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Basic Concepts in Ethical Discourse Prof. Joseph A. Selling.

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1 Basic Concepts in Ethical Discourse Prof. Joseph A. Selling

2 some preliminary difficulties in ethical discourse dominant behavioural model what is one obliged / forbidden to do / omit ? equation of ethics with crisis management ambiguous use of language where to begin ? how does the ethical person function ?

3 Conscience and Moral Development Six phases of moral development according to: Lawrence Kohlberg Carol Gilligan Pre-conventional 1 → Conventional 3 → Post-conventional 5 →

4 Lawrence Kohlberg Carol Gilligan Caring for self … … is seen as selfish Caring for others … …illogical disbalance Dissipating tension … … interdependence Punishment & Reward Institutional relativism Good boy, nice girl Law & Order Social Contract Universal Principles JUSTICECARE Ethics of

5 CAREJUSTICE Conscience

6 CareJustice CompassionPrinciples The Moral Person Family Society Peers Beliefs Emphasis on “Social Location” Emphasis on the active project: “commitment” Emphasis on the Subjective – “experience” Emphasis on the Objective – “acceptance”

7 Ethics of careEthics of Justice Emotion, motivation, intentionIntellect, behavioral, normative Historical Consciousness Teleology Fundamental norms Proportionate thinking Values – ambivalence Visionary ethics growth change particular Classicist, traditional Deontology Concrete Material norms Natural Law Goods – ambiguity Juridical ethics eternal unchanging universal

8 motivationcircumstances the complexity of the moral event activity behaviourintention

9 motivation circumstances activity intention behavior why what when where what aids with whom what effects

10 motivation circumstances activity intention behavior but who am I ? what are my life circumstances ? culture, language, religion, geography, historical period, family, friends, education, occupation, responsibilities, hobbies... life

11 motivation circumstances activity intention behavior how might I get someone to (not) do something ? injure, kill coerce threaten persuade inspire life-

12 motivation circumstances activity intention behavior …but who am I ? injure, kill coerce threaten persuade inspireclergyman psychotherapist judge police agent soldier life-

13 motivation circumstances activity intention behavior injure, kill coerce threaten persuade inspireclergyman psychotherapist judge police agent soldier ‘abiding’ tendencies are usually referred to as virtues life-

14 need a new slide on fundamental option and/or basic orientation

15 What are the virtues? How many are there? What should we name them? Are they related? Do they come in any order? Do they fall into any categories?

16 acceptance / tolerance / openness attentiveness beneficence / kindness / compassion / sensitivity / gentleness charity / love / benevolence / magnanimity chastity civility / civic dedication cleanliness community / solidarity / sociality conscientiousness / thoroughness fortitude / commitment / courage / bravery / determination / earnestness loyalty / fidelity / faithfulness / reliability / trustworthiness religion / reverence / observance / piety / prayerfulness justice / fairness / righteousness / impartiality / equity resilience / fortitude / perseverance / endurance courtesy / politeness / tact(fullness) / cordiality diligence / dutifulness / industriousness honesty / truthfulness / veracity cooperativeness / helpfulness prudence / caution / discretion mercifulness / forgiveness hope faith wisdom respect frugality flexibility modesty patience self-care sincerity sacrifice simplicity obedience orderliness hospitality detachment timeliness punctuality wonder responsibility self-knowledge temperance / moderation / sobriety self-discipline / restraint gratitude / thankfulness dependability / reliability discernment / foresight friendliness / friendship equilibrium / tranquility humility / meekness generosity / liberality reasonableness integrity / harmony honor / self-respect environmentalism self-confidence trustingness

17 tolerance attentiveness kindness charity chastity civility cleanliness solidarity conscientiousness fortitude faithfulness religion justice perseverance courtesy diligence truthfulness helpfulness prudence mercifulness hope faith wisdom respect frugality flexibility modesty patience self-care sincerity sacrifice simplicity obedience orderliness hospitality detachment timeliness punctuality wonder responsibility self-knowledge moderation self-discipline gratitude reliability discernment friendship equilibrium humility generosity reasonableness integrity self-respect environmentalism self-confidence trustingness

