, anything less than a hug may come across as chilliness.

23 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text6-7_W Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Like drivers who plow into your parked and empty car and don’t leave a note, people no longer mutter “Excuse me” when they bump into you. The decline of manners has been widely lamented. Manners, it seems to me, are about giving people space, not stepping on toes, granting people their private domain. I’ve also noticed an increase in the ranks of what I think of as space invaders, mini-territorial expansionists who seize public space with a sense of manifest destiny. In movie theatres these days, people are staking a claim to both armrests, annexing all the elbow room, while at coffee shops and on the Long Island Railroad, individuals routinely commandeer booths and sets of facing seats meant for foursomes.

24 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text8_W Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Ultimately, personal space is psychological, not physical: it has less to do with the space outside us than with our inner space. I suspect that the shrinking of personal space is directly proportional to the expansion of self-absorption: people whose attention is inward do not bother to look outward. Even the focus of science these days is micro, not macro. The Human Genome Project is mapping the universe of the genetic code, while neuroscientists are using souped-up M.R.I. machines to chart the flight of neurons in our brains.

25 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text9_W Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders In the same way that the breeze from a butterfly’s wings in Japan may eventually produce a tidal wave in California, I have decided to expand the contracting boundaries of personal space. In the line at my bank, I now refuse to move closer than three feet to the person in front of me, even if it means that the fellow behind me starts breathing down my neck.

26 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text1_S_until we were… Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement … until we were all hugger-mugger against each other, the original lazy line having collapsed in on itself like a Slinky. Paraphrase: … until we were all pushing against each other, leaving the line in a disorder. Space Invaders …… 直到我们互相推挤,原先松垮的边界线乱成一团,就像 弹簧玩具。

27 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text2-3.1_S_The phrase… Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement The phrase “personal space” has a quaint, seventies ring to it … Paraphrase: The phrase “personal space” sounds old fashioned and reminds one of the seventies... Space Invaders “ 私人空间 ” 这个词听起来有点古怪,让人想起 70 年代来。

28 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text2-3.1_S_but it is one… Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement … but it is one of those gratifying expressions that are intuitively understood by all human beings. Paraphrase: … but it is still one of the expressions that can be immediately understood by all people and give them pleasure. Space Invaders …… 但它是一种让所有人凭直觉就能明白的、愉快的表达方 式。

29 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text3-4_S_riders are no… Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement … riders are no longer taking pains to carve out little zones of space … Paraphrase: … subway passengers are no longer trying to establish some personal space between them … Space Invaders …… 地铁乘客不再努力营造小范围的私人空间。

30 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text3-4_S_wondered … Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement … I’ve wondered if it’s the season: T-shirt weather can make proximity more alluring (or much, much less). Paraphrase: … I have suspected that maybe the cause (of the space invasion) is the season: summer may either make people want to be closer to each other or more likely, to keep a distance between each other. Space Invaders …… 我怀疑是季节造成了空间侵略: T 恤也许会让人们想亲 密接触(也更可能让彼此疏远)。

31 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text3-4_S_Or perhaps… Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Or perhaps the proliferation of coffee bars in Manhattan — the number seems to double every three months — is infusing so much caffeine into the already jangling locals that people can no longer keep to themselves. Paraphrase: Or perhaps the increasing coffee bars in Manhattan attract more and more people, who are stimulated and excited by the caffeine, so that they become eager to meet others and no longer want to remain in privacy. Space Invaders 或者可能是曼哈顿不断涌现的咖啡厅 —— 它们的数量似乎每 三个月就会增加一倍 —— 给已经闹个不停的当地人灌下了大 量咖啡因,使他们再也耐不住寂寞。

32 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text_5_S_we allow all… Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement … we allow all kinds of invasions of personal space in private. (Humanity wouldn’t exist without them.) Paraphrase: … privately we allow many people around us to invade our personal space in order to establish close relationships with them, which ensures that human beings develop a society of intimacy and love. …… 私下里我们允许各种入侵私人空间的形式。(没有 它们就不会存在仁爱社会。) Space Invaders

33 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text_5_S_The logistics…. Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement The logistics of it vary according to geography. Paraphrase: People in different regions are given different sizes of personal space. 对私人空间的安排随地域变化。 Space Invaders

34 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text_5_S_ Don’t tread Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement “Don’t tread on me” could have been coined only by someone with a spread. Paraphrase: “Don’t step into my space.” This could have been said only by a person who has a large personal space. “ 别挤到我的地盘。 ” 这样的话只会出自一位有很大私人空 间的人士。 Space Invaders

35 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text_5_S_ To an Englishman… Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement To an Englishman, a handshake can seem like trespassing, whereas to a Brazilian, anything less than a hug may come across as chilliness. Paraphrase: Englishmen usually have a roomier concept of personal space, therefore, even a handshake can be taken as an invasion, while Brazilians would only accept a hug as a warm greeting. 对于英国人,握手都显得有些冒犯;但是对于巴西人, 不拥抱就让人觉得冷漠。 Space Invaders

36 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text_6-7_S_ The decline… Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement The decline of manners has been widely lamented. Paraphrase: We have been grieving at the deteriorated manners of our society. 我们对礼节的退化深表遗憾。 Space Invaders

37 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text_6-7_S_ I’ve also… Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement I’ve also noticed an increase in the ranks of what I think of as space invaders, mini-territorial expansionists who seize public space with a sense of manifest destiny. Paraphrase: I’ve also noticed that the problem of space invasion becomes more and more serious, and those space invaders, acting in the same way as the territory expansionists usually do, seize public space as a matter of course. 我注意到入侵私人空间的行为日益严重,这些地盘扩张 者把占据公共空间视为理所当然。 Space Invaders

38 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text_6-7_S_ individuals…. Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement … individuals routinely commandeer booths and sets of facing seats meant for foursomes. Paraphrase: … individuals, as usual, occupy booths and seats which are designed for four people. …… 一般总会有人独占电话亭或四人座位。 Space Invaders

39 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text_8_S_ personal space… Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement … personal space is psychological, not physical: it has less to do with the space outside us than with our inner space. Paraphrase: … personal space is more a psychological matter than a physical one. If our psychological personal space gets smaller, our physical personal space will shrink, too. …… 私人空间是心理问题,而非身体距离:比起外在距离, 内心空间与此有更大联系。 Space Invaders

40 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text_8_S_ Even the focus… Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Even the focus of science these days is micro, not macro. Paraphrase: Even science focuses on the intra-personal, inner world rather than the interpersonal, outer society these days. 这些年就连科学研究也是着眼于微观,而非宏观。 Space Invaders

41 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text_8_S_ The Human Genome… Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement The Human Genome Project is mapping the universe of the genetic code … Paraphrase: The Human Genome Project is describing how the genetic code works … 人类基因工程正在规划基因密码领域。 Space Invaders

42 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text_9_ S_ In the same … Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement In the same way that the breeze from a butterfly’s wings in Japan may eventually produce a tidal wave in California, I have decided to expand the contracting boundaries of personal space. Paraphrase: Because the initial invasion of personal space can cause a chain of reactions, which may bring about a catastrophic consequence, as the breeze from a butterfly’s wings in Japan, if it initiates a chain of waves, may eventually produce a tidal wave in California, I have decided to enlarge the shrinking personal space. 蝴蝶振翅在日本带来的习习微风,到了加利福尼亚就会导 致海啸大浪。我决定要扩大正在萎缩的私人空间边界。 Space Invaders

43 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text1_W_snake1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement snake v. Space Invaders move in a twisting way e.g. The train was snaking its way through the mountains. snake n. Other Usage: Transformation: snaky adj.: venomous, ungrateful, treacherous

44 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text1_W_snake2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders 1) 小路沿着山坡蜿蜒至远方。 2) 我站在电影院外面弯弯曲曲的队伍里。 Practice: The path snaked away into the distance along the hillside. I stood in a queue snaking around outside the cinema. Translate the following sentences into English.

45 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text1_W_velvet Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement velvet n. Space Invaders a closely woven fabric of silk, cotton, or nylon that has a short thick pile on one side

46 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text1_W_inch1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement inch v. Space Invaders move slowly and carefully in a specified direction e.g. He was inching his way across the high roof. inch n.: measure of length equal to 2.54 cm or one twelfth of a foot Other Usage: Collocation: by inches: bit by bit, gradually every inch: completely, entirely not budge/yield an inch: not give way at all within an inch of: very near, almost

47 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text1_W_inch2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Practice: Fill in the blank with the proper inch collocation: 1) 2) He came being struck by a falling tile. He had seen her come to this. by inches ________ within an inch of _______________

48 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text1_W_minutely1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement minutely adv. Space Invaders carefully and precisely; in small detail e.g. He examined the jewels minutely before saying how much it was worth. The two men’s accounts of the accident varied only minutely. minute adj.: careful and exact; very small Transformation : e.g. He gave me minute instructions about my work. His writing is so minute that it’s difficult to read.

