# Spatial Understanding Implications and Strategies for Reading and Geography Instruction K-12.

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Spatial Understanding Implications and Strategies for Reading and Geography Instruction K-12

How Well Do We Do? 2001 NAEP Assessment: 74% of students scored in the below proficient category in geography in grade four. Recent National Geographic–Roper country survey of ages 18 through 24, Americans ranked second to last. Only 13% of young adults aged 18 through 24 in the United States were able to correctly identify Iraq on a map of Asia and the Middle East.

 Manipulate Images in their Mind  Visualize Viewpoints – Convex/Concave On A Flat Map  Locate Places and Visualize Geophysical Phenomenon  Represent Directions (Horizontal And Vertical) Why are American Kids so far behind in geography? Elementary: Lack of Teacher Training, Engaging Strategies and Effective Materials Middle/Secondary: Poor Curriculum Articulation and Teacher Training Instruction is Left to the Individual Teacher What is Spatial Ability? The Development of Spatial Understanding Helps Students to:

Map reading and mapmaking constitute one of the broadest skill applications in the elementary school curriculum and should be developed as much as possible in the K-12 skill set. SPATIAL UNDERSTANDING: Mapping skills derive from the ability to imagine relationships between and among places. It is an important part of learning mathematics as well. What is Spatial Ability? “…spatial visualization which is the ability mentally to manipulate a pictorially presented stimulus or object.” Leeson, N. “Improving Children’s Sense of Three Dimensional Shapes. Teaching Children Mathematics Sept. 1994: 8-11 “…an intuitive feel for one’s surrounding and the objects in them.” Liedtke, W. Developing Spatial Abilities in the Early Grades.” Teaching Children Mathematics Sept. 1995 12-18

A Child’s View is Egocentric Children first see objects egocentrically (view-based): they do not know how an object looks from a viewpoint other than their own. Reality is at it looks from one’s own position! Parallel Play

Visualizing Viewpoints CREATING CONTEXT FOR STUDENTS: How big is it? Where is it located? What is the distance between? In what direction do you go to get there? Why is there a desert here and not there? Ask the Right Questions Require Description Use Multiple Stimuli CONNECT TO ALL DISCIPLINES

Expanding a Child’s Viewpoint Draw What the Doll Sees Draw a Map of Your Room – Birdseye View

Eight skills needed for geography competence in students: 1. Interpreting Symbols This is the only skill that is not spatial but visual or graphic. Students must recognize the meaning of symbols and graphic representations. 2. Perspective Perspective is the ability to imagine or recognize an object from the aerial, or "bird's-eye" view. Most children lack opportunities to view geographic areas from above. Formal instruction in the skill's relationship to maps is absent in many social studies programs. Adapted from: Assessing Spatial Development: Implications for Map Skill Instruction Social Education Volume 55 Number 5

3. Finding Location Two Grid Systems: Alpha Numeric and Latitude Longitude 4. Determining Direction Three categories of directional concepts emerge in children: 1. Environmental: In - Under - Behind 2. Personal: Front - Forward - Left - Clockwise 3. Global: North - South - East - West 5. Calculating Distance Often used in combination with determining direction. Locate place X miles north of Y.

6.Computing Elevation Vertical Distance is represented in: Intervals rather than exact measurements. Feet and meters rather than miles or kilometers. Color rather than by shapes or symbols. 7. Imagining Relief Topography or Contour in Convex or Concave Areas 8. Understanding Scale Scale refers to the size of the map’s reproduction and challenges the child’s ability to recognize the difference between and area’s actual size in space and its reduced size on a map.