18 faithcharity prudencejusticefortitudetemperance Theological Virtues hope The Cardinal Virtues wisdom foresight circumspection caution understanding thoughtfulness solicitousness religion generousity honor obedience gratitude friendship truthfulness commitment patience perseverence courage magnanimity confidence responsibility moderation modesty chastity self-discipline equilibrium simplicity sincerity

19 attentiveness civility / civic dedication cleanliness courtesy / politeness / tact(fullness) discernment / foresight flexibility frugality modesty orderliness reasonableness respect sacrifice self-confidence self-knowledge timeliness trustingness wonder (sense of) Theological virtues faith hope charity Cardinal virtues justice / fairness / righteousness / impartiality / equity prudence / wisdom / caution / discretion temperance / moderation / sobriety / self-care fortitude / commitment / courage / bravery / determination / earnestness acceptance / tolerance / openness chastity environmentalism faithfulness / loyalty / fidelity / reliability / trustworthiness generosity / liberality honesty / truthfulness / veracity hospitality humility / meekness kindness / beneficence / compassion / sensitivity / gentleness mercifulness / forgiveness religion / reverence / observance / piety / prayerfulness self-discipline / restraint solidarity / community / sociality conscientiousness / thoroughness cooperativeness / helpfulness dependability / reliability detachment / simplicity diligence / dutifulness / industriousness equilibrium / tranquillity friendliness / friendship gratitude / thankfulness honor / self-respect integrity / harmony obedience patience perseverance / resilience / endurance punctuality responsibility sincerity Cardinal virtues justice prudence temperance fortitude acceptance forgiveness chastity self-discipline honesty kindness loyalty solidarity generosity reverence hospitality humility environmentalism conscientiousness honor cooperativeness integrity dependability obedience detachment patience diligence perseverance equilibrium punctuality friendliness responsibility gratitude sincerity attentiveness modesty civility respect wonder cleanliness sacrifice courtesy reasonableness discernment timeliness flexibility self-knowledge frugality self-confidence orderliness trusting-ness Theological virtues faith hope charity / love / benevolence

20 motivation circumstances activity intention behavior virtues / vices inspire intentions that can be described as ‘good’ or ‘bad’ behaviours are described as ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ but behaviours are made up of more discrete elements – acts, objects – that are described as ‘good’ or ‘evil’ so, how does one determine good & evil? life-

21 Western philosophical ethics has recognized at least three bases upon which to found the meaning of ‘good’ and ‘evil’ authority nature person superstition, gods/mythology kings, popes, institutions, constitutions, laws and (social) contracts natural law (patterns, structures) autonomous reason (Kant)

22 The Human Person Adequately Considered person is a unity, an integral whole but … person is never ‘an’ individual but always person-in-community

23 person is historical person in relation to particular othersconscious interiority: subjectivityperson in relation to cultureoriginality, fundamentally equal in dignityperson in relation to the material worldintentionality: in relation to virtually everythingcorporeality The Human Person Adequately Considered person is a unity, an integral whole person is never ‘an’ individual but always person-in-community

24 The Human Person Adequately Considered intentionality: in relation to virtually everything person in relation to the material world person in relation to culture person is historical person in relation to particular others conscious interiority: subjectivity corporeality originality, fundamentally equal in dignity gendered the untold narrative non-patriarchal structures caring for self and others sharing the resources of the world being is being in relation the gendered version?

25 motivation circumstances activity intention behavior behaviours are described as: ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ but behaviours are made up of more discrete elements – acts, objects – that are described as: ‘good’ or ‘evil’ life- ‘good’ = that which serves to protect, promote or enhance the human person adequately and integrally considered ‘evil’ = that which serves to threaten, harm or diminish the human person adequately and integrally considered

26 need a new slide on ambiguity of good and evil as well as rules of proportionality Return to the list of activities: inspire, persuade, threaten, coerce, injure


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