49 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text1_W_minutely2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders 1) 我还没仔细研究账目细节,只是粗略浏览了一遍。 2) 把档案交给老板之前,他仔细检查了一下。 Practice: I haven’t studied the accounts minutely; I’ve merely read them through. He checked the document minutely before handing it to his boss. Translate the following sentences into English.

50 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text1_W_mild Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement mild adj. Space Invaders not very great in degree; gentle, soft e.g. We looked at each other in mild astonishment. Practice: Choose a similar word for mild in the sentence. Synonym: moderate, temperate, gentle Key:gentle 1) She’s a very mild-mannered person. Key:moderate 2) He likes mild cigar a lot.

51 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text1_W_sidle1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement sidle v. Space Invaders walk in a timid manner, especially sideways or obliquely e.g. A man sidled up to me and asked if I wanted a ticket for the match. sneak, stroll, stride & plod Comparison: sneak: go quietly and furtively stroll: walk in a leisurely or idle manner; ramble stride: walk with long steps plod: walk with heavy steps or with difficulty

52 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text1_W_sidle2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Practice: Fill in the blank with the proper form of sidle, sneak, stroll, stride or plod. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A huge crowd down Fifth Avenue in the Easter Parade. The poor old man along, hardly able to lift each foot. We round to the back door. We purposefully up to the door and knocked at it loudly. The young man began to near the pretty girl sitting on the log. strolled _______ plodded sidle ____ sneaked _______ strode ______

53 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text1_W_scribble1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement scribble v. Space Invaders write or draw (something) carelessly or hurriedly e.g. Two young girls were scribbling notes to each other during class. jot & inscribe Comparison: jot: make a quick written note of (something) inscribe: write, engrave or print as a lasting record scratch v. Synonym:

54 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text1_W_scribble2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Practice: Fill in the blank with the proper form of scribble, jot or inscribe. 1) 2) 3) He a volume of poetry to an old friend. The 2-year-old boy laughed happily after all over the wall with his mother’s lipstick. He her address down on his newspaper. inscribed ________ scribbling _________ jotted _____

55 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text1_W_shuffle1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement shuffle v. Space Invaders walk by dragging one’s feet along or without lifting them fully from the ground e.g. He slipped on his shoes and shuffled out of the room. A fat woman was shuffling along with a pushchair. shuffle n. Other Usage: e.g. His injured knee causes him to walk with a shuffle.

56 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text1_W_shuffle2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Collocation: shuffle sth. off: avoid talking or thinking about something because it is not considered important shuffle out of sth.: try to avoid some unpleasant task by acting dishonestly 1) 他推卸责任,换了话题。 2) 她说她有病,把杂事都推掉了。 Practice: He shuffled off his own responsibility and changed the topic. She shuffled out of the chores by saying she felt ill. Translate the following sentences into English.

57 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text1_W_hugger-mugger Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement hugger-mugger adj. Space Invaders confused; disorderly

58 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text1_W_Slinky Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Slinky n. Space Invaders brand name of a toy that can jump up and down or climb stairs

59 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text2-3.1_W_quaint1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement quaint adj. Space Invaders attractively unusual or old-fashioned e.g. Grandma lived in a quaint old cottage. quaintly adv. quaintness n. Transformation: unique, eccentric & outlandish Comparison: unique: having no like or equal; being the only one of its sort eccentric: (of a person’s behavior) peculiar, not normal or conventional outlandish: looking or sounding odd, strange or foreign

60 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text2-3.1_W_quaint2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Practice: Fill in the blank with the appropriate word. quaint unique eccentric outlandish 1) 2) 3) 4) American visitors to England admire our customs. He introduced or unbelievable people and situations in his works. If you go to the party with this pair of shoes, people will think you are rather. Every individual is. unique ______ quaint outlandish _________ eccentric ________

61 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text2-3.1_W_ring1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement ring n. Space Invaders a quality, or an impression of having the quality that is mentioned Collocation: ring true/false: sound true/false e.g. The books he mentioned had a familiar ring about them. Her story had a ring of truth about it. ring v. Other Usage: e.g. His promise rang false to me.

62 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text2-3.1_W_ring2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders 1) 他的承诺显示出真诚。 2) 他的声音洋溢着胜利之情。 Practice: There was a ring of sincerity in his promise. His voice has a triumphant ring. Translate the following sentences into English.

63 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text2-3.1_W_gratifying1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement gratifying adj. Space Invaders giving pleasure or satisfaction e.g. It is always gratifying to have one’s efforts rewarded. The new plan may be gratifying to the President. gratify v. gratification n. Transformation: be gratified with/at Collocation:

64 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text2-3.1_W_ gratifying2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders 1) 我们对此结果都感到欣慰。 2) 父母尽力满足孩子们的求知欲。 Practice: The result is gratifying to every one of us. The parents tried to gratify their children’s thirst for knowledge. Translate the following sentences into English.

65 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text2-3.1_W_intuitively1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement intuitively adv. Space Invaders by instinct e.g. Do women feel more intuitively than men? The hunter knew intuitively that the quarry would soon be there. intuitive adj.: using or based on what one feels to be true even without conscious reasoning intuition n. Transformation: instinctive Comparison: instinctive: based on a natural or inherent aptitude, impulse or capacity, not coming from training or teaching

66 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text2-3.1_W_intuitively2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Practice: Fill in the blank with intuitive or instinctive. 1) 2) Animals have an dread of fire. Tom had an awareness of his sister’s feelings. instinctive _________ intuitive _______

67 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text2-3.1_W_penetrate1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement penetrate v. Space Invaders succeed in forcing a way through something e.g. They penetrated into the territory where no man had ever been before. No bullet can penetrate this tough steel. penetration n. 1) entering 2) mental quickness, ability to grasp ideas penetrating adj. 1) (of voice, sound, etc.) piercing; loud and clear 2) (of a person’s mind) able to see and understand quickly and deeply penetrative adj.: intelligent Transformation:

68 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text2-3.1_W_penetrate2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Practice: Fill in the blank with the proper form of penetrate. 1) 2) The book is a study of the labor movement. The heavier the arrow the greater its into the target. penetration __________ penetrating enter, pierce, probe Synonym:

69 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text2-3.1_W_wedge1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement wedge v. Space Invaders force into a narrow space e.g. He was opening the door wide and wedging it with a pad of newspapers. The people sitting close to me were wedging me into the corner. wedge n. Other Usage: e.g.If the cost of steel rises, it is usually the thin end of the wedge.

70 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text2-3.1_W_wedge2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders 1) 我被两个肥胖的女人紧紧地挤在中间。 2) 她的箱子里再也塞不进别的东西了。 Practice: I was so tightly wedged between two fat women. She couldn’t wedge another item into her suitcase. Translate the following sentences into English. the thin end of the wedge: a small change or demand likely to lead to big changes or demands Idiom:

71 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text2-3.1_W_zigzag1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement zigzag v. Space Invaders move forward by going at an angle first to one side then to the other e.g. We are zigzagging up the hill. The motor bike was zigzagging in and out of the traffic. zigzag adj. zigzag adv. Other Usage: e.g. A zigzag line is made up of a series of sharp turns to the right and left. e.g. The path ran zigzag up the hill.

72 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text2-3.1_W_ zigzag 2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders 1) 那个醉鬼歪歪倒倒地沿街走去。 2) 小路在山脉间蜿蜒。 Practice: The drunken man zigzagged down the street. The path zigzagged through the mountains. Translate the following sentences into English. zigzag n. e.g. The boy walked down the street in a zigzag.

73 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text2-3.1_W_jostle1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement jostle v. Space Invaders push, elbow, or bump against (someone) roughly, typically in a crowd e.g. The rough man was jostling his way through the crowded market. The naughty boy was jostling against other children on the noisy playground. jostle one’s way jostle against sth. Collocation: push, elbow, press Synonym:

74 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text2-3.1_W_ jostle 2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders 1) 我们被人群挤来挤去。 2 )那扒手在人群中撞我。 Practice: We were jostled in the crowd. The pickpocket jostled against me in the crowd. Translate the following sentences into English.

75 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 3-4 _W_ carve out Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement carve out Space Invaders establish or create something through painstaking effort e.g. He carved himself out a nice position in the business. He carved out a career for himself.

76 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text3-4_W_press1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement press v. Space Invaders push, move, or make (one’s way) strongly, especially in a crowd e.g. He was pressing his way through the crowd. So many people were pressing round the famous actress that she couldn’t get to her car. Collocation: press one’s way press against/round sb.

