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WELCOME TO THE WONDERFUL WORLD OF BACTERIA & VIRUSES.

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Presentation on theme: "WELCOME TO THE WONDERFUL WORLD OF BACTERIA & VIRUSES."— Presentation transcript:

1 WELCOME TO THE WONDERFUL WORLD OF BACTERIA & VIRUSES

2 ANTHRAX- not just a band ANTHRAX

3 CELLULITIS

4 CHICKEN POX

5 ECZEMA

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7 ERYSEPILAS

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9 HERPES- ocular

10 IMPETIGO

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12 LEPROSY

13 LYME DISEASE

14 MEASLES

15 Small Pox

16 Chicken Pox

17 Polio

18 MONONUCLEOSIS

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20 MUMPS

21 NECROTIZING FACSIITIS

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23 NECROTIZING FASCIITIS

24 Necrotizing Fasciitis

25 SHINGLES

26 I HOPE YOU ENJOYED OUR BRIEF TOUR THROUGH THE WONDERFUL WORLD OF BACTERIA & VIRUSES!

27 BACTERIA Prokaryotes: single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus

28 Bacterial Kingdoms (formerly Monerans) Divided into TWO Kingdoms- Archaebacteria- “ancient bacteria” Eubacteria- “good/true bacteria”

29 ARCHAEBACTERIA Characteristics –Most live in harsh environments –Cell wall does NOT contain peptidoglycan –DNA sequence similar to eukaryotes (possible ancestor?)

30 Types of Archaebacteria EXTREMOPHILES Methanogens- produce methane Halophiles- live in salty conditions Thermophiles- live in high temperatures Etc.

31 What might I find in… Gut of a cow? –Methanogens Hot spring? –Thermophiles Dead Sea? –Halophiles

32 EUBACTERIA Live almost anywhere Cell wall contains peptidoglycans Wide array of characteristics

33 Types of Eubacteria Gram-positive: cell wall mainly peptidoglycan –Appear purple when stained Gram-negative: cell wall of less peptidoglycan with second layer of lipids and carbohydrates –Appear pink when stained

34 Archaebacteria vs. Eubacteria CharacteristicArchae-Eu- Peptidoglycan in cell wall? NoYes Live in… HarshAlmost environmentseverywhere DNA sequence like eukaryotes? YesNo

35 How are bacteria identified? Shape: –Bacilli- rod –Cocci- sphere –Spirilla- spiral –*Strepto- chains –*Staphylo- clusters

36 What would these look like? Streptobacillus –Chains of rod-shaped bacteria Streptococcus –Chains of sphere-shaped bacteria Staphylococcus –Clusters of sphere shaped bacteria

37 How are bacteria identified? Cell Walls –Is peptidoglycans present? Yes- Eubacteria: gram + = a lot gram - = a little No- Archaebacteria

38 How are bacteria identified? Movement –Some have flagella, cilia –Some glide, spiral, etc. –Others don’t move on own

39 How are bacteria identified? Energy obtaining methods –Autotrophs- make own food Phototrophs- use light Chemotrophs- use inorganic materials –Heterotrophs- take in food –Photoheterotrophs- need light and a nutrient source

40 What organisms can… Use light to make food? –Phototrophs Make own food but also need light? –Photoheterotroph Use inorganic materials to make food? –Chemotrophs Make their own food? –Autotrophs

41 How bacteria are identified? Energy releasing processes: –Cellular respiration: requires Oxygen (Obligate aerobes) –Fermentation: no Oxygen used (Obligate anaerobes) –Some can survive with or without oxygen (Facultative anaerobes)

42 How are bacteria identified? Reproduction & Growth: –Binary Fission- double in size, replicates DNA, splits into two (asexual)

43 Reproduction cont’d –Conjugation- bridge forms between two cells and genes are transferred Conjugation –Endospores- thick wall around DNA can remain dormant until conditions are favorable

44 VIRUSES Virus- Latin for “poison” Smaller than bacteria NOT living!

45 Structure of a Virus Infectious agent made up of a core of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) and a protein coat (capsid)

46 Why not living? Viruses can’t replicate on their own- they must use a host’s cells Not made of cells Cannot maintain homeostasis Cannot metabolize

47 Replication (Reproduction) 2 Types of Replication: –Lytic Cycle –Lysogenic Cycle

48 Lytic Cycle Virus enters the cell, makes copies of itself, and causes the cell to burst

49 Steps of Lytic Cycle –Virus attacks cell and injects DNA –DNA forms a circle

50 Steps of Lytic Cycle cont’d –Viral DNA commands host cell to make new viruses

51 Lytic Cycle Steps cont’d –Cell bursts and releases viruses to invade more cells –* Symptoms of disease show

52 Lysogenic Cycle Virus embeds its DNA into the host’s DNA Both DNAs are replicated Prophage- viral DNA that is embedded into host’s DNA * Symptoms of disease do not show at this time At some point, virus may be triggered to enter lytic cycle

53 Types of Viruses Bacteriophage- virus that infects bacteria

54 Types of Viruses- cont’d Retroviruses- contain RNA as genetic code (HIV & AIDS, some cancer) Oncogenic viruses- cause cancer in animals (disrupt controls over cell growth) RNA

55 Not quite a virus, but… Prions- “protein infectious particles” –Act like a virus, but… –Do not contain any DNA or RNA, only protein Usually only affects animals Viroids- –Act like a virus, but… –Has RNA, but no capsid Usually only affects plants

56 Protection from viruses- HOW? PREVENTION! –Good hygiene –Vaccines- weakened or “killed” viruses or viral particle Inject into body to build up immunity


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