Topographic MapsTopographic Maps

1.Start with the world. 2.Move “in” to the location that is being studied by pointing out major features, including continents and oceans. 3.Focus on the particular area that is being discussed. 4.Back “out” of the map to the big picture of the world, constantly reinforcing the major continents and features of the map. Teaching Geography Use maps when discussing places, people and events. Desk maps are an integral part of the formula for success. REQUIRE INDIVIDUAL/INDEPENDENT WORK HAVE CHILDREN DRAW MAPS FROM MEMORY

ORIGINAL MAPS OF THE PERIOD BRITISH MAP BEFORE THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL GOOGLE EARTH

British Map of Pre- Invasion Philadelphia Philadelphia Circa 1776 Use original paintings and drawings to compare and contrast then and now. These are excellent primary sources to use with students to build analytical skills and spatial abilities..

Changing Maps of the Middle East Teaching the Middle East Crises

(1) Students work with maps individually; (2) Students have to do something with the map; (3) Whenever possible make it a game; (4) Get students to respond to your questions that are framed around the skills; (5) Try to talk students out of their response. Suggested Tasks When Teaching Geography

ADDITIONAL STRATEGIES IN GEOGRAPHY INSTRUCTION Restore emphasis on topography, place names, map reading Keep geography close to history. Two dimensions of the same phenomenon…the story of Human Experience on Earth The events, people, places and history all have a where Ask questions about latitude, longitude, elevation and climate Use a variety of maps and globes to locate places emphasized in reading. Connect information to the local setting in order to create concrete reference points for students. Destroy the Myths: Geography is boring Rote learning is a waste of time Teacher who teaches facts is incompetent

Why?

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The Importance of Word Recognition The general idea is that we see words as complete patterns rather than the sum of letter parts. We recognize whole words as units. shape There is a significant relationship between the development of spatial abilities in students and reading ability.

2. Active engagement in the content (During Reading) The Keys to Reading Comprehension 1.The activation of prior or background knowledge (Before Reading) 3. Metacognition (Continuous)

1. The activation of prior or background knowledge (Before Reading) What a student learns is dependent upon what background knowledge they have prior to the reading This prior knowledge must be activated and provides a foundation for the lesson Considering what they may not know provides the teacher with groundwork for the lesson in vocabulary and new concepts Student Levels of Prior Knowledge MUCH – SOME - LITTLE - NONE

The activation of prior or background knowledge (STRATEGIES) Concept Maps/Graphic Organizers KWL Charts Graphic Organizers Ask Specific Questions – Gauge Responses Brainstorming Strategies to Activate Prior Knowledge Study Guide developed by Karla Porter, M.Ed

Knowledge Questions: What is ? How is ? Where is ? When did ? happen? How did ? happen? How would you explain? Why did ? How would you describe? When did ? Can you recall? How would you show ? Can you select ? Who were the main ? Can you list three? Who was? Comprehension Questions: How would you classify the type of? How would you compare? contrast? Will you state or interpret in your own words? How would you rephrase the meaning? What facts or ideas show? What is the main idea of? Which statements support? Can you explain what is happening or what is meant? What can you say about? Application Questions: How would you use? What examples can you find to? How would you solve ? using what you have learned? How would you organize ? to show? How would you show your understanding of? What approach would you use to? How would you apply what you learned to develop? What other way would you plan to? What would result if? Asking Questions and Gauging the Response

Analysis Questions: What are the parts or features of? How is ? related to? What is the theme? What motive is there? What inference can you make? What conclusions can you draw? How would you classify? How would you categorize? Can you identify the difference parts? What evidence can you find? What is the relationship between? Can you make a distinction between? Synthesis Questions: What changes would you make to solve? How would you improve? Can you elaborate on the reason? Can you propose an alternative? How could you change the plot? What could be done to minimize/max? What way would you design? What could be combined to change? Suppose you could ? what would you do? How would you test? Can you predict the outcome if? Evaluation Questions: Do you agree with? How would you prove/disprove? Would it be better if? Why did they choose? What would you recommend? How would you rate?What choice would you have made? What would you select? What information would you use to support the view? How would you justify? Why was it better that? How would you prioritize the facts?