77 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 3-4 _W_press2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Practice: Translate the following sentences into English. 1) 人群向栅栏推挤。 2) 人群拥挤在皇室宾客周围。 The crowd pressed against the barriers. Crowds pressed round the royal visitors.

78 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text3-4_W_fidgety1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement fidgety adj. Space Invaders impatient or uneasy e.g. Why do you feel so fidgety? What happened to you? Collocation: fidget about/with fidget v.: make small movements, especially of the hands and feet, through nervousness or impatience Transformation: e.g. Hurry up, your father is beginning to fidget.

79 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 3-4 _W_fidgety2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Practice: Translate the following sentences into Chinese. 1) Travelling in planes makes me fidgety. 2) Having to sit still for a long time often gives small children the fidgets. 我一坐飞机就心神不安。 久坐往往使小孩子们烦躁不安。

80 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text3-4_W_attribute1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement attribute... to... Space Invaders believe (something) to be the result of e.g. Jim attributes his success to hard work. The car accident was attributed to faulty breaks. owe … to … ascribe … to … Synonym:

81 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 3-4 _W_attribute2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Practice: Translate the following sentences into English. 1) 他们把成功归因于老师的鼓励。 2) 两位教皇都死于心脏病。 They attribute their success to their teacher’s encouragement. The deaths of both popes were attributed to heart attacks.

82 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text3-4_W_relentless1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement relentless adj. Space Invaders 1)never ending; oppressively constant 2) without pity e.g.He was relentless in his pursuit of fame and fortune. relent v.: become less severe; give up unkind or cruel intentions relentlessly adv. Transformation: e.g. relentless persecution e.g. Father objected at first but then relented and let us go camping by ourselves. e.g. He beat his child relentlessly.

83 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 3-4 _W_relentless2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Practice: Translate the following sentences into English. 1) 他冷酷无情,要求偿还那笔债。 2) 绵绵秋雨后,气温下降了。 He was relentless in demanding repayment of the debt. It cools down after a relentless autumnal rain. yielding, submissive, tender, compassionate Antonym:

84 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text3-4_W_proximity1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement proximity n. Space Invaders (formal) nearness in space, time, or relationship e.g. in (close) proximity to proximate adj. Transformation: nearness, closeness Synonym:

85 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 3-4 _W_proximity2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Practice: Translate the following sentences into English. 1) 靠近大图书馆给那项研究提供了便利。 2) 多少世纪以来,它们的巢穴一直都紧靠人类。 The research was facilitated by proximity to a large library. For centuries and centuries, their nests have been placed in closest proximity to man.

86 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text3-4_W_alluring1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement alluring adj. Space Invaders charming, fascinating e.g. Drizzling makes the small town more alluring. Wearing the new blouse, she looked more alluring. allure v.: powerfully attract; lure (now the more usually word) Transformation: e.g. The travel brochure allured/lured me into taking a Caribbean vacation.

87 ◄ home He naive investors with get-rich-quick scheme. The poor man was by the assurance of assistance. I think these nice displays of goods in shops only people into stealing. Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 3-4 _W_alluring2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders lure: It implies a drawing into danger, evil, or difficulty through attracting and deceiving. tempt: It implies the presenting of an attraction so strong that it overcomes the restraints of conscience or better judgment. seduce: It implies a leading astray by persuasion or false promises. lure, tempt & seduce Comparison: Practice: Fill in the blank with the proper form of lure, tempt or seduce. 1) 2) 3) tempt _____ lured seduced _______

88 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text3-4_W_proliferation Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement proliferation n. Space Invaders rapid increase in numbers e.g. nuclear non-proliferation treaty proliferate v. prolific adj. Transformation: Practice: Translate the following sentences into English. 1) 热带植物繁殖得很快。 2) 因为核武器的扩散,世界变得越来越不安全。 Tropical vegetation proliferates quickly. The world is becoming more and more unsafe due to the proliferation of nuclear weapons.

89 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text3-4_W_infuse1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement infuse v. Space Invaders 1) soak (tea, herbs, etc.) in liquid to extract flavor or healing properties 2) put, pour (a quality, etc.) into, fill (somebody with) e.g. He was infusing the herbs for three minutes. e.g. His speech was infusing the men with eagerness. infusion n. Transformation: infuse … into/with Collocation:

90 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 3-4 _W_infuse2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders 1) 将军给士兵们灌输新的勇气。 2) 他的作品绝大部分充满着唯物主义精神。 Practice: The general infused fresh courage into the soldiers. His works are for the most part infused with the spirit of scientific materialism. Translate the following sentences into English.

91 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text3-4_W_caffeine Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement caffeine n. Space Invaders a compound which is found especially in tea or coffee plants and is a stimulant of the central nervous system

92 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text3-4_W_jangling1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement jangling adj. Space Invaders anxious jangle v.: cause to give out a harsh metallic noise; quarrel nosily Transformation: jingle: make metallic clinking or ringing sound (as of coins, keys or small bells) clink: make sound of small bits of metal, glass, etc. knocking together jingle & clink Comparison:

93 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text3-4_W_keep to oneself1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement keep to oneself Space Invaders 1)remain private; avoid meeting other people 2) keep secret e.g. She doesn’t go out much; she likes to keep to herself. e.g. I promised to keep the facts to myself.

94 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 3-4 _W_keep to oneself2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders keep to sth. 1)abide by 2) limit oneself to 3) stay in Comparison: e.g. He always keeps to his promises. e.g. You’d better keep to the subject at issue. e.g. My friend had to keep to his bed because of fever.

95 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 3-4 _W_keep to oneself3 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders 1) 我们若不按时完成计划就要倒霉了。 2 )没有人了解这位老人,他一般不和别人来往。 Practice: If we can’t keep to the schedule, we’ll be in trouble. Nobody knows much about the old man. He keeps to himself most of the time. Translate the following sentences into English.

96 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text5_W_logistics Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement logistics n. Space Invaders the skillful organization of doing something so that it can be done successfully

97 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text5_W_Calcutta Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Calcutta Space Invaders the capital of West Bengal state, in East India, on the Hooghly River

98 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text5_W_Colorado Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Colorado Space Invaders a state in the west of the United States

99 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text51_W_tread Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement tread v. Space Invaders set one’s foot down on top of something e.g. Don’t tread the flower bed. She trod lightly so as not to wake the baby up. tread on someone’s toes: offend someone tread on air: be very happy (at some news) Idiom: e.g. I’d like to help to organize the party, but I’m afraid to suggest it in case I tread on someone’s toes. e.g. At the news that he passed the driving test, he trod on air all afternoon. tramp, trample Synonym:

100 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text5_W_someone with a spread Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement someone with a spread Space Invaders those people who have a farm and thus have a large space to themselves

101 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text5_W_wager1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement wager v. Space Invaders (more formal term for) bet e.g. He wagered $5 on a horse wager n. Transformation: wager on sth. wager sb. that … Collocation: e.g. lay/make a wager

102 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text5_W_wager2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders 1) I wager you 5 pounds that they will win the next election. 2) I made a wager that he wouldn’t pass the exam. Practice: 我和你赌 5 英镑,他们会赢得下届选举。 我打赌他过不了这次考试。 Translate the following sentences into Chinese.

103 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text5_W_trespass1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement trespass v. Space Invaders 1) enter someone’s land or property without permission 2) encroach upon, make too much use e.g. trespass on someone’s private property trespasser n. Transformation: trespass n. Other Usage: e.g. Trespassers will be prosecuted. e.g. trespass someone’s time/privacy

104 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text5_W_trespass2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders 1) 他们不该耽误她的工作时间。 2) 约翰控告那个人非法侵入他的庄园。 Practice: They should not trespass on her time. John accused the man of trespassing on his estate. Translate the following sentences into English. trespass on/upon Collocation:

105 ◄ home say something in a low, or barely audible voice Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text6-7_W_mutter1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement mutter v. Space Invaders e.g. The old woman muttered to herself. The dissatisfied workman muttered a threat. mutter n. Other Usage: e.g. We heard a mutter from the audience. murmur, grumble Synonym:

106 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 6-7 _W_mutter2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders 1) 当那人走过时,我们听见他嘟哝着什么。 2) 当士兵们得知所有假期都被取消时,他们生气地低声抱 怨。 Practice: We heard the man muttering something as he walked by. The soldiers muttered angrily when they heard that all leaves had been canceled. Translate the following sentences into English.

107 ◄ home 1)knock or strike (something) with a dull-sounding blow 2) move with a jerky, jolting motion (like a cart on a bad road) Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 6-7 _W_ bump1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement bump v. Space Invaders e.g. The child bumped his head on the table. e.g. The heavy bus bumped along the rough mountain road. bump n. Other Usage: e.g. I got a bump on the head by walking into a lamppost.

