Presentation on theme: "Standard II test review Cells. Collecting information by Field observations One of the things you might observe is birds on many different islands. You."— Presentation transcript:
Standard II test review Cells
Collecting information by Field observations One of the things you might observe is birds on many different islands. You may find that they are flightless birds. Why? From collecting and organizing data you may conclude that there are no predators on these islands so birds don’t need to fly.
What is an inference It is an assumption based on an observation. Same group – 1 bonus point. For example, If I measure the length of different fish in one area of a stream and I found most of them to be about 4 inches long, what might I infer? Natural selection favors lengths of 4 inches
The fish are all 3 to 8 inches Most of the fish are less than 6 inches Natural selection favors lengths of 5 to 6 inches
Fill in the blanks Organisms are composed of one or more ? cells Cells are made of.... Molecules Molecules are made of..... atoms Cells are responsible for.... Performing life functions Cells come from.... preexisting cells.
Put these words in order from smallest to largest Cells, atoms, molecule, organelle, organism, organ, organ system, tissues. Atom Molecule organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ system Organism
What are the 4 major elements of life? CHON Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen What are the six elements main elements CHON S P (includes Sulfur and phosphorus) Same team 1 bonus point – What are the seven main elements CHONS CaP (includes calcium)
2 points - What are the four major macromolecules? And which ones contain Nitrogen? Fats (CHO) – Lipids, adipose Proteins (CHON) – muscles and enzymes Carbohydrates (CHO) - starch Nucleic acids (CHON -) - DNA
How many Calories per gram? Fats 9 cal / gram Proteins – 4-5 Carbohydrates – 4-5
What is diffusion? Something moves through a cell membrane from high concentration to low Is this passive or active transport? Passive Diffusion through a selectively permeable membrane helps to maintain Homeostasis
What is Osmosis? Diffusion (movement) of water through a selectively permeable membrane (from high concentration to low) Is this active or passive transport? passive
What is active transport Something that needs help to get through a membrane. Bonus point - What molecule usually helps it? (The energy molecule) ATP
Algae that contain 200 times more iodine than its surroundings.If there things are different on different sides of the membrane, it is usually due to what... Active transport
What is homeostasis? A way to maintain a healthy internal environment (like your thermostat). How does diffusion help with this? Stuff moves across a membrane until there is a balance on each side.
What else must maintain homeostasis??? Give some examples and explain. All organ systems – like respiration – gas exchange, urinary – remove waste and control the amount of sodium ions, blood – sugar and nutrients).
Name an organel in an animal cell and tell me what it does Nucleus – the boss – contains chromosomes and DNA stuff. Mitochondria – energy guy (aerobic respiration and ATP) Lysosome – suicide sack (digestive enzymes)
Ribosomes – make protein Endoplasmic reticulum – hold Ribosomes Golgi – mail room (packaging and sorting)
Name 3 things that are special to plants. Cell wall Chloroplasts – do photosynthesis Big vacuoles – store sap
What is something that animal cells have that plant cells don’t Centrioles – remember mitosis and cell division
What is the equation for photosynthesis? Carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) + Water (H 2 0) Oxygen (0 2 ) Sugar C 6 H
What is the equation for CELLULAR respiration? Carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) Water (H 2 0) Oxygen (0 2 ) Sugar C 6 H
Fermentation When you make bread, you add yeast and water and some sugar. What makes the bread rise? Yeast causes a gas to be released. What is the gas? (hint it is like respiration) Carbon dioxide
Fermentation continued If you want to know how the amount of sugar affects the rate of respiration of yeast in water what type of experiment might you do? make lots of bread and change the amount of sugar to see how big the bread will rise, what is the independent variable? The amount of sugar What is the dependent variable? How high the bread will rise.
What does an enzyme do to a reaction? Increases the rate. Is it a protein, fat or carbohydrate? Protein
What is a solute? Water (or some liquid) with stuff (like salt or sugar) in it. What is the solvent? The water or the liquid stuff. Why is water a good solvent? Because it is polar.
What are proteins made of? Amino acids. What is a monomer? One unit of something (an amino acid) What is a polymer? Many monomers (a protein) What is the job of a protein? Structural use and enzyme formation
What is turgor pressure? Your celery gets crisp when you spray it with water. What is plasmolysis? Just the opposite. Carbon dioxide moves into the leaves of a plant by? Diffusion.
What is endocytosis? An amoeba takes its food in by surrounding it. Is this active transport or passive transport? Active transport.
What is happening at #1 in the last step? The lysosome and food vacuole are joining to digest the food particle. If the food particle was a dust particle, what would happen? Nothing it would stay as it is in the first step.
Biological tools Compound microscopes – to see the outer part of the cytoplasm (cell membrane) and to see the nucleus Electron microscope – ER connects with the nuclear membrane. Biological dyes – too see chromosomes Chemical analysis – Chromosomes are made of DNA
The development of the cell theory in the 1800s was made possible by what? The microscope
Acid - Base pH = ? Acid pH 7 = ? Neutral pH 7-14 = base (alkaline)
Water What is a solute Something being dissolved in something else (sugar, water) What is a solvent? Something that you are dissolving the stuff into (like water) What are the solvent properties of water. Water has the ability to dissolve lots of stuff. Why is this cool for cells? It allows atoms to pass through the cell membrane
What is blood made of? Blood has cells, dissolved gases, wastes and nutrients in a fluid called plasma. What is the main component of plasma? Water Many vital materials can dissolve in plasma. Why? Because of waters solvent properties.