KWL Chart What do you know about slavery? What do you want to learn about slavery? What have you learned about slavery ? Slavery

Concept Maps Concept maps graphically illustrate relationships between information. In a concept map, two or more concepts are linked by words that describe their relationship. Some types of concept maps. Spider – Central and Sub Themes Hierarchy – Info in descending order Flow Chart – Info in linear format Systems – Flowchart with inputs and outputs Graphic Organizers Getting the Main Idea

2. Active Engagement in the Content What are students doing during the reading? Are they CONSTRUCTING MEANING? Taking Notes Filling in a Chart Developing a Response to a Question Supporting an Argument The Role of Anecdote, Bell Ringers, Cliff Hangars, etc. Resistive Readers Word Callers Decoders But they must be able to CONSTRUCT MEANING

Connecting Information The Venn Diagram Venn Diagram Maker Use as a Do Now

Considerations When Making Connections Obvious connections may not seem so obvious to the students. Highlight patterns or contrasts to students. Illustrate connections between Content Factual Information Text References and Structure

Double Entry Diaries (DED) Direct Quote and Page NumberThis Reminds Me Of… What Does This Means to Me… I Visualize… I Am Confused Because… Project a reading for all to see and think aloud as you read it to the class. Use the DED questions and think out loud.

Modeling Reading Strategies Americans today think of the War for Independence as a revolution, but in important respects it was also a civil war. American Loyalists, or "Tories" as their opponents called them, opposed the Revolution, and many took up arms against the rebels. Estimates of the number of Loyalists range as high as 500,000, or 20 percent of the white population of the colonies.

Outlining as You Read Methods to use: Outlining - works best when material you are reading is organized. Cornell method - divide paper: notes on right half, left hand column for key words and questions, summary at bottom of page. Paragraph form - summarize what you read in your own words, include important terms. Mind maps - diagrams/summaries of overlapping lecture and text material. When teaching use outlining to highlight major points and an organized sequence of concepts. Key Words and Questions Notes Cornell Method Summarize

Underlining and Note Taking as You Read Read the Section First – Underline Little Select Information to Make Into Notes Organize and Review Notes to Reinforce Content and Comprehension Taking Notes is Better than Not Taking Notes Taking and Reviewing Notes Directly Correlates to Higher Test Grades

Metacognition Self-Regulated Learning Thinking About Thinking 3. Metacognition Self-Regulated Learning Thinking About Thinking What is the Difference between the words Strategy and Strategic? StrategyStrategic A method or approach A plan of action Knowing your academic strengths and weaknesses and using the appropriate strategy as needed

METACOGNITION consists of three basic elements: Before: Developing a plan of action During: Maintaining/monitoring the plan After: Evaluating the plan

Before - When you are developing the plan of action, ask yourself: What in my prior knowledge will help me with this particular task? In what direction do I want my thinking to take me? What should I do first? Why am I reading this selection? How much time do I have to complete the task? Winne, P.H. & Perry, N.E. (2000). Measuring self-regulated learning. In P. Pintrich, M. Boekaerts, & M. Seidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (p. 531-566). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

During - When you are maintaining/monitoring the plan of action, ask yourself: How am I doing? Am I on the right track? How should I proceed? What information is important to remember? Should I move in a different direction? Should I adjust the pace depending on the difficulty? What do I need to do if I do not understand?

After - When you are evaluating the plan of action ask yourself: How well did I do? Did my particular course of thinking produce more or less than I had expected? What could I have done differently? How might I apply this line of thinking to other problems? Do I need to go back through the task to fill in any "blanks" in my understanding?

Planning, Monitoring and Evaluating Personal Progress Aware of Strengths and Weaknesses Have a Variety of Strategies to use in Meeting the Variety of Obstacles one Encounters in Learning Do you remember when and how you struggled to make sense of your reading assignments? PLEASE SHARE YOUR EXPERIENCE

Thank You! Please let me know if I missed something. Do you have additional suggestions or strategies that work? rshamy@aihe.info 856-241-1990