108 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 6-7 _W_bump2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders bumpy adj. Transformation: e.g. They suffered the bumpy ride for 3 hours. bump into: encounter by chance, run across bump up: increase, raise Collocation: e.g. Mary was walking down the street, when she suddenly bumped into Joan. e.g. You need more high marks bump up your average.

109 ◄ home express regret or disappointment over something considered unsatisfactory, unreasonable or unfair Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 6-7 _W_lament1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement lament v. Space Invaders e.g. He lamented the death of his friend. The woman continued to lament the death of her child. lament for/over … Collocation: Other Usage: lament n. Transformation: lamentable adj.

110 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 6-7 _W_lament2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Practice: Fill in the blank with the proper form of lament. 1) 2) His examination results were. The poor lady over her misfortune. lamented ________ lamentable __________

111 ◄ home 1)agree to give or allow (something requested) 2) agree (that something is true) Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 6-7 _W_grant1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement grant v. Space Invaders e.g. The firm granted him a pension. 1) Granted, but … 2) Granted (that) / Granting (that) … 3) take … for granted Collocation: Other Usage: grant n.: money or land from a government e.g. She smiled granting what I said was correct. e.g. Students in this country receive a grant from the government.

112 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 6-7 _W_grant2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Practice: Paraphrase the meaning of the italic sentences. 1)— “We’ve been successful this year.” — “Granted. But can we do it again next year?” 2) Granting his honesty, he may be mistaken. Yes, but can we be successful again next year? Key: Although he is an honest person, he does wrong sometimes. Key:

113 ◄ home a person adopting the policy of territorial or economic expansion Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 6-7 _W_expansionist Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement expansionist n. Space Invaders

114 ◄ home be assertive in defining and defending a position or policy Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 6-7 _W_stake1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement stake v. Space Invaders e.g. He staked a claim to the land where he had found the gold. The club has already staked a claim to this outstanding young footballer. Idiom: at stake: to be won or lost; being risked, depending on the outcome of an event e.g. This decision puts our lives at stake. Collocation: stake out a claim on/to …

115 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 6-7 _W_stake2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Practice: Translate the following sentences into English. 1) 你应该对该财产提出权利要求。 2) 他面临身败名裂的危险。 You ought to stake a claim to the property. His reputation is at stake.

116 ◄ home take control and possession of (land, a small country, etc.) especially by force; take without permission Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 6-7 _W_annex1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement annex v. Space Invaders e.g. There are examples of people occupying public squares and annexing the pavement next to their lands. The city was annexing the area across the river. Other Usage: annex n.: an addition that extends a main building Transformation: annexation n.: act or instance of annexing

117 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 6-7 _W_annex2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Practice: Fill in the blank with the appropriate word. annexation annex A new is being added to the school. The of Texas by the United States took place in 1845. 1) 2) annexation _________ annex _____

118 ◄ home repeatedly; not surprisingly or unnaturally Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 6-7 _W_routinely1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement routinely adv. Space Invaders e.g. Part of his work is to go around to the bank routinely. Transformation: routine n.: fix and regular way of doing things routine adj.: usual, ordinary e.g. business routine, a question of routine e.g. the routine procedure a dull routine job

119 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 6-7 _W_routinely2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders 1)The diode is used routinely in many kinds of electronic circuits. 2) The children had established an elaborate bedtime routine. Practice: 二极管已作为常规器件应用于多种电路中。 孩子们已经形成了良好的就寝习惯。 Translate the following sentences into Chinese.

120 ◄ home take possession of something officially or unfairly Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 6-7 _W_commandeer Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement commandeer v. Space Invaders e.g. The policemen commandeered a taxi to chase the robbers. The soldiers commandeered the house and used it for offices. Transformation: command v. commander n. commanding adj.

121 ◄ home a group of four people Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text 6-7 _W_foursome Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement foursome n. Space Invaders

122 ◄ home process or result of becoming less or smaller Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text8_W_shrinking1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement shrinking n. Space Invaders e.g. The shrinking of the cloth proves its poor quality. e.g. Wool shrinks in washing. shrink v. 1) become smaller Transformation: e.g. The dog shrank from the whip. 2) move back, show unwillingness to do something (from shame, dislike, etc.) shrinkage n.: process of shrinking, degree of shrinking

123 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text8_W_shrinking2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders 1) 她看到那恐怖的景象就往后退。 2) 用这种布缝衣,务必考虑到洗后会缩水。 Practice: She shrank back from the horrifying spectacle. In work with this cloth, be sure to allow for shrinking. Translate the following sentences into English. shrink back from shrink up Collocation:

124 ◄ home increase or decrease at the same rate as another thing increases or decreases, so that there is always the same relationship between them two Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text8_W_be proportional to1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement be proportional to Space Invaders e.g. The output should be proportional to the input. As a rule the suicide rates are proportional to the size of the city. proportion n. Transformation: in proportion in proportion to in the proportion of out of (all) proportion to Collocation:

125 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text8_W_be proportional to 2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders Practice: Fill in the blank with the appropriate phrase. in proportion in proportion to in the proportion of out of all proportion to If only he could see things he would not make such a fuss about trivialities. His earnings are his skill and ability, so he decides to change his job. 1) 2) out of all proportion to ____________________ in proportion ____________

126 ◄ home the characteristic of thinking about things concerning oneself without noticing other people or the things around him Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text8_W_self-absorption Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement self-absorption n. Space Invaders e.g. So excited was he that he forgot all about Carrie, who fell behind, wondering at his self-absorption.

127 ◄ home a federally funded U.S. scientific project to identify both the genes and the entire sequence of DNA base pairs that make up the human genome Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text8_W_the Human Genome Project Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement the Human Genome Project Space Invaders

128 ◄ home a scientist who deals with the structure or function of the nervous system and brain Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text8_W_neuroscientist Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement neuroscientist n. Space Invaders

129 ◄ home more powerful Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text8_W_souped-up Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement souped-up adj. Space Invaders soup up v.: (slang) increase the power (of an engine), as with a supercharger Transformation:

130 ◄ home magnetic resonance imaging 磁共振成像 Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text8_W_M. R. I. Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement M. R. I. Space Invaders

131 ◄ home of, relating to, or affected by tides Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text9_W_tidal1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement tidal adj. Space Invaders e.g. tidal wave tide n. tide v. Transformation: tide sb. over sth.: help someone to get through or survive a difficult period Collocation:

132 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text9_W_tidal2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders 1) 海啸形成一堵骇人的水墙。 2) 他卖掉汽车以度过失业的一段时期。 Practice: The tidal wave formed a terrifying wall of water. He sold his car to tide himself over the period of unemployment. Translate the following sentences into English.

133 ◄ home becoming smaller or shorter Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text9W_contracting1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement contracting adj. Space Invaders e.g. “I’ll” is the contracting form of “I will”. contraction n. Transformation:

134 ◄ home Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading 3.text9_W_contracting2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Space Invaders 2) make an agreement 3) catch an illness; form (bad habits) e.g. We contracted with a local carpenter for the woodwork in our new boat. e.g. My son has contracted a severe fever. contract v. 1) become smaller or shorter e.g. Metals contract in cold water.

135 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Writing practice Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement SectionFour Vocabulary analysis I. Word discrimination Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Listening exercises Space Invaders II. Word explanation

136 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Translation exercises Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_V_W_1.1 Word discrimination Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Grammar exercises Group 1: A. invest B. reserve C. lay down D. place for safekeeping Explanation: Invest means to put money in.A. e.g. He invested £ 1,000 in government stock. B. e.g. Reserve your strength for the climb. Reserve means to store, keep back for a later occasion.

137 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Translation exercises Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_V_W_1.2 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Grammar exercises Explanation: Lay down means to pay or wager.C. D. e.g. Firms and individuals place their funds for safekeeping. Place for safekeeping means to put away something for future use. e.g. How much are you ready to lay down? Group 1: A. invest B. reserve C. lay down D. place for safekeeping

138 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Translation exercises Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_V_W_2.1 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Grammar exercises Group 2: A. instinctively B. directly C. frankly D. reasonably Explanation: Instinctively means by instinct, without being taught.A. e.g.Animals are instinctively afraid of fire. B. e.g. She speaks very directly to people. Directly means in a direct line or manner.

139 ◄ home He acted reasonably in the crisis. Vocabulary analysis Translation exercises Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_V_W_2.2 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Grammar exercises Explanation: You use frankly when you are expressing an opinion or feeling to emphasize that you mean what you are saying, especially when the person you are speaking to may not like it. C. e.g.Frankly, I think you are talking nonsense. D. e.g. Reasonably means with good sense or in a reasonable or intelligent manner. Group 2: A. instinctively B. directly C. frankly D. reasonably

140 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Translation exercises Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_V_W_3.1 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Grammar exercises Group 3: A. tramp B. tread C. travel D. pilot Explanation: Tramp means to walk with heavy steps.A. e.g.He tramped up and down the platform waiting for the train. B. e.g. The boys trod on the newly planted flowers. Tread means to walk, put the foot or feet down (on); stamp or crush.

141 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_V_W_3.2 Translation exercises Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Grammar exercises Explanation: Travel means to make a (especially long) journey or journeys.C. e.g. He bears an ambitious dream to travel around the world. D. e.g. He piloted ships through the Panama Canal. Pilot means to act as a guide to, lead or conduct over a usually difficult course. Group 3: A. tramp B. tread C. travel D. pilot

142 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Translation exercises Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_V_W_4.1 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Grammar exercises Group 4: A. pitiless B. merciless C. ruthless D. unrelenting Explanation: Pitiless means showing no sorrow for the troubles or sufferings of another person. A. e.g. The tyrant was pitiless to his subjects. B. e.g. He was merciless to his enemies. Merciless means showing no compassion or kindness.

143 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_V_W_4.2 Translation exercises Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Grammar exercises Explanation: Ruthless means being cruel extremely, becoming mad to some extent. C. e.g. The ruthless general burnt down a building, regardless of the women and children in it. D. e.g. The Health Department waged unrelenting warfare against the epidemic. Unrelenting means continuous; merciless. Group 4: A. pitiless B. merciless C. ruthless D. unrelenting

144 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Translation exercises Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_V_W_5.1 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Grammar exercises Group 5: A. dissuasive B. allusive C. attractive D. seductive Explanation: Dissuasive means deterring from action.A. e.g. My teacher made a slight dissuasive gesture with her hand. B. e.g. Her allusive style is difficult to follow. Allusive means characterized by indirect references.

145 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_V_W_5.2 Translation exercises Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Grammar exercises Explanation: Attractive means pleasing to the eye or mind especially through beauty or charm. C. e.g. The offer is very attractive to us. D. e.g. Her figure was slighter and therefore more seductive than Natalie. Seductive means tending to entice into a desired action or state. Group 5: A. dissuasive B. allusive C. attractive D. seductive

146 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Translation exercises Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_V_W_6.1 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Grammar exercises Group 6: A. wither B. retreat C. hide D. avoid Explanation: Wither means to cause to become dry, faded or dead.A. e.g. The hot summer withered up the grass. B. e.g. The soldiers were forced to retreat from the capital. Retreat means to go back; withdraw.

147 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_V_W_6.2 Translation exercises Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Grammar exercises Explanation: Hide means to put or keep out of sight; prevent from being seen, found, or known. C. e.g. The sun was hidden by the clouds. D. e.g. You can hardly avoid meeting her if you both work in the same office. Avoid means to keep or get away from; escape. Group 6: A. wither B. retreat C. hide D. avoid

148 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Translation exercises Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_V_W2_1 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Grammar exercises Word explanation Explanation: [U] promotion; fostering, helping bring about 1. encouragement e.g. Such unkind remarks are only for the encouragement of prejudice. 1) [U] inspiration with courage, spirit, or confidence Other main usages: e.g. He owed his success to his wife’s encouragement. 2) [U] stimulation by guidance, approval e.g. Your faith gives me great encouragement. 3) [C] something showing inspiration, stimulation e.g. Their achievements were a great encouragement to us.

149 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Translation exercises Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_V_W2_2 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Grammar exercises Explanation: (no object) endure; continue or remain in usable condition 2. last e.g. The car won’t last if you don’t take care of it. 1) (no object) go on or continue in time Other main usages: e.g. The festival lasted for three weeks. 2) (no object) continue without running out; be enough e.g. Our money will not last until the end of the month. 3) continue to survive for the time or duration of e.g. They can’t last (out) for another day without food.

150 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Translation exercises Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_V_W2_3 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Grammar exercises Explanation: willingly 3. readily e.g. He readily agreed to help us out. 1) promptly, quickly Other main usages: e.g. A bright boy answers readily when called on. 2) easily e.g. Experiences readily provide the answers to this question.

151 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Translation exercises Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_V_W2_4 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Grammar exercises Explanation: canceled 4. off e.g. He told me that the trip was off. 1) in error, wrong Other main usages: e.g. You are off on that point. 2) affected by spoilage; bad e.g. The cream is a bit off. 3) free from work or duty e.g. He is off tomorrow.

152 ◄ home He had reached a point of no return in the project and had to face trouble. Vocabulary analysis Translation exercises Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_V_W2_5 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Grammar exercises Explanation: the most important thing 5. point e.g. Please stop being vague and get to the point. Her comments about his money are beside the point. 1) a particular instant of time Other main usages: e.g. At that point, so late in the day, we were too tired to go on. 2) a particular mark that distinguishes someone or something from another e.g. His best point is his ability to work alone and get the job done. 3) a critical position in affairs e.g.

153 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Translation exercises Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_V_W2_6 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Grammar exercises Explanation: not severe or extreme; temperate 6. mild e.g. Mild whether is warm and pleasant. The thief was given a milder punishment than he deserved. 1) gentle or soft in feeling, manner, etc. Other main usages: e.g. Her mild disposition is a marvel in this chaotic office. 2) not sharp in taste or smell e.g. Please make my drink a mild one. 3) moderate in strength, degree or force e.g.

154 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ G Grammar exercises Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders I. Model auxiliaries can, could, be able to, may, might II. Elliptical sentence with so, do, not, one III. “So/such … that …” structure IV. Conjunction: whereas, in the same way that …

155 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four _GI Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Can/could is used to express ability. Model auxiliaries can, could, be able to, may, might Can/may/might is used to express possibility. Can/could/may/mighty is used to express permission or request for permission. May/might as well is used with the second person pronoun expressing suggestions. May/might + perfect infinitive is used to express speculations about past actions.

156 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ GI_1 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders e.g. I can climb this cliff. He is able to drive a car. She could play the piano when she was only six.

157 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ GI_2 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders e.g. The light is on. He can be at home. Stop doing it. You may irritate the old man. It’s sunny in the morning, but it might rain at noon. You’d better take your umbrella.

158 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ GI_3 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders e.g. Can/Could I smoke in here? May/Might I smoke in here? Borrowers may not take out of the library more than two books at a time. Compared with can/could, may/might is more formal; Compared with may/can, might/could is politer; Can is often used in colloquial English, indicating permission; May not is used to express “not be permitted” by some regulations, not by the speaker, etc.

159 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ GI_4 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders e.g. You may/might as well use my bike.

160 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ GI_5 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders e.g. He may/might have gone without you. She can’t/couldn’t have gone to the library.

161 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ GI_ Ex1 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Practice Rewrite the following sentences, using can, could, may or might. 1. He is in poor health. It is possible for him to fall ill at any time. Key: He can fall ill at any time. 2. John was able to swim when he was five. Key: John could swim when he was five. 3. Visitors were allowed to take photos of the castle. Key: Visitors could take photos of the castle.

162 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_GI_Ex2 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders 4. Am I allowed to borrow your phone? Key: Could/Can/Might/May I use your phone? 5. Nobody knows where he is. Maybe he is in the library, or maybe he is in the lab. Key: He can be in the library or in the lab. 6. It is possible that John has read Hamlet. Key: John may have read Hamlet.

163 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_GI_Ex3 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders 7. John looks pale today. It is possible that he is ill. Key: John looks pale today. He may be ill. 8. I looked everywhere but I failed to find my dictionary. Key: I looked everywhere but I couldn’t find my dictionary.

164 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ GII Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Elliptical sentence with so, do, not, one So is used to express approval, avoiding repetition. Do/does/did is used in the reverted sentence to indicate “in the same case”. Not is used in the negative sentence, indicating disapproval. One is used to refer to someone/something mentioned above, avoiding repetition. e.g. I hope so./I think so./I don’t think so. e.g. So do I. So does he. e.g. I hope not. e.g. My bookshelf is old. I plan to make a new one.

165 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ GII_ Ex1 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Practice Fill in the blank with the proper form of so, do, not or one. 1. A: Are you going to have a test in English tomorrow? B: I think. 2. A: Will your flight be cancelled because of the bad weather? B: I hope. so __ 3. A: You don’t like dishonesty, do you? B: Of course not. Actually, nobody. does ____ not ___

166 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ GII_ Ex2 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders 4. A: Are cats colour-blind? B: I believe. 5. A: What about going there in your car? B: My car is too small. Let’s rent a bigger. 6. A: Is the nearest post office on King’s Road? B: I don’t think. so __ one ___ so __ 7. A: I always forget to lock the door. B: So I. do __ 8. A: They started learning English in primary school. B: We, too. did ___

167 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ GIII Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders “So/such … that …” structure In a sentence, the part that needs to be emphasized will be put after so/such, and the clause after that is used as the effect caused by the emphasized part. So is used to emphasize the adjective and adverb, and such is used to emphasize the noun. If the noun is countable, we should use the pattern “such a/an + noun”; if the noun is uncountable, we should use the pattern “such + noun”. e.g. She was so excited that she couldn’t say a word. He runs so fast that nobody can catch up with him in his class. It is such a surprise that I can’t get over it. It is such mild climate in the resort that we have stayed here for two more days than expected.

168 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ GIII_ Ex1 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Practice Combine the two sentences into one, using so or such. 1. He has a big house. All his family members can live together. Key: He has such a big house that all his family members can live together. 2. Poor Susan had a bad headache. She couldn’t get to sleep. Key: Poor Susan had such a bad headache that she couldn’t get to sleep. 3. Jack was out of breath. He couldn’t speak at first. Key: Jack was so out of breath that he couldn’t speak at first.

169 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ GIII_ Ex2 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders 4. The music was loud. You could hear it from miles away. Key: The music was so loud that you could hear it from miles away. 5. The shirts became stiff. He couldn’t put them on. Key: The shirts became so stiff that he couldn’t put them on.

170 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ GIV Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Conjunction: whereas, in the same way that … Whereas means “but”, indicating the opposite meaning. In the same way that will be followed by a clause, functioned as an adverbial part in a sentence.

171 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ GIV_pop1 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders e.g. To an Englishman, a handshake can seem like trespassing, whereas to a Brazilian, anything less than a hug may come across as chilliness.

172 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ GIV_pop2 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders e.g. In the same way that the breeze from a butterfly’s wings in Japan may eventually produce a tidal wave in California, I have decided to expand the contracting boundaries of personal space.

173 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ GIV_ Ex1 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Practice Make sentences of your own with whereas and in the same way that. Key: 1. Some people like fatty meat, whereas others hate it. 2. My children want to live in town, whereas I myself would rather live in the country. 3. In the same way that every baby’s face is different from every other’s, every baby’s pattern of development is different from every other’s. 4. In the same way that the heart is the most important organ for sustaining life, engine plays an irreplaceable role in a car.

174 ◄ home In this sentence, the phrase be proportional to means to increase or decrease at the same rate as another thing increases or decreases, so that there is always the same relationship between them two. In this phrase, to is a preposition. Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_T1_ 1.1 Translation exercises I. Translate the following sentences into English, using the word or phrase given in the brackets. 1. 驾车人该付多少钱需要根据他对别人车子造成损坏的程度而 定。 (be proportional to) Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Notes: Space Invaders Key: The payment that the motorist will have to make will be proportional to the amount of damage he has done to the other person’s car.

175 ◄ home The cost of the party is proportional to the number of people invited. Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_T1_ 1.2 Chinese-English translation: 1) 一般说来,成功与所付出的努力成正比。 Achievement is usually proportional to the effort made. Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders 2) 价格上升幅度要根据汽车改进程度而定。 The increase in price is proportional to the improvement in the car. 3) 聚会的成本要根据受邀人数的多少而定。

176 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_T1_ 2.1 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders 2. 只有伏在地上慢慢爬过一条狭长的地道才能进入山洞。 (inch) In this sentence, the word inch means to move slowly and carefully in a specified direction. Inch can be a transitive verb or an intransitive one, that is, it can be followed by an object or not. Notes: Key: You can only enter the cave by inching through a narrow tunnel on your stomach.

177 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_T1_ 2.2 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Chinese-English translation: 1) 司机小心翼翼缓缓地把卡车开进这个区域。 The driver inched his truck carefully into this spot. 2) 我们在车流中一点一点缓慢前进。 We inched slowly through the traffic. 3) 俘虏一点点挪近窗户想逃走。 The captive inched toward the window to get away.

178 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_T1_ 3.1 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders 3. 他尽力向我解释说不是因为我工作不好而解雇我,而是因为 公司支付不了我的工资。 (take pains to) In this sentence, the phrase take (great) pains means to take great trouble. These patterns share the same meaning: take pains to do sth., take pains with sth., take pains over sth. In addition, not… but… is an expression of emphasis. But, here, is a conjunction. Notes: Key: He took pains to explain to me that I was being dismissed not because I didn’t do my work well but because the company could not pay my wages.

179 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_T1_ 3.2 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Chinese-English translation: 1) 你煞费苦心地教我如何工作,对此我深表感激。 I’m grateful because you have taken pains to show me how to do the work. 2) 女主人为餐桌的安排煞费苦心。 The hostess took pains over the table arrangements. 3) 她总是为自己的外貌绞尽脑汁。 She always takes pains with her appearance.

180 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_T1_ 4.1 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders 4. 年轻士兵的入伍给军队带来了新的希望并鼓舞了士气。 (infuse into) In this sentence, infuse … into … means to introduce, as if by pouring. The other pattern infuse … with … means to inspire or fill someone with emotion. Notes: Key: The enlistment of young soldiers infused new hope and morale into the army. e.g. infuse the team with enthusiasm

181 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_T1_ 4.2 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Chinese-English translation: 1) 他以自己的无畏精神激励着部队。 He infused the troops with his intrepid spirit. 2) 她激起学生的热情。 She infused her pupils with zeal. 3) 高科技为这一产业注入新生命。 The high-tech has infused new life into the industry.

182 ◄ home In some cultures a significant aspect of spatial perception is shown by the amount of “personal space” people need between themselves and others to feel comfortable and not crowded. North Americans, for instance, seem to require about four feet of space between themselves and the people near them to feel comfortable. On the other hand, people from Arab countries and Latin America feel comfortable when they are close to each other. People from different cultures, therefore, may unconsciously infringe on each other’s sense of space. Thus just as different perceptions of time may create cultural conflicts, so too may different perceptions of space. Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_T2.1 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders II. Translate the following passage into Chinese.

183 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_T2_pop1 Exercises for integrated skills Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders 在某些文化中,空间感觉的一个重要方面体现于人们所 需要的彼此感觉舒适却又不觉得拥挤的 “ 私人空间 ” 。例如, 北美人彼此感觉舒适所需的空间距离大约是4英尺。而阿拉 伯人和拉美人反而是彼此靠近才会感觉舒服。因此,不同文 化的人可能会无意间侵犯别人的空间感。正如不同的时间观 可能会造成文化冲突,不同的空间观也可能引发同样的问题。

184 ◄ home Human beings are able to communicate (1) a variety of ways besides the use of words. This type of communication is referred to (2) non-verbal communication. Perhaps the most prevalent form of non-verbal communication is body language. Among humans, body language accounts (3) a large part of meaningful communication. The way we sit, stand, gesture, or orient ourselves in a group often helps others make accurate (4) about our thoughts, feelings and intentions. Mannerisms such as a clenched jaw, narrowed eyes, or Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Exercises for integrated skills Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ E_ 1 Exercises for integrated skills Fill in each blank in the passage below with ONE appropriate word. Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders judgments _________ in __ as for ___

185 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Exercises for integrated skills Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ E_ 2 Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders slumped posture can be interpreted (5) conveying anger, distrust, or disinterest. On the other hand, steady eye contact, a tilted (6), and a reassuring smile can demonstrate interest and empathy. As we develop a greater sensitivity (7) body language and its implications, we can be more in tune (8) the thoughts and feelings of others. We can also become more certain that the messages we are communicating are the ones we intended to convey. to __ as head ____ with

186 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Exercises for integrated skills Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ E_ 1_popwin_1 Explanation: Way here can be used as a countable noun, meaning method or plan, course of action. The collocations are in one’s way, in many ways, etc. in Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders

187 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Exercises for integrated skills Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ E_ 1_popwin_2 Explanation: As is a conjunction in the sentence, meaning in the capacity or character of someone/something. as Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders

188 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Exercises for integrated skills Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ E_ 1_popwin_3 Explanation: Account for is a fixed collocation, and means to give an explanation for (something) or be the cause or source of (something). In this sentence, account for serves as an explanation of meaningful communication. for Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders

189 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Exercises for integrated skills Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ E_ 1_popwin_4 Explanation: In the sentence, judgment means an opinion, conclusion, or belief based on the circumstances before one’s view. It is a countable noun. judgments Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders

190 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Exercises for integrated skills Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ E_ 1_popwin_5 Explanation: As is a conjunction in the sentence, meaning in the capacity or character of someone/something. as Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders

191 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Exercises for integrated skills Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ E_ 1_popwin_6 Explanation: Tilted head makes a parallel structure with “steady eye contact, a reassuring smile” in the sentence. head Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders

192 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Exercises for integrated skills Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ E_ 1_popwin_7 Explanation: Be sensitive to is a fixed collocation, meaning to have a strong perceptive feeling. In the sentence, sensitivity is the noun form of sensitive. to Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders

193 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Exercises for integrated skills Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_ E_ 2_popwin_8 Explanation: Tune, as an uncountable noun, means the state of being in harmony. Therefore, the phrase in tune with is equal to in harmony with. with Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders

194 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Oral activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Four_O1 Oral activities Exercises for integrated skills Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders 1. Tell your classmates at least two differences between Chinese and Americans in their body languages. 1. Americans tend to have more eye contact than Chinese do. 2. Americans prefer larger personal space than Chinese do. Notes:

195 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Oral activities Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_O2 Exercises for integrated skills Writing practice Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders 2. Suppose a friend of yours is going to attend a job interview tomorrow. Tell your friend at least three points he or she should pay attention to in non-verbal communication. 1. Do not avoid eye contacts, but do not stare at the interviewer. 2. Do not cross your legs. 3. Do not fidget in your seat. Notes:

196 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Oral activities Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_ W Exercises for integrated skills Writing practice Additional information Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders How to understand narration How to fulfill a good narration

197 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Oral activities Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_ W_pop1 Exercises for integrated skills Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Narration writing is a skill of a high order that combines an understanding of pacing, mood, and drama. Through the use of carefully chosen words and the concise use of language, the narration should bring a film to life.

198 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Oral activities Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_ W_pop2 Exercises for integrated skills Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders A good narration should expand the images that we see on the screen, and add an extra dimension to them. Having a powerful narration is like taking a museum tour with a guide who does much more than describing the obvious.

199 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Oral activities Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_W_EX1 Exercises for integrated skills Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Suppose a large crowd of people have been waiting for a bus for a long time and now a bus is finally approaching. Write a 250- word composition. In the first part, describe the situation. In the second part, tell the reader what people usually do in this situation. In the third part, say what you think people ought to do. Practice

200 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Oral activities Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_W_EX2 Exercises for integrated skills Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Sample writing: At the bus terminal there was a big crowd without order. Because the bus was a little late, the crowd was growing bigger and bigger. When the bus finally arrives, the waiting crowd turned into a charging mob, rushing to the door. What craziness! Then some young guys were pushing hard and elbowing their way to the front. They wanted to get on as fast as possible so they could get a seat. A woman carrying a baby lost her balance and fell down in this mad scramble. But those guys were still pushing hard onto the bus, leaving others to take care of her. The bus was very crowded. An old lady was standing next to the seats reserved for the old and weak. The seats were occupied by two robust young

201 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Oral activities Writing practice Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_W_EX3 Exercises for integrated skills Listening exercises Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders men who totally ignored her presence. It was an elderly man who finally got up and offered her his seat. Nowadays, some people, especially some young people, are too preoccupied with themselves. They have the “me-first” mentality. They don’t seem to care about the public code of conduct. In my opinion, young people should show respect for others before they are respected by others. It’s time we did something and bade farewell to all the rude manners. Only in this way can the social moral standards be passed down from generation to generation.

202 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_ L_A Exercises for integrated skills Listening exercises A Typical English Conversation Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders A.Before you listen to the recording, look at the flowchart below and see if you can think of some examples to fill the gaps.

203 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_L_B1 Exercises for integrated skills Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders B. Listen to the recording and fill the gaps with some of the examples given by the speaker. ■ script A typical one to one conversation begins with this Opening Phase: smile, raise an eyebrow encouragingly ________________________________ Participants make eye contact. They assume conventional facial expression: e.g. They reach a position of comfortable proximity: ↓ ↓ 50-60 centimetres for North Americans or Northern Europeans, ______________________________________________________ e.g.

204 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_L_B2 Exercises for integrated skills Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders 20-30 centimetres for Latin Americans. __________________________________ ↓ They adopt an appropriate posture: e.g. sitting next to each other, ______________________ standing in a relaxed manner, facing each other. __________________________________________ ↓ They exchange ritual gestures: e.g. handshakes __________ and greetings: e.g. “Hello”, “Nice to see you.” ______________________ ↓ They exchange channel-opening remarks: e.g. “Lovely day”, “How are things with you?” _____________________________________

205 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_L_B3 Exercises for integrated skills Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders ↓ The main business phase can begin … ↓ They exchange appropriate cordial facial expressions: e.g. smile, friendly look. _________________ ↓ They exchange ritual gestures: e.g. and phrases to signal parting: e.g. looking at their watch ____________________ And the conversation ends with this Parting Phase: One or both of the participants decide it’s time to stop. “It’s been nice talking to you.” __________________________

206 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_L_B4 Exercises for integrated skills Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders ↓ They increase the distance between them: ↓ e.g. move backwards, starting to go. ____________________________ Eye contact is broken, the participants turn away and the conversation has ended.

207 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_ L_ C Exercises for integrated skills Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders C. Work in groups. Discuss the following questions with your partners: — How does a “typical conversation” begin and end differently if the participants are, for example: complete strangers, very close friends or relations, boss and employee. — How is a telephone conversation different? — How does a “typical English lesson” begin and end?

208 ◄ home (P=Presenter S=Sarah) Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_L_Bpopwin1 Exercises for integrated skills Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders A Typical English Conversation P: S: P: OK, what is a conversation? Now, a conversation may seem to you and me just to be two people having a chat, exchanging words, exchanging ideas, but it seems that without the right kind of non-verbal behaviour it would probably be impossible to start. Sarah Newby explains why. Sarah. Well, Terry, the stages of a typical conversation can be summarised in a most interesting way. There’s nothing new about his analysis, like much of sociology we’re just looking at human behaviour in a scientific way and drawing attention to its underlying structure. OK. ■

209 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Translation exercises Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities Exercises for integrated skills Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Grammar exercises SectionFour_L_Bpopwin2 Space Invaders ■ S: P: S: P: S: P: S: P: So, let’s begin with the so-called “opening phase”. Now this begins by the two would be participants making eye contact. In other words, one of them catches the other’s eye. Right. Right? And then both of them have to switch on “conventional facial expressions”. Oh, hang on, hang on. No, no, all it means really is that they smile or one raises an eyebrow encouragingly or something like that. Oh, I see, yes. Then they reach a “position of comfortable proximity”. What is … what does that mean?

210 ◄ home Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_L_Bpopwin3 Exercises for integrated skills Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders S: P: S: P: S: P: S: P: Well, basically we’re talking about distance. Er … for North Americans or Northern Europeans 50-60 centimetres apart is usual. But for Latin Americans 20-30 centimetres. Wow! What happens when you get a North American talking to a Latin American? Well, that actually is a very good point … Yeah? … because of course what usually happens is that the North American will step backwards to try and make some kind of comfortable distance between them. Because the Latin American is invading his personal space. Absolutely right! I know it. ■

211 ◄ home Then of course what they do is adopt an “appropriate posture”. Like …? Well, it could be sitting next to each other, or standing in a relaxed manner, or facing each other. OK. Er … at that point they exchange “ritual gestures and phrases of greeting”. Really? What, even here? Well, of course, things like handshakes, “Hello”, er … “Nice to see you” — all that sort of thing … I see. Right? Yeah. Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_L_Bpopwin4 Exercises for integrated skills Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders S: P: S: P: S: P: S: P: S: P: ■

212 ◄ home Then they exchange “stereotyped channel-opening remarks”. Now you’re going to have to explain that one. Of course, of course: “Lovely day!”… er … “How are things with you?” I see. And then, of course, the main business phase begins, so the actual discussion or conversation takes place. The main bulk of the conversation. Absolutely right. Then we come to the “parting phase”, the actual ending of the conversation when one or both of them decide it’s time to stop. So what they do is they exchange “appropriate cordial facial expressions”. Has to be cordial? Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_L_Bpopwin5 Exercises for integrated skills Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders S: P: S: P: S: P: S: P: ■

213 ◄ home Usually. A smile or a friendly look is helpful. OK. And then of course we have the exchange of “ritual gestures and phrases of parting”. Wow. This can take the form of looking at your watch, saying “It’s been nice talking to you”… Oh, right. … and then what usually happens is an “increase of distance between them”: you start to move, move backwards, starting to go. Then both partners break eye contact and the conversation is ended. Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_L_Bpopwin6 Exercises for integrated skills Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders S: P: S: P: S: P: S: ■

214 ◄ home Well! Thank you very much indeed, Sarah. Now, ha, next time I meet someone I think I’ll be watching myself to make sure I obey all the rules! Haha! Vocabulary analysis Grammar exercises Translation exercises Oral activities Writing practice Listening exercises Section Four: Consolidation Activities SectionFour_L_Bpopwin7 Exercises for integrated skills Section Five: Further Enhancement Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders P: S: ■

215 ◄ home Lead-in questions Supplementary reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Section Five_ lead in Lead-in questions: 1. 2. Imagine a stranger is standing close to you, will you feel comfortable? Why? Do you care much about your personal space? How will you remain your personal boundary, physically and psychologically? Memorable quotes Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders

216 ◄ home Lead-in questions Supplementary reading Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement SectionFive_text1 Memorable quotes Space and Distance Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Larry A. Samovar et al The flow and shift of distance between us and the people with whom we interact are as much a part of communication experiences as the words we exchange. Notice how we might allow one person to stand very close to us and keep another at a distance. We use space and distance to convey messages. The study of this message system, called proximics, is concerned with such things as our personal space, seating and furniture arrangement. All three have an influence on intercultural communication.

217 ◄ home Lead-in questions Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement SectionFive_text2 Our personal space, that piece of the universe we occupy and call our own, is contained within an invisible boundary surrounding our body. As the owners of this area, we usually decide who may enter and who may not. When our space is invaded, we react in a variety of ways. We back up and retreat, stand our ground as our hands become moist from nervousness, or sometimes even react violently. Our response is manifestation not only of our personality, but also our cultural background. For example, cultures that stress individualism (England, the United States, Germany, Australia) generally demand more space than do collective cultures and “tend to take an active, aggressive stance when their space is violated.” This perception and use of space is quite different from the one found in the Mexican and Arab cultures. As Condon tells us, in Memorable quotes Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Supplementary reading Space Invaders Personal Space

218 ◄ home Mexico the “physical distance between people when engaged in conversation is closer than what is usual north of the border.” And for the Middle Easterners, Ruch writes, “Typical Arab conversations are at close range. Closeness cannot be avoided.” As is the case with most of our behavior, our use of space is directly linked to the value system of our culture. In some Asian cultures, for example, students do not sit close to their teachers or stand near their bosses; the extended distance demonstrates deference and esteem. Extra interpersonal distance is also part of the cultural experience of the people of Scotland and Sweden, for whom it reflects privacy. And in Germany, Hall and Hall tell us, private space is sacred. Lead-in questions Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement SectionFive_text3 Memorable quotes Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Supplementary reading Space Invaders

219 ◄ home Lead-in questions Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement SectionFive_text4 Seating Culture influences the manner and meaning in seating arrangements. Notice, for example, that Americans, when in groups, tend to talk with those opposite them rather than those seated or standing beside them. This pattern also influences how they select leaders when in groups: in most instances, the person sitting at the head of the table is chosen. In America, leaders usually are accustomed to being somewhat removed physically from the rest of the group and consequently choose chairs at the ends of the table. In China, seating arrangements take on different meanings. The Chinese often experience alienation and uneasiness when they face someone directly or sit on opposite sides of a desk or table from someone. It makes them feel as if they are on trial. In China, Memorable quotes Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Supplementary reading Space Invaders

220 ◄ home Lead-in questions Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement SectionFive_text5 Memorable quotes Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Supplementary reading Space Invaders meetings often take place with people sitting on couches. In Korea, seating arrangements reflect status and role distinctions. In a car, office, or home, the seat at the right is considered the one of honor. For the Japanese, seating arrangements at any formal or semiformal function are also based on hierarchy. The most important person sits at one end of the rectangular table, with those nearest in rank at the right and left of this senior position. The lowest in class is nearest to the door and at the opposite end of the table from the person with the most authority. Furniture Arrangement Furniture arrangement within the home communicates something about the culture. For example, people from France, Italy, and Mexico who visit the United States are often surprised

221 ◄ home Lead-in questions Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement SectionFive_text6 Memorable quotes Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Supplementary reading Space Invaders to see that the furniture in the living room is pointed toward a television set. For them, conversation is important, and facing chairs towards a television screen stifles conversation. In their countries, furniture is positioned to encourage interaction. Even the arrangement of offices gives us a clue to the character of a people. According to Hall and Hall, “French space is a reflection of French culture and French institutions. Everything is centralized, and spatially the entirely country is laid out around centers.” In Germany, where privacy is stressed, office furniture is spread throughout the office. In Japan, where group participation is encouraged, many desks are arranged hierarchically in the center of a large, common room absent of walls or partitions. The supervisors and managers are positioned nearest the windows. This

222 ◄ home organization encourages the exchange of information, facilitates multitask accomplishments, and promotes the Confucian concept of learning through silent observation. Co-cultures also have their own use of space. Prostitutes, for example, are very possessive of their territory. When they mentally mark an area as their own, even though it may be a public street, they behave as if it were their private property and keep other prostitutes away. In prisons, where space is limited, controlled, and at a premium, space and territory are crucial forms of communication. New inmates quickly learn the culture of prison by learning about the use of space. They soon know when to enter another cell, that space reduction is a form of punishment, and that lines form for nearly all activities. Women normally allow both Lead-in questions Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement SectionFive_text7 Memorable quotes Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Supplementary reading Space Invaders

223 ◄ home Lead-in questions Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement SectionFive_text8 Memorable quotes Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Supplementary reading Space Invaders men and other women to stand closer to them than do men. Summarizing other gender differences in the use of space, Leathers has concluded: Men use space as a means of asserting their dominance over women, as in the following: (a) they claim more personal space than women; (b) they more actively defend violations of their territories — which are usually much larger than the territories of women; (c) under conditions of high density, they become more aggressive in their attempts to regain a desired measure of privacy; and (d) men more frequently walk in front of their female partner than vice versa.

224 ◄ home Lead-in questions Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Section Five_ text1_About the text About the text It is taken from Communication Between Cultures (Third Edition) written by Larry A. Samovar, Richard E. Porter and Lisa A. Stefani and published by Wadsworth in 1998. Memorable quotes Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Supplementary reading Space Invaders

225 ◄ home Lead-in questions Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Section Five_ text2_Condon Condon a linguist. Ruch, Hall, and Leathers who are mentioned later in the text are also linguists. Memorable quotes Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Supplementary reading Space Invaders

226 ◄ home Lead-in questions Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Section Five_ text7_Confucian Confucian concept Confucian ethics is based on moral feelings rather than moral principles. The mind which cannot bear to see the suffering of others is the source from which all morals derive. Ren (humanity) — the cornerstone of Confucian moral philosophy — like a plant, can be nourished but cannot be forced to grow. Therefore in the Confucian view, you can make one virtuous by immersing him in goodness, but you will certainly fail if you try to win his allegiance by disciplining him in doctrines. Memorable quotes Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Supplementary reading Space Invaders

227 ◄ home Co-cultures The co-cultures are the non-mainstream cultures in the U. S. They include, but not limited to, African Americans, Mexican Americans and Asian Americans. Lead-in questions Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Section Five_ text7_Co-cultures Memorable quotes Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Supplementary reading Space Invaders

228 ◄ home Lead-in questions Memorable quotes Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement Section Five_ text_ Q1 Questions for discussion: 1. 2. 3. Do you keep the same distance from other people? Where do you usually sit in a meeting room if you can make your choice? Try to explain why you have such a preference. Suppose a friend comes to see you when you are watching an interesting TV play in your sitting room. Will you turn off the TV before you start your conversation? Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Supplementary reading Answers for reference: Space Invaders

229 ◄ home Lead-in questions Memorable quotes Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement SectionFive_text_Q_key1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Supplementary reading 1. 2. No. The distance we keep from other people depends on our interpersonal relationship. We tend to keep longer distance from strangers and shorter distances from close friends and family members. (In answering this question, you can be more specific through exemplification.) Tell your classmates whether you prefer to sit in the front, in the middle, or at the back of a meeting room. There can be different reasons for different people to make the same choice. For example, if you prefer to sit in the front, you might want to hear the speakers more clearly, or to catch the attention of the chairman or the speakers. Space Invaders

230 ◄ home Lead-in questions Memorable quotes Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement SectionFive_text_Q_key2 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Supplementary reading 3.In most cases we will turn off the TV before the conversation starts. Any delay will mean that the visitor comes at a wrong time and therefore he or she is not welcome, at least at this moment. Space Invaders

231 ◄ home Lead-in questions Supplementary reading Memorable quotes Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement SectionFive_ Memorable1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Based on the following quotes, hold a debate in the class: A Society of Privacy Shows Progress Vs. A Society of Privacy Shows Backwardness Memorable quotes: Let there be space in your togetherness. — Kahlil Gibran

232 ◄ home Lead-in questions Supplementary reading Memorable quotes Section Four: Consolidation Activities Section Five: Further Enhancement SectionFive_ Memorable1 Section One: Pre-reading Activities Section Two: Global Reading Section Three: Detailed Reading Space Invaders Civilization is the progress toward a society of privacy. The savage’s whole existence is public, ruled by the laws of his tribe. Civilization is the process of setting man free from man. — Ayn Rand


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